Created: 12/24/1953

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Aafliqlant Director

ofrgent Ia^IUgcncc



Office of Research and Kcporta CENTRAL, INTELLIGENCE AGENCY


ii.Btof a'series of papers dealing "with the Soviet forent-producU industries.

Thc aims of this papero report the effects ofndustrial expansion program on East Siberian timber productiono examine the reasons behind the regional expansion of thc timber industry as they bear upon Soviet in* tentions, capabilities, and vulnerabilities.

Thiu paper has been coordinated with CIA.C and with the. US ForeBt Service.



I. Introduction . .

II. Causes of Plan Failure* in the-Chief Directorate

of East Siberian Logging (


and Equipment '. ."


UJ. Attempts to Eliminate thc Factors Contributing

to Plan



IV. Intentions, Capabilities, and



Appendix A. Forest Resources of Irkutsk Oblast

Appendix B. Highlights of thc East Siberian

Expansion Program

Appendix C. Resettlement to Sakhalin and the Far East

Appendix D. Sources



he. Chief Director.ilc of East Siberian Logging, tho Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging, and the Chiefof Sakhalin Logging, of thc Ministry of the Timber Industry have been.engaged in organisational expansion programs. for expansion has been provided through intensiveof local.labor and the relocation of logging enterprises from western European USSR,

The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging probablythe largest productive potential o! any of the eight chiefof logging subordinate to the Ministry of the Timber Induatry. It ia thefecently expanded chiefof logging which makes significant contributions to theof other geographic regions.

The Chief Directorate of East Siborlan Logging has consistently failed to fulfillroduction assignments, even though tiieuc annual plans remained almost static for thehewhich contributed most heavily to ihciic plan failures were transport difficulties, inadequate housing, mechanization and equip -mcnt shortcomings, and resource competition.

Although railroad car shortages atill exist in East Siberia, the development of river transport in the Angara Basin will permit the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging and the Chief Directorate of West Siberian Logging to exchange primary consumers. Such an arrangement will result in considerably shorter rail hauls anda tremendous freight burden from the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

* This report includes material from all sources available to CIA ast3


ThebblemJo utiHcritical, and itloggers'liaye

their producjioa force:to-emergcn'cy..housing construction,

rAdvanccH.roadand^ail development in the-region*willmodern all-weatherhe'completion of seven new central repair shopsfor "logging equipment should miuimize delays in repairs, and the increase in the number of permanent semiskilled,workers and engineering-supervisory personnel should lead to improved utilization of equipment.

In dealing with the.problems associated with plan failure, the greatest-advance has been made in the area of2 the Chief Directorate of EaEtSiberian Logging absorbed local logging enterprises belonging to thc Ministry of the River Fleet, and, since Stalin's death, local logging trusts have been transferred from Ihc Ministry of Rail Transport to-the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging. These steps toward consolidation of logging operations willopportunities for better commercial utilization of thc high-quality East Siberian forests, permit more efficient on-site technical planning of logging operations, and simplify theof timber distribution.

In spile of these efforts to eliminate the factors contributing to plan failure, it is doubtful lhal thc Russians willeturn on their East Siberian investment

It is apparent thatxpansion of all three eastern loKR'ng chief directorates was plannederiod ofsince there were no dramatic increases in their production assignments for this period. The planners chose to invest in" thcdc remote eastern areas, although iteveling-off of the rate of growth of total Soviet timber production. This choice was probably the result of long-range conservation policioa and confederation of strategic-economic development plans for the eaul.



'-fivc logging tr^tB^ereDirectorate;of East'Siberiaa and. Far>Eas tern Logging: to form 'the .Ch^^fectort^VEait Sibcr^Log^ quarterVat*since 'it^fornTaVionf organization of thiaanded by intensive recruitment of local labor and by'shift* ing logging enterprises from "western European USSR to* Eaathe;Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Lagging and the Chief Directorate of Sakhalin Logging also received large numbers of workers from western European';:

The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging ia thetimber producer ofastern chief directorates/and it is the only-one dl Ihc Athat-make's insignificantto Other regions of thehis cjMefa the principal supplier of mining timber to the Kuznets Basin' and Central Asia, and it has made significant ahipments of construction timber to the Transcaucasus, Central Asia, Lower Volga, and Dalstroy. An increasing volume of export timber is being rafted by this chief directorate through the Northern Sea Route. 2/

, Considering tho vast forest resources available along with, the recent increases in labor and equipment, thia chiefis probably the most important of the eight chiefof the Ministry of the Timber Industry in terms of potential* ..

