Pre I* red ln RQM/0I3
HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGi^IvJ RELEASE IN FULL
ON RADIO BRUAHCASTINO- OUATEMALA
Analysis of Audience
total nuaoer of radio receiving sets in ueo li. Quate mala laistributedopulation of. Thlaatio of about two sets toersona. Host of these eets, however, are found In urban centers so thater cent of all radio receiving seta in the country are distributeder cent of the population. The remaininger cent of existing radio receiving aeta is thinly anddistributed6 por cent of the po^-latlon. It -as estimated1 thatQG receivers were located ln public places, primarily in areas where few persons owned seta. Abouter cent of all radios can receive both long- and short-wave transmissions.
Por purposes of comparison, the distribution of radioaeta ln neighboring countries la as follows: Cuba-etsersons;eta; Costat sets;et.
A further breakdown of the distribution of sets ln
Guatemala ahowa that approximately one-half million people,th of the total population, have acceae to radio. It la estimated that aboutar oant of all radios are ln the Departaaento de Ouatemala, abouter cent in Ouatemala City and environs, ander cent in The availability of electric power in aaall town-actor lnfl-enclng the dietrluutlon of radio receiving aeta.
The radio doea not conatltute an effective means of
approach to the masses of agricultural workers and apparently reachesmall number of urban workers. It ls noted that Communist and pro-Comnunlst organizations which have been capitalizing on their opportunities under the present government have not tried to uae radiorimary means of influencing opinion among*'oricera. Tho principal Coiam-nist drive hMA MtUj ulroct
contact,ocal agrarian coxalttees. Tne Importance placed on thle means or contact la Indicated by tne faot tnat one thousand or isoreee committees were reported active as of On the other hand, the Arbenz government does utilize the official radio, "La Vox den presenting the administration's view and stressing actions and politico of Interest to workers. During labor disputes between Quateaala workers and the United Fruit Company, spot comments and commentaries favoring the "workers" and the Nation's stand In the dispute with the 'monopolisticere carried repeatedly, Thaalso brings pressure against radio stations carrying lnforaatloi contrary to its policies or interests.
While the Guatemalan Basses are not habituated to radio listeningain source of infomation, they probably consider it an authoritative source, and they stay give wide word-of-mouth circulation to Interesting ruaors and news picked up froa broadcasts heard in public places.
Seeor statistical taolesof radio reoelvlngTA3TE AND REACTIONS
Froa the foregoing, it aust be assumed that radio broadcaata In Quateaala will be heard raalniy by theommercial, professional, aliltary and student classes. Probably there are many woaen listeners.
No analysis of the taste or susceptibilities of this audience Is available. . short-wave broadcasting station which receives freguent coaaents froa Latin Aaerlcan listeners findstriking feature of these oooraunications Is the almost unanimous Interest expressed In good auslo programs. Six letters received recently from Quateaala bear oat this pattern.
A survey of available recordings anowa that ltla fairly difficult and quits expensive for radio broad-caatlng stations In the small Latin American countries to obtain collections adequate to sustain continuing good music programs. This fact, rather than audience taste, may explain the preponderance in Quateaalan broadcaata of "live" popular, regional music by local bands, as well as the time devoted to relatively mddlocro
All In all, it appears that programa baaed on folklore, aiming to identify present-day Indians with the glory of the anoient Maya, would fall to reach the Indians and would not be welcome to tne moneyed classes who own moot of the receiving Th* latter people, alwhough they may be descendants of caclqueaueuaily wont to bath tiieir European ancestors while admitting the splendor of the May* heritagehing to one side, belonging to the past. Many themes that heritage nevertheless evoke response, then applied In appropriate context.
Attachmentive excerpts from coranents received from several hundred Latin Amerloan listeners regarding US short-wave broadcasts heard ln tho area.
D CURRENT SITUATION OP BROADCASTUW
Despite the llmltednumber of receiving aeta ln the country. Quateaala hasctive radio stations. Three are government-owned. The moat powerful atatlon lakllowatt government-owned Voice of Ouatemala. Many stations havend short-wave equipment. Two use fti transmitters In portable units for remote-control broadcasting. These la no coordinated network.
All radio stations broadoast. and.
