ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT THE SODA ASH
anp. cnmiamDsnmo ssoda mansmY
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS
Caustic soda may be produced by either of two basic processesthe electrolytic, In which caustic soda is produced by theof brine, with chlorineoproduct, or the chemical, in vhlch it Is produced by the chemical conversion of sods ash. The USSR produces substantial quantities of caustic soda by theprocess. It ls estimated that Soviet production by this process0 wasetric tons, which would represent aboutercent of tbe total production of caustic soda in the USSR for that year. This phase of the Industry was discussed in CIA/RRhe Caustic Soda and Chlorine Industries in the USSR,, and Is not considered in this report.
Soviet production of caustic soda obtained by the chemical process and Soviet production of sods ash are discussed together in this report because of their close relationship In the chemical industry.
or Solvay, Process for the Production of
Production of Natural Soda
Ferrite, or Levig, Process for the Production of
k. Lime-Soda Process for the Production of Chemical
Second, and Third Five Year Plans
Five Year Plan . .
c. Fifth Five Year Plan
of Soviet Production with US Production Location and3 Production of Soda Ash
and Chemical Caustic Soda Plants
Regional Distribution of
Stockpiling of Soda Ash and Chemical Caustic Soda in
7. Total Supply
IV. Consumption of Raw
VI. capabilities. Vulnerabilities, and Intentions
Appendix A. Soda Ash and Chemical Caustic Soda Plants in the
I. Chemical Plants Producing Soda Ash and
II. Natural Soda Plants
I. Calculation of Input
II. Calculation of Consumption Patterns for Soda
Appendix C. Gaps in
Appendix D. Sources and Evaluation of
Technical Standards for Soda Ash in the USSR (OST-WI92) .
Technical Standards for Caustic Soda in the USSR
3- Reported Percentage Increase in the Production ofand Caustic Soda in the USSR over the 12
4. Estimated Production of Soda Ash and Chemical Caustic
Soda in the USSR, Selected Years, l6
5- Comparison of the Production of Soda Ash in thethe Production of Soda Ash in the US, 18
of the Production of Chemical Caustic Soda
ln the USSR with the Production of Chemical Caustic
Soda in the 18
and Estimated Production of Soda Ash and
Chemical Caustic Soda Plants in the. 19
Distribution of Production of Soda Ash by
9- Estimated Distribution of Production of Chemical Caustic
Soda by Economic.
Consumption of Raw Materials for the Produc-
tion of Soda Ash in the3 23
Consumption of Raw Materials for the Produc-
tion of Chemical Caustic Soda ln the3 24
Consumption of Soda Ash in the3 . . 25
13- Estimated Consumption of Total CauBtic Soda (Chemical
and Electrolytic) in the3 25
Estimated Production of Soda Ash in the
THE SODA ASli AK3 CHEMICAL CAUSTIC SODA INDUSTRY IN THE USSR*
The production of coda ash and the production therefrom of chemical caustic soda are essentialiversified economy. Soda ash is used in large quantities not only in the production of chemical caustic soda but also in the manufacture of glsBS, alumina,ariety of other uses. Both soda ash and caustic soda are used in the manufacture of soaps, cleansers, paper textiles, and film. Caustic soda is used in the manufacture of rayon and various petroleum products. The total supply of soda ash ln the USSR3 Is estimated to beillionfons are domestic production0 tons are imports. The total supply of chemical caustic soda in the USSR3 is estimated toons, ofons are estimated to be domestic productionons are estimated to be imports. The manufactureons of chemical caustic sodaons of soda ash,ons of soda ash for other uses.
The principal row materials consumed ln the manufacture ofons of soda ash produced in the USSR3 have beento he as follows; ons; limestone andercentons; anthraciteons; bituminousons; and mazut (residual fuel0 tons. The principal raw materials consumed in theofons of chemical caustic soda produced3 have been estimated to be as follows: sodaons; bituminous0 tons; and0 tons.