*uller treatment of this resettlement program,B, -Highlights of the Eaat Siberian Expanaion

ee Appendix C, Resettlement to Sakhalin and the .Far2 planned production figures for the three eastern chief directorates.of the Ministry of the Timber Industry (in cubic meters of hauled timber) are as Eastar East,illion; andillion. (Footnote references in arabic numerals are to sources Hated in* Sec Appendix A, Forest Resources of Irkutsk Oblast.

For the purposes of this paper. East Siberia may.be defined, as the area encompassed by Irkutsk Oblast, Yakutsk ASSR; Chita Oblast, .and Buxvat-Mongol^iSSB,.

-*'For tbnsake olof: minisnd their subordinate units-have,been..used in this-paper as.they existed before theministerial reorganizations. The Ministry of the Timber Industry and the Ministry of the Paper and Wood-Processing Industry'were merged on3 to form the Ministry of the Timber and Paper industry.he Chief Directorates of East Siberian and Far Easternging were merged in the second quarter3 to form the Chief Directorate of the Eastern.Timber Industryhe jurisdiction of thc former Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging has been inherited by two new combineshe Irkutsk Logging Combine and the Transbaykal Logging Combineand the Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging has been replaced by the Khabarovsk Combine. 4/

II. Causes of Plan Failures in the Chief Directorate ofLogging

Even though the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging has beenremendous organizational expansion since its formationroduction has remained static. There have been no marked increases in planned yearly production throughout the period ofnd the Chief Directorateast Siberian Logging has consistently failed to meet plan figures for this period. 2 it turned in one'OF the poorest performances of any ofhief directorates.of. logging of the Ministry of the Timber Industry. This trendinto tho first quarter Although the Chiefof East Siberian Logging hadore permanent workers3 than it hadt waa hauling less limber in February3 than It hauled during the same period/ An analysis of the principal causes of nonfulfillment of plans follows;

sales mE"atft:Sibe'ria;'at>kutskand Ulan-Ude;half the number of empty cars requisitioned. 6/

Lack of cooperation among the Chief Directorate of East Siberianimber sales directorates/ .andinis try bf Railroad Transport has aggravated the'situatronst

B. Housing.

The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging was scheduled to receive enough panel-type prefabricated houses during theonths2 lo housequare meters)nlyquare meters) of this allotment was,dequate housing caused almost continuous disruption Of the resettlement/ Poor,Jiving conditions depressed labor morale and promoted inefficiency. M/ These conditions were intensified by severe winters andlood during the summer2 which left many of *the workers

* The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging will0 square meters of panel-type prefabricated housing


The Eaet Siberian Woodworking Trust of the .Ministry of the Timber Industry is the primary supplier of prefabricated ho us mg^ojthe^^hiei directorate of .East.Siberian Logging,

^though;the'adminiatralorii of thia trust have maintained; that


would appear-that .poor 'organization of/production is*primarily responsible,fdr the low "output of prefabricated.houses.;of production lines in the plants of this trust has not been developed much beyond the craft stage. In relation to other woodworking trusts and to tho quantity of logs available, the volume of output is

C. Mechanization and Equipment.

Manual felling of trees and bucking them intoercent of the total labor consumed in logging,ccording to the Fourth Five Yearore thanercent of the felling and bucking operation was to be mechanized by the use of portable electric On the basis of yearly allocations of portable electric saw chains and Soviet norma for the productive life of these chains, it is estimated that onlyoercent of the timber produced by the Chief Directorate, of East Siberian Logging1 was felled by mechanical means.his ratio rose too

In absolute terms, percentage figures for the mechanized skidding and hauling of timber have little meaning because the operational details of logging in East Siberia are not known. It does appear, however, that allocations of tractors to the ChiefDirectorate of East Siberian Logging have been periodicallypostponed, or cancelled to the detriment of timber The Chief Directorate itself has been guilty of poorand maintenance of what equipment is on hand. Long delays in contracted repairs have aggravated this

Apparently the western loggers released onlyquipment for transfer to the cast and kept the best equipment for themselves


f. SoauuJeiiKo (MtniBloi'vof the Belorusblancomplalncd-that Orlovrohowed no "interest-in rcpo'rta>tha.tiBeloruBeIa had Surplus equipment onVharid.