Radio stations opera, tsV^orary licences valid for six months. Thie systemactor in making effective the extra-official pressure which frequently la put on to silence programa critical of the admminiatratloa.
The government transmitter, "La VosUtanlal'a tho moat Important, the best organized, and the only station heard with sufficient strength and regularity to warrant regular monitoring at VCB. The atatlon operates under full government control and serves aa the official broadcastwr of government news, announceiaenta, polioies, and information.
The broadcasting pattern of TOW approximates that of an Independently ownedatatlon. The goveritatuv. utilises it, however, to promote apecial policies or projects. Besides the regular radio fare and report! on government affairs, "La Voz de Ouatemala" carries four complete news casts compiled "our
own proftaaiorxal reporters froa news gatheredopetn ind world radio-talevanh ntwa asrvlesa." Mo particularagency haa been credited of late by this station, he news foraerly waa gathered from the Quatemalan dally OIARIO DE LA NANANA.
Inie station also covers, by remote control, special events aueh as meetings and conferences held by the political parties, the labor onions, the "peacehe deaocratie movement, and more recently, the antl-Comaunlat movement's organizational efforts.
The station carries much news of the Central American and Caribbean countries, especially Buba and the Dominican Republic, and has been an important instrument In promoting the "Organization of Central Aaerlcan States."
Under the Arbenz government, Quatemalan rsdlo stations have operated uninterruptedly and free from excessivecontrol or Interference. Presaure la exerted In varying waya, however, against lukewarm and antl-admlnlatratlon atatlone.
Attachmentontains fustier details onoperations of the government-ownedAKD SUOQRSTIOrlS
broadcact directed to the .'cnowncan uo useful poychologioaland Communists in Qustemala. This Is anwhich is already pretty well divldedintoalready fear and distrust coamunlam and those whoconvinced communists or who accept the thesis of
the Arbenz government that eoaaunlsa in Guatemalaocal affair, not under domination of foreign, specifically Soviet, eomaunlst.
this altuatlon, radio progaganda shouldtoward
a- Disproving the government's claios to the
above effect with detailed, factual Inform tlOftj (manufactured evidence Is not necessarys case as there ia plenty of factual evidence)
b- Discrediting intellectuals who have fallen for the Coaaaunlst lioa;
o- warning Intelleotuala who may be used by Communist;
d- Citing examples and praising Intellectuals
who have refused to be used by the Communists; e- Discrediting the government on ground! ofincompetency, etc, particularly for ita folly in allowing ltaelf to be duped,
deceived aod trapped in ita present unfavorable international situation b, agents ofcommunism, sent to Guatemala froa otner countries for prociaol^ that purpcac; f-n* up the Ideaa no advantage in supporting thla government which, haaset ia courae toward inevitable destruction; the Communista will no' let anything aurvlvc whloh thay cannot dominate, one they haveetition of any influence whatever; thle truth can be shown by tracing the history Of the Ccenunlste in the Spanlsn Republic aod after the Civil mari they broke up and destroyed all moderate leftist groups, betrayed every collaborator whomcould not aboorb, y have done the aome thing to the Spanish Circulos in Ouatemala, Mexico, Cuba. (There ls abundant evldenoe on thia subject; lt might be uaed to o offset the time given by the official Guateaalan
radio to Spanish Republloan affairs) g- Reemphaaizlng the allegations that Col. Arana waa assassinated (and taken out of Arbenz' way) solely because of his opposition to Communist Influence in the government; h- Praising the energy of the new generation of Latin American women who have gone Into teaching, etc, hut warning against the false attractions of exg'tremiam. /
BROADCASTS TO SUPPORT PROPAGANDA
following program poaslblitles have beanthough Tor profactions In aeries. Although notIn ther regular periodiccollected on thiaan be organized easily,be used ao as to give an impression of verisimilitude
if the intention is to operate in the guiseegular station,
The sampling of possible entertainment material also has been seleoted with the idea of appealing to the interest or test of potential listeners at varying hours of the day.