The estimates of production of soda ash and chemical caustic soda made in this report Indicate that the USSR failed to meet plannedgoals0 and aay failerious shortage of these commodities existed after World War II, but this situation was to have
This report contains information available asTonnages throughout this report are given In metric tons.
been alleviated by the Fourth Five Year Plan Failure to achieve this Plan would seem to indicate that conditions of short supply continue to exist. 3 estimated supply of soda ashillion tons and of chemical caustic sodaons wae probably sufficient to meet all necessary requirements under conditions of closely controlled allocation. If the new plant at Bereznlki starts production, thewill be greatly relieved. Direct military requirements of these commodities ore not great, and It is believed that the USSB hasdomestic production of soda ash and chemical caustic soda torolonged war effort.
. The USSR is self-sufficient in the production of soda ash andcaustic soda, and the industry Is, therefore, not subject to economic warfare. Although this industry Is physically an ideal tareet for bombing, it is not believed that it is strategically Important enough to justify extended bombing.
It is not considered likely that any conclusions regarding Soviet intentions can be drawn from the soda ash and chemical caustic soda industry, because of the nearly complete lack of informationthe allocation of these commodities in the USSR.
Sodaometimes termed calcined soda or sodiumand caustic soda (KbOH) are two important basic heavy chemicals, and they are essential to the manufactureide variety ofproducts. Both commodities find extensive use as alkalies ln the manufacture of chemical end products, petroleum products, alumina for the production of aluminum, soaps and cleansers, pulp end paper, textiles, and reclaimed rubber. In addition, large quantities of soda ash are consumed in the manufacture of glass and ln theof chemical caustic soda. One of the largest uses for caustic soda is In the manufacture of viscose rayon.
The production of soda ash in the US1 wasons, and the production of caustic soda wasons.
of whichons were chemical causticypical consumption pattern of the production of soda ash in the US,pproximatelyercent would be used in the manufacture of glass, percent in the manufacture of caustic soda and sodium bicarbonate, andercent in the manufacture of other chemicals. The remaining production would be used in the manufacture of the following products: pulp and paper, nonferrous motals, soaps, cleansers and modified sodas, water softeners, textiles, and imilar breakdown of the consumption pattern of caustic soda in the USould reveal that approximatelyercent would be used ln the manufacture of other basic chemicals,ercent in the manufacture of rayon andercent In the refining of petroleum,ercent in the manufacture of pulp and paper.ercent of the production is used in the manufacture of lye andercent in the manufacture of soap,ercent in the manufacture of textiles. The remaining production is accounted for by small quantities used in the reclamation of rubber, theof vegetable oils, and export.
Soda ashhite to grayish-white powder which may easily be shipped in bulk in boxcars, in barrels, or tn paper bags. Caustic soda, on the other hand, is available commercially in both solid and liquid (solution) forms and must be protected during shipment from the action of the moisture and carbon dioxide in the air. Solid caustic soda is transported in drums and barrels, whereas liquidsoda is generally shipped in tank cars or drums. Both soda ash and caustic soda are available in various concentrations suitable for industrial use.
7 the plants producing soda ash and chemical caustic soda in the USSR were subordinate to the Main Administration of Basic Chemistry (Glavkhioprom) of the Ministry of the Chemical Industry (prior, the Peoples' Commissariat of the Chemical/owever, the Main Administration of the Soda Industry (Glavsoda) was established within the Ministry and presumably took over control of the soda plants. 2/ The existence of the Mainof the Soda Industry wbb confirmed as late asnd the Administration is presumed to be still operating. 6/
* Footnote references in arabic numerals are to sources listed in Appendix D.
- ii li'li'l
i- Ammonia, or Solvoy, Process for the Production of Soda Ash.