Orlov's* lniercfiioeeirthe result tof adverse re-

ports from East Siberian representatives concerning the condition of this equipment.'

D. Competition for Resources.

. ii v

Other ministries known to ben logging in Irkutsk Oblast* axVthe Minisof Stateiver Fleet; Internal Affairs, Arrnamentay. Rajj. i; Transport/ LocalocalConstruction of Heavyndustrial Enterprises, and Forestry.Various logging enter-prises attached to Uzbek SSR are also exploiting forests in the Irkutsk

Thia system of division of responsibility for timber production haa several economic drawbacks in areas ofconcentrations (such as the Irkutsk area) where local forc6ts mustariety of wood products to many consumer 3-

The wide range of consumers served by the Ministry of thc Timber Industry forces its Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging to make maximum use of the forest resourcesomparison of production data of otherlogging in the Irkutsk area shows that those otherhave fewer such obligations and in many cases utilize

* Organizational expansion of thc Chief Directorate ofLogging haa been groatost in this


rforiXirewood% Dlk^di'pre^^tiQIlUorA^yjBjri f'tfn IrkutsKObkeMwat*

per< co:


firrv.ood and 80 rcent tomtr.erc ince thcae. forests contain'a high percentage of commercial timber, tbis.

means either that the River Fleet enterprise wouldarge quantity, of commercial-grade trees standing.or thattrees would be cut and used for firewood. The natural tendency would be for loggers to follow the second alternative. Either alternative, however, is an example ofpoor utilization of forest resources.

present system of division of logging responsibility in Irkutsk Oblast presents an unnecessary coordination problem to the local foresters and logging engineers in the preparation of annual felling allocations and technical logging

omplicated pattern of producthaa developed in the Irkutsk areaesult of the large number of

HI. Attempts to Eliminate the Factors Contributing to Plan Failures.

The Russians have made extensive efforts to overcome the obstacles to plan fulfillment in the East Siberia timber indusv try, but several of these efforts have not been very successful Thc following is an assessment of these efforts.

A. Transport.

The East Siberian railroad car shortage may be well on Us way toward being alleviated by meansimpledramatic) logistical move. Indications point toward an exchange of consumers between the Chief Directorate of West Siberian Logging and the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging.

Up lo the present, the Chief Directorate of Wefl*Logging has been the principal supplier ofimbeV^blgaVka on the Yenisey River? andtorate of East Siberian Logging hasOn thef? Siberian Logging has heavily supplemented Westupply of local miningo the Kuznets BasinY*

In recent years there have been significantin rafting in the Angarahiswould probably be destined for lower Yeniseyprimarily to Igarka for It seemsto assume that East Siberian rafting will continue to in-to the point where the Chief Directorate of Eastlogging will assume primary responsibility forexport timber to Igarka. This will releaseWest Siberian timber to serve the Kuzbas minesa tremendous freight burden from the ? . .'

* AnaUroad carsillion cubicmining timber (krepezb)are1 sent by the Chief DirectorateSiberian Logging to tbe Kuznets Basin ajfcuially (FLiruxedJ.Angara-Yenisey floating and rafting plans for the

Directorate of East Siberian Logging (in cubic meters


onlyillion cubic were floatedubic :

weren the Angara, Chuna, Ushakova, and Zima

conservative estimate, based on the


2 East Siberian rafting at

ubic meters.


Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging engaged in. duties other than logging duringinter-loggingut0 workers were engaged in other than basic work during, ii seems safe to say that other East Siberian logging trusts arc also building their own billets to supplement the lagging program for prefabricatedhis, in turn, would be responsible for the continued trend of nonfulfillment of logging plans.

The East Siberian Woodworking Trust, the chiefof prefabricated houses to the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging, is being expanded. hreeorking plants were transferred from East Siberian logging trusts to tho East Siberian Woodworking Thisof the Ministry's local woodworking facilities under one trusttop in the direction of local industrial maturity, at least in the organisational sense.

The recent shifting of timber transshipmentfrom the East Siberian Woodworking trust to the Angara Timber Floating Trust may release additional manpower for sawmilling and woodworking and will permit the Woodworking Trust to concentrate on basic production.