Inreliminary experimental aclection of recordings lt was onoludedeasonable approach to the problem would be to imagine the attitude of the owneradio station in Guatemala, snout! he bw provided with money and free entry through customs, whloh would allow him to aelect recoidLngs in New York; he doubtless would try to satisfy and flatter the taste of listeners with "goodut at the Bams timeks selections likely to causa them to stay tuned in if they dialed into the middle of one of
his broadoasts by ohange or were regular listeners.
Recordings of mariai* umuslc and music topical of Guatemala, ara very limited in quantity.
Recordings of sambo and other popular dance music of Caribbean flavor are abundant. None have been purchased ao far, but some might be useful.
recordings of classical, semi-clasalcal musicand Latin American ooopoaera as well asFrench, are readily
eost of recordings isive to six hours of playing time.
ussian Composersi Prolcofieff and Shostakovich
Several lAtin American listeners writing in coatuenta on US
short-wave broadcasts requested work* by Borodin and TchAikowoky,
it can be aasumed that works by other Russian cojnnoeers
would be appreciated. .
fminUUon* of tne musicith uiCcYrttphlcal notes Interpol*ted, wouldine vehiole for propaganda hitting at the theme of Soveit ana.artists. The experiences of Prokoflaff and Shootakovich provide vldlv illustrations of thepolltleal repression and exploitation of evenreatest ifiuaiclana andcr Soviet rule,
Latin Americano, espeoially students and professors, take their oulture seriously. Most Latin Aaerlcns love pettry and those who don't love it reapeot it. The Communist intelleotuala have takenadvantage of this special prsdileotlon by exploiting the talen of Pablo Keruda and other poets who have lent their art to the Communist oauae.
It might be possible to capitalize on this interest to get listeners and at the same time draw attention away from the Coramunlat poets. ood criticism of literary deterioration of soma of the poets and writers who have prostituted their art to Communism might be prepared. Ouatemala possesses an example in Otto Raul Lelva. Ana Louise Strong Interviewed (and praised) hia recently. Now the orthodox Communists say sheYankee apy" (Tribune Popular, ine example of how faet an intellectual or poet can rise and fall on the perfidious wings of Soviet polltlco-llterery fame.
oample recordingeautiful treatment of poeaa of Garcia Loroa with musical Backgroundj Intended forof technique only, not for broadcast aa the poet ia identified with the extreme left of the Spanlah Republic.
The Catholic Church haa designatedas "Harlanear of speoial veneration of the Virgin Mary, and has proclaimed certain lndulgenoea ln this connection. dedicated to the religious patronesses and most faaosu manifestation of the Virgin ln the Latin American
n good possibilities in this connection.
Religious auilc interspersed with historical and legendary material on thia subjeot oan be prodided.
ther series: a) Music of famousf the World; c) Folk music of the world, d) mnanlsh iataoolaa.
TABLE ON DISTRIBUTION OP RADIO RECEIVING SETS
and Wired Sets
Radio Receiver Seta
uatlmatcd Percent Long Ned1un Snort Wave nave
equipped for Shortwave
Souroei worldwide Distribution of Radlon Receiver Sets. Evaluation Staff, International Braodcastlng Service, IIA. Department of State.
Ouatemala0 Ouazaltenangoeat of country 0
1. Qeograpnlcal distribution of radio seta
Costa Rica Cuba
Dom. Republic El Salvador Ouatemala Haiti Honduras
Total radio setsersona
Souee: Worldwide Distribution of Radio Receiver Sets, Report
valuation Staff, InternationalService, HA, Dept of State. Unclaaslfled
Thaaa excerpts consist mainly of comments on the programa. Rafarencea to stamp oolleotlng Hare ocemton, bat these havenltted. f tha lettera oontalned words of praise for the US company whloh runs the station. These also have been omitted. The most striking feature of the lettera li the almost unanimous interest in good music programs. etailed study of the enclosure may indicate other patterns.