At present the only process of commercial Importance for the production of soda ash in the USSR is the ammonia, or Solvay, process, which has now largely displaced the older LeBlanc process throughout the world, in the Solvay process, first ammonia and then carbon dioxide are passedaturated salt brine to form aof sodium bicarbonateolution of ammonium chloride. These steps take place ln large ammonia-absorbing towers and carbonatlng towers. The carbon dioxide is produced by heating limestone or chalk in lime kilns to produce carbon dioxide end calcium oxidehe sodium bicarbonate is filtered and calcined to produce soda ash and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is then returned to the carbonatlng towers, and the soda ash Is further processed tospecifications. The ammonium chloride solution is treated with slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to produce ammonia and calcium chloride The ammonia is returned to the absorbers and the calcium chloride is either sold or thrown away.
Although production methods In the USSR are comparable to those in this country, apparently the operation of the plants Is not so efficient. Soviet consumption of ammonia per ton of soda ash variesoimes that in US practice. The consumption of salt is also noticeably higher in the USSR,8 tons of salt per ton of soda ash as comparedons in the US. JJ An internationally known expert, who had an opportunity to conferith several Soviet engineers concerned with <he production of soda ash, reached the conclusion that the Soviet engineers vere "third rate" and that the USSR wasechnically Inferior to the US in the production of soda ash. 8/
Technical standards for soda ash in the USSR arc given in/
2. Production of Mature! Soda Ash.
Natural soda ash is extracted from several Siberian lakes ln the Kulunda Steppes and Tran3baikal regions. The extractionelatively simple process because in the winter the soda settles
* ollows on p. 5.
Technical Standard* for Soda Ash in the USSR/
Soda Ash (NagCOj) (Hot Less Than;
Salt (NaCl) (Not Less Than)
Sodium SulfateRot More Than)
Weight Loss After Calcination
<^ After calcinationouble crucible.
is the Russian abbreviationStundart (All-Union
ash produced ln the USaboutercent sodaercent salt.
in oolid form to the bottom of the lake and is then extracted. Little purification of the solid is undertaken, andov-Quolitv product
3- Ferrite, or Levig. Process for the Production of
Until the postwar years, the ferrite, or Levig, process was the principal method for the production of chemical caustic soda in the USSR. This process is not generally used ln other countries, because it has been replaced by the more economical lime-soda process.he USSR has begun to employ the lime-soda process, but even now it is believed that at lcaat three plants, Donooda at Vcrkhneye, the Voroshllov Chemical Combine at Bereznlki, and the Hew
Slavyansk Soda Plant, still manufacture chemical caustic soda by the obsolete ferrlte judging from Soviet postwar statements, lt ie probable that these plants eventually will undergo conversion to the lime-soda
Production of chemical caustic soda by the ferrite process as practiced In the USSR is accomplished byixturearts of ferric oxideart of soda asharge rotating furnace, or tambour,emperature oftotoelt of sodium ferrite (NaFeX^)- The sodium ferrite is thenin hot water toolution of caustic Bcda and aof ferric oxide. The oxideeturned for use in the calcining furnaces, and the caustic soda solution is concentrated and13/
Considerably more fuel Is used ln the ferrite process than in the modern lime-soda process. 6 this disadvantage had been recognized by the Russians, as evidenced In an article on the caustic soda industry which stated that it would be necessary to change over from the antiquated ferrite process to the Iliac-soda process, which was more economical in respect to expenditure of fuel. Vi/ No evidence of any such change has been found at plants already employing the ferrite process. It is probable, however, that any new plants under construction, such as that at Sterlitamak and the new unit at Bereznlki, will be equipped Tor production by the lime-soda process.
Lime-Soda Process for the Production of Chemical Caustic Soda-
In the lime-sodaolution of soda ash is treated with slaked lime torecipitate of calcium carbonateolution of caustic soda. This solution is then filtered andto various commercial strengths or evaporated to give solid caustic soda. This process is relatively simple, and it may be assumed that Soviet technology is comparable to that of the US or Western Europe.