Woodworking facilities are being expanded and modernised at several plants of the woodworking trust. Engineers and skilled workers are being schooled in assembly-line methods and wood-lamination As yet, none of these efforts appear to have affected production of prefabricated houses.

C. Mechanization and Equipment.

There is not sufficient information upon which to base an estimate of the current status of mechanisation in the Chief Directorate. There have been, however, several recent



Tovide economic' ad':

Dog^ some eE^WS^Uyng in the/ Local training of mechanized cadres has been intensifiednd'a section for training ja> -logging-technicians'was to be" organized at-the' Yakutsk'Forestry School

hauling roads and-railroads are 'beingout to 'provide for tree -length/his meansthe-'whole stem (me'felled tree minus top andi'iiVto the transshipment point. rThis practice comesto'the assembly-line method of production as isthe logging-industry; felling teams are engaged only in fell-andTllrobing the tree In the forest, bucking crews make'out* of the stems at the transshipment point,the logs for shipment. Formerly, the whole operationconducted by one crew in the forest and resulted inof wood and duplication of effort. has been developed to some extent in the US andWorld War II with excellent results in the controlling

Up to the present, logging in East Siberia has beena winter operation because of the impassable condition of the hauling roads during the summer months and the lack of permanent workers. Now that the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Loggingood complement ol-year-round labor available, the planners have considered it feasiblenvest in all-weather roads in an effort toore continuous. -logging operation throughout thc year. Very few of these roads have been/

* -Duringinter logging season (normally the heaviest period of seasonal employment innlyorkers) of the Chief Directorate's total labororkers) were seasonal


nconstruction ;wao, begun on at.leastrepair and machinenongol ASSR,n Chitaompletion of these shops. sho'uiaimk^^eode.laya

P.Competition.for-tReaawcaa "

Duxing the last halfogging .enterprises ofinistryrof the JUvcr Fleet were, transfer red to the Chiefof East Siberian Logging. One of these enterprises has been identified as the Osetrovo Logging Enterprise of the Lena River Stoamshiphis is the first known reference to the Ministry of the -Timber. Indus try taking over loggingfrom any other ministry in the Irkutsk area^ This monopolistic trend has been developed In the reorganizations

which followed Stalin'suring, the second .quarter ofwo. logging trusts (theTayshet and Irkutsk Transport

Timber Trusts) located. In Irkutsk Oblast were transferred

from the Ministry of Rail Transportation to the Ministry of the

Timber and Paper Industry.

The importance of the absorption of these logging trusts and enterprises does not lie.in-the resulting increment to the production-Of the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging. These transfers arc significant steps toward concentrationl logging operations in the hands of the Ministry of theIndustry. oncentration in the Irkutsk area is highly desirable from the Soviet point of view because it provides three principal economic advantages.

The transfer of logging enterprises of the Ministry of the River Fleet to thc Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging willnrovide an opportunity for better control of uti-lizationin the Bratsk-Ust1 Kut'forests that is, commercial-grade timber will be processed for commercial output, and. the remainder will be pr occBSed for firewood.

Consolidation of Irkutsk logging operations willmore efficient on-site technical planning of logging without increasing the number of logging-engineers and foresters Elimination of non-timber-industry loggers will reduce


the Ministry of Forestry's: fidld and paper work andpeed up the transfer of 'felling- areas: to logging units,'allowing.these units sufficient, time, to plan .operations .

educing themuraber ol-ximbe reproducersimplify the planning of timber shipments;

The above case for concentration of loggingwould apply only to areas of industrial-strategiccentrations where the local forests mustariety of wood products to manyor example,ilitary firewood enterprise located at Providenlya to the Ministry of tho Timber Industry for the sake of uniformity would serve no economic function.

Further, assumption of logging responsibility' the Ministry of thc Timber Industry would not run counter to the efficient practice of attaching one of itsocal construction project to facilitate timber supply.

TV. Intentions,-Capabilities, and Vulnerabilities.