C Sabloas. Coahullai m completely satisfied with thewhich are designed along cultural lnes and whose thenos are concerned with the welfare of manking inablnaa Coahullai riend invited me to hear your broad casts. Itreat pleasure to hear such noble programs. Kuava Roslta, Coahullai Your station la principally interesting for its music. My preference la for the classical*lao enjoy popular melodies of the sweet type. Your interviews with Latin Americans, and ,our reading andon listeners' lettera are alao good. In addition, your commentaries are Interesting on any subjeot, except polltlos. roplo, Hayarit; The following aomments are both my own and bose of my friends. First, congi^tulation on your good taste in choosing your music. ray that you will contlne to broadcast good mualo, particularly since the local programa are so bad. Your lectures and commentaries are alao good, but couldn't they be shorter? Regarding newson't think these would add anything since we already get news from other station in the OS, Canada and Argentina. dnk it would be good to include programs giving the latest developments In the fields of art and literature.
Mexico DPi Your classlfal music programs give me stupendousboth during and after your transmissions. Jaltlllo, CoahulUa; ish yourong life in view of the; quality of your programa, especially their Instructional and oultural aspects.
NaraiiyS3: cngratuelte you on your excellent record library.
Nay you continue to delight your listeners with selections from it.
Mexico, PR; You ere to be highly eongratualted on your wonderful, altruistic work. Your station Is most welcome hero becaucc of the excessive commercial propaganda on the local stations. Re yourrefer classical music, particularly Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Borodin and Chopin. hink that newsecessity, but please make the Items short.
Sanctl 3plrltua: o not think you could Improve your cultural, musical and Informational programs.
Havanai ave listened with satisfaction to your highly cultural programs.
Banes, Orients; We listen to your station every day to enjoy yoyr musical programs and cultural talks.
Kanzanlllo: onstant listener and mush enjoy yourmusic. ould prefer that you not broadcaste hear enough of that onother station. uggest that you might rebroadcsst the United Nations programs which deal with individual countries, their customs, industrial development, etc. They are very pleasant and Instructive.
Ousntananmoi Everyisten to your station which ia outstanding for the quality of the fcuaic.
3an Josei ike music of old master. Modern, of any level. Is the noise of cat* and doge. ilng better than Liszt, Brahms, Baeh, Wagner, Chopin, Mozart, Tchaikovsky, etc. leays tune in to stations which transmit classical music. San Josei ike your programs very much and hope they continue as they are. Some monthsimilar station began broadcasts andew weeks changed to dramas about the Iron Curtain. San Rafnel deHeredlai ake this opportunity to salute your marvelous station with its culturalnd impartial
San Jose: Your prc^srems arem theshortwave listeners are tired of politicaladvertising, and common music euch ea sambos and Your programs are very good, especially tnoaogood
hstado Mirandat Thle ie the fifthave listened to the broadcast. m an enemy of correspondence but in vie* of titO quality of the programs, especially commentaries and Uk goodust wirlte you. ove concert musicozart, Beethoven) and Operas.
3an Cristobal, Eatado Tachlrai isten to your prolans every day,articularly enjoy your good auslc. Valenciai Congratulations on your cultural and good music programe. isten dally.
Tegucigalpa! Apparently the horrible radio grograms we are afflicted with hereontinental phenomenon. he three hours from your station are my salvation. Tela: ow consider the hourhe best of the sinceear your uaa.ul.iful music. onder if ane day you could play some band music. now Sousa marchesompare with classical music,a euro the> would please your Latin Aaerlcan listeners. Unfortunately ay electric power only startaa Honduras timeon't hear the rest of your program.
Boa co i My- family is immensely pleased with your programs, especially the musical lpart. We lilie Tchaikovsky, navel and Grieg. Guayaquil: My faailynjoy both your classical andouslo programs. Me also like Argentino and Brazilian iaus.Ic. We are particularly Interested in hearing scientific talks. These enchant us since they instruct us and let us learn about things of which we axe completely ignorant.
Asuncioni My preference is for classical music, eepeolally Chopin. leo enjoy popular music, except for the mamuo. Gershwin ley favorltee.
Y&ucq; m Interested in national and International adjects also in programs on all aspects of life in allthe earth. The history ofTirana of chanuerbiographies of theooat distinguishedof trie Newwould be good eubjecte. Finally there are many aspectshistory which would interest the people of
GUATEMALA A. COtlTROL
tiaergency Restrictions: Under the Arbens administration, Guatemalan radio atatlonshave continued to operatedand free from excessive Government control or Interference, The noa Government has found lt necessary to invoke certain restrictive or control measures, aa regard, radio stations, only during periods when disoders have occurrrdational emergency haa arisen. Politioal Coverage! The Arbenz Government has not imposed any special measures, nor passed any new laws which Jiave greatly affected the radio station' freedom of action which they have enjoyed in the past. On the other hand, at lease outwardly, the Oovemment has upheld and enforced the Electoral Code watch sake lt mandatory for radio exatiutia to make apecial time available to all political partiesreelection political campaign.