In the USSR, cauBtic soda must satisfy the requirements given ln
* ollows on p. 7.
Technical Standards for Caustic Soda In the USSR/
Caustic Soda y
Liquid Caustic Soda
Caustic Soda (Hot Less Than)
Sodium Chloride (Hot More Than)
Oxides of Iron, Aluminum, and Manganese (Hot More Than)
Iron as Ferric Oxide (Hot More Than)
is the Russian abbreviation for Gosudarstvennyy Ofcsticheso-yumyy Standart (State All-Union Standard).
caustic soda produced ln the US generallyausticercent coda ash, andercentcaustic soda produced In the US varies considerably inbut in general is comparable with Soviet standards.
hundred and ten grams per liter.
Bluish color allowed, f. Color shade allowed.
1. Product ton, a. .
During thehere vere three soda ash plants operating in the USSR. The plant at Berezniki vas finishedhe plant at Vcrkhneyend the plant at Slnvyansk3 these plants vere turning outons of soda ash00 tons of chemical caustic soda peruring Worldnd the ensuing civil war, production droppedhenons of sodu ash were produced, all of which came solely from the natural soda lukee of Siberia, becausehemical plants were inoperative. Production steadily Increasednd7 the USSRons of soda ash. The production of chemical caustic soda7 is not known but probably
was about equal to3 level00 tons. Boplants for the production of soda ash or chemical caustic soda
were constructed during this period. The following figures for the production of soda ash37 have been published by tbe
First, Second, and Third Five Year.
During the period of the First Five Year, Krasnyy Khimik3 at Slavyansk was enlarged and re-equipped, and
6 It vas producing at its present rate00 Both the Donsoda (Donets Soda) Plant at Verlchneye and the Voroshllov Chenlcal Coobine at Bereznikl vere greatly enlarged during theive Year Plans, and7 they vere producing soda ash at an annual rateonsons respectively. Thus tha pre-Worldroduction of soda ash at the Donsoda Plant had been quadrupled7 and that of the Voroshllov Chemicalincreasedimes the prewar During the same period, the production of chemical caustic soda atlants increased from0 tons9 toons Although this increase is not so great as that shown by soda ash, it must be borne in mind that duringreat many electrolytic caustic soda plants were constructed, so that0 as much electrolytic as chemical caustic soda was being produced.
onstructionourth soda aoh and chemical caustic soda plant, the New Slavyensk Soda Plant, woo Btartcd at Slavyonolc. This plant was to be completed by the end of the Third Five Year Plannd was to contribute to the planned increaseercent of the production of soda ash during this period. Inmaller soda ash plants were to be built during thisn the Uralsn the Baku The outbreak of war in1 prevented completion of the New Slavyansk Soda Plant. The equipment and machinery were moved to storage in the Urals to prevent destruction. Ab far asmaller plants are concerned, no evidence is available to indicate that construction was even started. of soda ash during the period of the Third Five Year Plan increased only slightly over the previous years and decreased substantially2 after the war started. The production of soda ash in the USSB80 was as:
ercent increase In the production of soda nth predicted by the Third Five Tear Planlanned production2ons. 0 thin very optimistic figure had been discarded, and1 State Plan calledroduction ln that year ofone of sodaons of which were to be produced by the Peoples' Commissariat of the Chemical Industry0 tons by the Peoples' Commissariat of Nonferrous
Metallurgy and by local industry- 0 tons probably represent the planned production of the natural soda installations ln Siberia.
With the advent of warven this modest goal was not achieved. By the fall1 the German armies had overrun the plants at both
Verkhneye and Slavyansk, eliminatingoercent of the soda
ash capacity of the USSR.