It is apparent that the Soviet planners realised that their regional expansion program would be in the nature of anestment since there were no marked increases in annualfor the three eastern chief directorates of logging throughout the period of their

This investment was based in part upon conservation principles. Annual log production in the western areas was far in excess of local annual forest growth, whereas eastern loggers were cuttingmall percentage of local annual growth. During World War'O, western timber was cutfor defense production and the postwareffort dictated extremely heavy cutting of western estoration demands had tapered off, but the Great Projects aad western industrial expansion raised new demands upon the western timber supply. Thc Russians were faced with the choice ofontinuing to exploit western forests at the expense of completely exhausting western


limber resourcesarge segment of their.-efficient western timber supply system and extendingelves in remote virgin areas.rEvideatly long-rangeion policy and strategic-industrial development plans for the eaat outweighed the knowledge that such amove^would^result^ in an interruption of the gradual growth of Soviet timber,ion since World War II.

In the case of the Chief Directorate of East Siberianlargest producer of the three eastern chief directoratesthe planners did not realize how much of an invest- washe Chief Directorate of Eastconsistently failed to meet even the static planto it during its expansion period. .

V. Conclusions.

U The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging, the Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging, and the Chiefof Sakhalin Logging havo been greatly expanded0 by re basing logging enterprises and transferringand personnel from western European USSR.

The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging is the only one-of thesedirdctorates'of logging thatignificant contribution to other regions of the USSR, and it probably represents tbo greatest potential of any ofhief directorates of logging of the Ministry of the Timber Industry.

The Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging did not even meet the modest production goals assigned to it during the expansion period,f problems associated with transportation, housing, mechanization and equipment, and resource competition.

lthough rail road-.car shortages still exist in East Siberia, the timber transport situation is being relieved to some degree by shortening rail hauls through tho development of riverand simplification of product distribution.

onsequence of the continuing resettlementand the lag in local prefabricated house production, the Chief Directorate of Cast Siberian. Logging has been obliged

- loggm'g;labor:force-:in.emergency .-

Permanent personnel increases will permit theof modern year-round logging procedures and lead to improved utilization of equipment. The completion of seven new central repair.-and.jnacnine.shops shouldin repair of

In dealing with the problems associated with plan failure, the greatest advancement has been made in the area -of resource competition. Logging enterprises of theof the River Fleet and Rail Transport have* transferred to thc Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging.

This monopolistic trend will lead to better forest utilization and more efficient planning of logging operations in East Siberia.

9- However, with all these efforts to overcome theto plan fulfillment, it is doubtful that the Russianseturn on their investment in East Siberia

Apparently,xpansion ofastern chief directorates of logging was plannederiod of investment, since their production assignments remained almost staticthis period.

It is believed that long-range Soviet conservation policy and strategic-economic development plans for the east dictated this investment.




Duringeriod of transfer of labor from the west to thc east, the greatest expansion within the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging haa occurred in the northern, virgin forests of Irkutsk Oblast, particularly in the Bratsk-Ust* Kut

region. -

Twelve ministries (People's Commissariats)ther organisations were toillion cubic meters of timber in Irkutsk Oblastccording to the State Plan. The Ministry of the Timber Industry was to account forillion cubic meters) of this2 planned pro-duction for the Ministry of the Timber Industry in Irkutsk Oblast amounted toillion cubic We have no valid estimate of the2 planned production for the oblast. However, if we apply1 ratio, we canuess that the total was less thanillion cubic meters. The Russians estimate that annual forest growth in the oblast amountsinimum ofillion cubic Eighty percent of this timber Is mature andhich means thatmall portion of the annual growth is occurringf thc reserve. For this reason, at leastillion cubic meters (orillion cubic meters above growth) could be cut annually without damage lo the forest base. In other words, annual production could beercent (if we accept1 ratioase2 estimate) under sound forest management. reat deal more than this could be cut annually if no concessions wore made to conservation

According to Soviet figures.eserves of Irkutsk Oblast amount toercent of the total Soviet forest resources. esirable distribution of species, combinedominance of Urge timber,igh percentage of commercial-qualitytoercent),




- iJThojChiof Directorate. ,of EaaVt Siberian Logging waa Jormedthc second quarter ofthe-Chief Directorate of EastSiberian and Far Eastern Logging was divided, Potr Abramovich Afanasenko, the former director, of the Buryat-Mongol Logging Trust, was advanced to the position of Chief of the new Chief Directorate of Eaat Siberian Logging. Yuriy Nikolaevich Sb^l'nikov, the former chief of the combined chief directorate, has not been heard from since he waa