Actually, the opposition, during the campaign for the Ouatemala City mayoralty eleetlon which took place early inae heard on the air for only two weeks prior to the elctlon, and their speeches were much more subdued in tone endless voelferous in theirwere the speeches for the pro-Qovernment candidate. Prior to that, during time apparently allotted to thethe announcer would state that this time had been set aside for them,relf pause would read the applicable section of the Electoral Code, and them would announce that due to the absence of representation from the opposition, records would be played, without giving any explanation as to the reason for the failure of the opposition to appear.
No eleetlon returns or announcement that the antl-Cotmwmlst opposition actually had won the election was ns.de until at lease forthright hours after the news waa known from other sources,EUTERS dispatch from
Quatsmala City. In the interim, music took the place of
the usual newscast0 QMT.
Broadcastlna fat tern i -capita the complete domination of "La Ves de Ouatemala" by the Government, it has developed ita operation tooint that ita broadcaoting pattern approximates th* of an independently owned commercial atatlon. However, the Government does utilise this atatlon in promoting speoial polloles or projects, and in presenting theview. This was evident during the labor dispute between the Guatemalan workers and the United Trait Company, Spot comments and commentaries favorhe "workers" and the Nation's atand in the dispute with tne "monopolistic company'1 were carried repeatedly. The -form aa attachk and propaganda against the "unrelenting foreign-woned company which operates the International Railroad of Central America" waa employed with the railroad workers union demanded the, the "IRCA" oust its vice president, and also rehire thwenty-rour workers who "had been fired wlthouyjuet cause."
ropaganda- "La Vex de Ouatemala" freely permito and extends rewote oontni facilities to, presentation of events during whichlement are allowed to otake gl Vigorous attacks against the United States and its Interest. During the Important convention held to oarryerger of the major Guatemalan labor organisationsnifiedconvention attended by President ArbenzMexican Communist labor leader, Vicente lombardo Toledano, ciclously attacked the United states in one of the longest speaches carried by thla stationati-Brjs'tlah; The British usually are inouded in attacks cade by Guatemalan spsakers or commentatiora againat theand imperlallata who interfere in Guatemalan oualneas and politicalnd the station is ued to promote tn* Oovernaent's desire for the return of British Honduras to Ouatemala.
Anti-Francoi One-half hour weekly is allowed by "La Voz de
A tic ham
Quateaala" for tba 'Committee for trie Aid of the Spanishohow entitled "For the Liberation of Spain." Tula program devotee moat of lte time to attacking the Franoe Oovernment, reiterating hope for the "liberation" of Spain. Whether or not the more fact that Ue time la given lndlcatea sympathy of the Government or the radio which lt controla with thia movement is open to argument, the fact remains tht high Oovernreen officials, leading Guatemalan labor leaders and other prominent personages oealdes the exiled Spanish Republicans have oftetnguaeat speakers. The latter goupa haa reported on the progress of the ansl-Frano6 movement bath within and outside of Spain. Indications that there wouldtrong anti-France" protect movement among factory workers in industrial citlea waaaado by speakers on thia program before the outbreak of the strikes in Barcelona and Faaydona. The she* is ueamed to "qpanlah Republicans in Sxile" on uoth continents.
On Novembernnouncement waa made that during November and December the Aid-to-the-Spanish-Republicwould be of only fifteen mlnutea' duration, but that ths normal half-hour cast vould be resumed in January. The Belize Hour'1! The program sponsored by 'the free people of Ouatemal who aupport the Bellsans In their fight fors beamed to "Belita, the territory which the corrupt Btltish imperialist erroneously call British Honduras." Highly Inflammatory coanent, usually following a single theme, ia ready alternately In -pan!oh and In Engliah by two announcera, with music setting off the different sections. The half-hour program ia broadoaat three times weekly.Original document.