World War II
Production of soda ash and chemical caustic soda in theuarters1 probably was at about the some rate as: thatone of soda ash per yearons of chemical caustic soda per year. In the fourth quarterowever, the only producing units in the USSR were the plants at the natural soda lakes of Siberia, and the Voroshilov Chemical Combine at Berezniki. The combined production of these remaining plants probably did notone of soda osh per year, orons from the Voroshllov Chemical Combine,0 tons from the plontfl at the natural ooda lakes. Production of chemical caustic soda at the Voroshllov Chemical Combineasate of0ear, while that at the plants at the natural ooda lakes was probablyons.* Sovietof soda ash1 may be estimated, therefore,0 tons and the production of chemical caustic soda0 tons. Production of these commodities23stimated to haveons of soda ash0 tons of chemicalsoda. By4 the Donsoda Plant at Verkhneye and Krasnyy Khlmlk No.t Slovyor.sk were again in Soviet bands, and by the fallU Donooda was producing soda osh at the rote0 tons per year. 2j/ Krasnyy Khlmlkowever, did not roHume operations until lote6 and then onlyimited scale. ft ia believed that the chemical caustic sods department of Donsoda did not resume operationsnd that of Krasnyy Khlmik No.. The production of soda ash4 may be estimated, therefore, to haveona, and the production of chemical
Sec plant, studies, Appendix A.
caustic soda to have0 tons- Thus, calculating fro* plant output and assuming that the plant at Verkhneye increased its rate of production during that year, Soviet production of soda ash5 was somewhatons, and the production of chemical caustic soda remained0 tons.
The shortage of chemical caustic soda in the USSR during the war was partially alleviated by Lend-lease shipmentsonsl ons of soda ash were
d- Fourth Five Year.
The published goal of the Fourth Five Year Plan was to increase the production of soda ashons per year. The production of caustic soda was to be increasedearut no breakdown between electrolytic and chemical caustic soua was given. This Plan was to be accomplished by completing the reconstruction of the damaged plants at Verkhneye aad Slavyansk, by finishing the construction of the Hew Slavyansk Soda Plant, and byompletely new plant at Stcrlitamuk (name not available) in the Urals. The plant at Sterlitamak was to have anons of soda ash per year,ateons to be achieved In addition, work was to be startedecond new plant at Berezniki in the Urals.
The reported yearly percentages of increase in theof soda ash and caustic soda (both chemicali Table
Assuming that tliese reported increases are reasonably accurate, thenear's production need be known in order toeries for the complete Plan period- The production9 can be arrived at from plant studies- Donsoda at Verkhneye and Krasnyy Khinik No.t Siavyar.s* were producing at fullrate The Voroshllov Chemical Combine at Berezniki and the natural soda plants probably continued to produce throughout the postwar period atons per year. On the basis of the plant study In Appendix h, it is estimated that the PJew Slavyu-isk Soda Plant turned outons of soda ash The new plant at Sterlitamak was not plannedo that It
Reported Percentage Increase in the Production of Soda Ann and Caustic Soda a/ in the USSR over the Preceding
a. Both chemical and electrolytic caustic sadaT
b. Baaed on the average or the reported increases for the first three Quarters
need not be considered in an estimate The totalproduction9 Is, therefore, as follows:
Krasnyy Khimik No.
New Slavyansk Soda
Subtotal Natural Soda
By using this estimated figure with the reported percentage increases given ln Tabiche estimated production of soda ashnd during the Fourth Five Year Plan con be computed as follows:
An arbitrary range of plus or minusercent has been applied to these figures.
c ha ASatcd,0 Plan goalasedroduction of soda ashons from the new plant at Sterlltamak andons from che remaining plants. II production0 uasons, ic is apparent that thedid not fulfill Ho quota, and that00 tons of soda ash Inateadons wereby this unit
Information concerning the production of chemical caustic
thore vague thanthe production of soda ash. The plant studies in0 production of chemical caustic soda in theons, depending on theat the new plant at Sterlltamak, if any. Production Inpreviously been estimated00 tons,
ation of the reported percentage increases, however,omewhat better interpretation of what actually occurred even though these statistics apply to total production of caustic soda: that is, caustic soda produced by both the chemical andetrolytic processes. Starting with the previously determined production50 ton. and applying the percentage in-iseobtainedepmttern of Production for chemical caustic soda
-This estimate agrees fairly closely with the production estimate UH,eveloped from individual plant estimates
0 estimated production obtained through use of the reported percentage0 tons) substantiates fairly well the estimateons arrived at by plant studies.