I. j *.

Shortly after its formation, the new Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging began an intensive local labor recruitment program. By Octoberhe Chief Directorate was vested with thc power of independent labor recruitment under anwith the Ministry of Labor Throughout the, the Ministry of Labor Reserves continued toruit large numbers of local workers for the Chiefmany of these may have been seasonal,

Although there is mention of the East Siberian resettlement program earlyho first concrete reference lo the sending of European rosettlers to the Chief Directorate came ineloruasians were to be sent to Irkutsk Oblast logging enterprises uropean USSR rcsottlers had been received by logging enterprises of the Chief Directorate in this oblast In August1 the

number of workers actually received

by me Chief Directorate are conflicting and fragmentary. in thc interests of profitable research, the effort to make an accurate estimate of manpower inputs was abandoned. Thein the number of East Siberian logging trustsrovides an adequate indication of the magnitude of labor inputs.



Soviet of. Minis toreecree which authorized the trans, for -of supervisory personnel and workers of liquidated Belo-russiano the Chief Directorate.* fccnls^flhe-rrhiefdire'ctorate we recent Joa,blandkraine to recruit managerial workers and V':^V'* - '

- he Chief Directorate also received engineers andfromTother-tninistries

At least three complete logging enterprises of the European USSR were transferred to thc Chief Directorate in the first half' During the last halfocal logging enterprises

of the Ministry of the River Fleet wore transferred to the Chief

In January5 representatives of the Chiefwere sent on detached duty to recruit industrial

2. Organizational Expansion.

Manpower coming into the area not only increased the tables of organization ofxisting logging trustB of theirectorate of East Siberianut also provided staffs and labor for the creationew trusts: Bratsk Logging Trust. Usf Kut Logging Trust, and Angara Timber Floating Trust. All three of these trusts are located in Irkutsk Oblast.

Bratsk Trust began logging early Construction and recruitment of resettlcrs for this trust have been carried on for the The Director of this trust (probably Anan'ev) was transferrediquidated Central European Trust.and the Chief Accountant, Zaytsev, waa transferred from Belorussia. On the basis3 figures for allocations of timber-felling areas, it would appear that the new Bratsk Trust

* This transfer of managerial workers moved slowly until Molotov interceded early

** Tayshet, Vostsib, Yakutsk, BuTyat-Mongol.and Chita Logging Trusts.


ia rapidly approaching the? aire of the old established trusts of the Chief Directorate.*

The organisation of Uat* Kut Trust mas first mentioned in October- There) has been no further reference to this new trust/ as such.- However, One of theleet entnr-prises (the Osetrovo Logginghich was transferred to the Chief Directorate, is logging in the immediate vicinity of Ust' Alao, four new logging enterprises are slated feavconstruction at Ust' Kutlthough these five enterprises may be assigned to other trusts, it is believed that they will form the nucleus of ths proposed Uat' Kut Logging-Trust.

The Angara Timber Floating Trust went Into, operation at the beginningith headquarters at The staff of this organization came from the liquidated Ukraine TimberFloating This new trust supervises floating, rafting, and other -roadstead operations for the Chief Directorate of East Siberian Logging in the Angara River Basin. (This trust also, carried on limited logging operations duringinter Two floating offices (Novochunsk and Bratsk)to the Angara Timber Floating Trust arc being expanded to become large transshipment bases, and recent proposalsthat those bases will be formed into independent production

allocations for timber-felling areas from Group DJexploitation): Vostsib Trust,ubic meters; Buryat-Mongol, Trubic Tayshet.Trust;CKlti0 cubic meters;ubic-meters; Yakutskubic meters.





- It is eaUnated that9he combined.Chief Directorate ofgmg and theBttyeparate Ministry of the Paper Industry did no! come into existence untilamilies from areas west of the Urals. Ofre known to have been Belorussian families andre known to have been families from the central area of European USSR. It is estimated that,1he Chief Directorate of Sakhalin Logging received somethe west, including an unknown number from the

No valid estimate can be made for the Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging. It is known, however, that Primorskiy Trustfrusts of the Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging)inimumamilies of rescttlers0 Resettlers coming into the Chief Directorate of Far Eastern Logging were sent from the central area, the Ukraine, and West

These input figures are softened by the knowledge that much of the labor signed on for






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