e. Fifth Five Year
The published goal of the Fifth Five Year Plan is to increase the production of soda ash byercent und the totalof cuustic soda byercent. Such an increase in soda ash would5illion tons. If theOf chemical caustic soda increases at the same rate as the total production of both chemical and electrolytic caustic soda, theof chemicul caustic soda? willons. The completion of the new plant at Sterlltamak will give theotal capacityor. tons ol' soda ash per year. It Is apparent that the fulfillment of the goal set by the Fifth Five Year Plan for soda ash will require that the new plant at Berezniki yield atons of soda ash Inasmuch as the planned capacity of this plantons per year, the Russians apparently have planned to have only part of lt operating- The planned goals for the production of ooda ash have not been mot ir. the past, so that the goal of the Fifth Five Year Planillion tons of soda ash has been assumed to be the maximum estimate. 5 the new plant atwill be completed, but it is not certain thut the new plant at Berezniki will be producing as planned. Production5 can he estimated, then, to beillionillion tons. Orillion tons.
The planned production of chemical caustic soda from the new plant at Sterlltamak is not known, and, therefore, it is impossible to estimate to what extent the output of the new plant atl Influence the success of the Fifth Five Year Plan. It is likely,
however that the Plan will not be fulfilled ir the new plant at Berczniki fails to produce
ThCearly percentage increases in theof soda ush were 1C9 percent1ercentn the basis of these figures, the production of soda ash12 is estimated to be as follows:
Production of soda ash5 is estimated to beillion tons so3roduction estimates may be derived by Interpolation as follows:
soda and durinc tl
The reportedrcentaee increases ln the totalUc eodaercent1ercent
y to chemical5 will continue to be cfclon of this commodity stiraated as follows:
A summary of production estimates for soda ash andcaustic soda is presented in Tableraph of the production of soda ash is given in the accompanying chart.*
Estimated Production of Soda Ash and Chemical Caustic Soda
in the USSR
Estimated Product inn of Soda Ash ana Chemical Caustic Soda
in the USSR SelectedContinued)
Chemical Caustic Soda
2- Comparison of Soviet Production with US Production.
. Cmperlsons or the production of coda ash andn lheBlven in Table 5*
3" Location and3 Production of Sodala
andK?of coda ash
and chemical caustic soda plants in the USSR are given In Table
ollows on p.
Comparison of the Production of Soda Aflh ln the USSR with the Production of Soda Ash in the
Percent of US Production
Estimate baaed on production lnonths.
of the Production or Chen;cai
Soda ln the USSR
the Production of Chemical Caustic Soda in the US
Percent of US Produetinr.
Estimate baaedroduction in firstmonths.
Location and Estirauted Production of Sodand Chcinlcal Caustic Soda Plants In the3
Seglon' and City Southlavyansk
Caustic Soda I'i
Caustic Soda 18
Sodaaustic Soda 26
Krasnyy Khinik Ho.ew Slavyansk Soda Plant
Voroshllov Chemical Combine Soda
Sodaaustic Soda 49
Siberia (IX) find East Siberia (XI).
Caustic Soda /
The production of chemical caustic soda froa the natural soda plants isto beOCons.
The economic regions referred to in this report are those defined and numbered on CIA1 (First, USSR: Economic Region*.
Regional Distribution or Production.
The estimated regional distribution of the production of ooda ash and chemical caustic ooda for the years3 iB given In
Estimated Distribution of Production of Soda Ash by Economic3 a/
rconcalc Region d
taeedlatt etuilcs lr,
Tables,ov the increasing importance of Region VIIIource of soda ash und chemical caustic soda When the new plant at Berezniki is producing at full-scale, this region will account foroercent of the total production of soda ash, orillion tons per year. This production will beat the two plants in Sterlltamak and Berezniki. Both locatiouo have ample supplies of salt and limestone, the principal raw materials. The large quantity of water neccoaury for the production of soda ash io provided by the Belaya River at Sterlltamak and by the Kama River at Berezniki.
ollows on p. SI.
Estimated DlBtrlbution of Production of Chemical Caustic Soda by Economic3 V
scd on plnnt etudlee In Appendix A.
, ,w J5 ercent of the total production of soda ach in the USSR is used in the same plants In the production of caustic soda. The remainingercent of the soda ash plus all the caustic coda BUSt be shipped out by rail or water to the consuming industries
0il85S'luminum, and chemicalons of soda ashons of caustic ooda were shipped fromlants in the Ukraine andlants in the Urals to points throughout the USSR.
5- Stockpiling of Soaa Ash and Chemical Caustic Soda in the USSR.
Ho Information Is available regarding the stockpiling of soda ash or chemical caustic soda in the USSR.
a. With Hon-Sovlct Bloc Countries
No trade ln soda ash or chemical caustic soda of anyamount between the USSR and non-Soviet Bloc countries in
recent years haa been uncovered. The only shipment reported is one orons of soda ash through Belgium to the USSR in
The country of origin is unknown.
b. With Soviet Bloc Countries.
1 small quantities of soda ash were shipped from the USSR to East Germany to alleviate serious shortages there. The quantities shipped01 are estimated to haveons per These shipments apparently ceased2 and
because of the increased domestic production of sodaEast Germany. Trade in caustic soda with the Europeanbeen*negligible.
Sincearge quantities of soda ash and chemical caustic soda have been shipped to the USSR by the Sino-Soviet Far East Soda Works in Dairen, Manchuria. This plant was leased9 rrom the Peiping government by the USSBentalercent of the Virtually all of the remainingercent of theis believed to be shipped to the USSR. The output of this plant23 is estimated to have0 tons of soda ashons of chemical caustic soda. 0 tons of soda ashons of chemical caustic soda are therefore shipped annually to the USSR fron/ Bow long these shipments will continue is unknown, but it Is assumed that the above quantities were chipped at least
7. Total Supply.
The total supply of soda ash in the USSR3 is estimated toillion tons, made up ofons of domesticplus0 tons imported from the Sino-Soviet Far East Soda Works in Dairen.
The total supply of chemical caustic soda3 Is estimated toons, made up ofons of domestic production plusons imported from the soda plant at Dairen. It should be noted that productionons of chemical caustic soda requiredons ofillion tons of soda ash listed above, leavingons of soda ash for uses other than in the manufacture of chealcal caustic soda.
IV. Consumption of Raw Materials.
The estimated consumption of raw materials for the product'ncons of soda asha given in
Estimated Consumption of Raw Materials for the Production of Soda Ash in the USSR3
It ng Hater
The calculation of tlioae requirements may be found in Appendix B.
The estimated consumption of raw materials for the productionons of chemical caustic soda3 is given in
Total production of soda asn ofons0 natural soda ash taken from lakes. Tableollows on p. 2h.
Estimated Consumption of Raw Materials for the Production of Chemical Caustic Soda in the USSR3
The calculation of these requirements may be found in Appendix B.
Estimates of the consumption of soda osh in various uses are given in Tablebelow.
It is not considered feasible to distinguish,onsumption pattern, between chemical and electrolytic caustic soda. * gives the estimated consumption of caustic soda by Industry andthe current estimated supply of electrolytic caustic soda based on an earlier report. Uo/
Estimated Consumption of Soda Ash in the3
Chemicals, Cleansers and Washing Soda, Pulp and Paper, Water Softeners, Textiles, and Miscellaneous
Estimated Consumption of Total Caustic Soda (Chemical and Electrolytic) in3
VI. Capabilities, Vulnerabilities, and Intentions.
The estimates of the production of soda ash and chemical caustic soda developed ln this report indicote that the USSR failed to meet production goals0 and may fall Although serious shortage of these ccmroodltics existed after World War II, the shortage was to be alleviated by the Fourth Five Year Plan. Failure to achieve the goals set by the Plan vould seem to Indicate that conditions of short supply continue to exist. illion tons of soda ash andons of chemical caustic soda, vhlch constituteupplies of these commodities, ore sufficient probably to rwet all necessary requirements under conditions of closely controlled allocation. When the new plant at Berezniki starto production, the shortage vlll bc greatly relieved. Because direct militaryfor these commodities are not great, it is probable that the USSRomestic production of soda ash and chemical caustic soda sufficient torolonged war effort.
Tbe USSR Is self-sufficient in the production of soda nah and chemical eoustic ooda, and is therefore not subject to economic Although this industry is on important segment of the Soviet
economy ln both peoce and war, disruption of Its facilities would
not immediately or directly affect tlie war effort.
SODA ASH AND CHEMICAL CAUSTIC SODA PIAHTS IS THE USSH
I. Chemical Plants Producing Soda Ash and Chec-lcal Caustic Sodri.
1. Krasnyy Khimlklf
n. Location. tolino Oblast, Ukrainian SSR (III).
roduction. Soda Ash: 0 tons.
Chenlcal Caustic Soda: 0 tona.
Krasnyy Khimlk Ho.as constructed It was blown up by the Russians1 and by The Germans apparently tried to reconstruct thewere forced to evacuate before production commenced. Bythe plant vas ln operationmall scale, and byercent of the reconstruction had been completed.
6* Commenta. The estimate of production ofh is based on the statementoviet engineer that the plant ls capable ofona of soda ash per day. It is assumed that the plant vas in full-scale production at least
Ko basisostwar estimate of production ofcaustic soda haa been found, but it has been assumed thnt the chemical caustic soda department has been restored to the prewar production0 tons per year. The plant produces chomicul caustic ooda by the lime-soda method.
Ho evidence of expansion at this plant haa been found; co it haa beenhat production of soda ush and chemical caustic soda45 will be about the same as
No information ls available on which to base anof production of coda ash and chemical caustic soda5
2- Mew Slavyansk Soda Plant. Ug/
Slavyansk, Stalino Oblast, Ukrainian
c- 3 Production. Soda Ash: ons. .Chemical Caustic Soda: 0 tons.
This plant was in partial productionendi6 and probably in full-scale production
Construction of the New Slavyanskwas begun by the USSR in thes. Thehad not begun production. When World Warthe equipment was moved to the Ural mountain areathere. onstruction once again startedand by the end6 this installationons of soda ash per dayate0 tons perthe endoviet engineer stated that the plantunder construction. The plant was probably completed andproduction of soda ash
The estimate of production of soda ash is based on the statementoviet engineer that the plant will bc able totoo tons of soda ash per day.
The estimate of production of chemical caustic soda is bused on the reported existenceotating furnaces, or tambours, uhich yield aboutonsercent chemical caustic soda per day0 tons per year. Even though the ferrite, or Levig, process of producing caustic soda is now considered obsolete in the USSR, it must be borne in mind that thia plant was designed and built during thes, when this process was still in vogue in the USSR.
Production of soda ash at this installation7 andan be estimated on the basis of the above reports, and production9 can be estimated by interpolation.
Ho information concerning production of chemical caustic soda for the9 is available. For thet can be assumed to have beenOO0 tons per year.
Ho evidence of expansion at this plant has been found. Production of soda ash and chemical caustic sodaU5 can therefore be estimated to be equal to that
3- Donsoda (Donets Sodayj
Verkhneye, Voroshilovgrad Oblast, Ukrainian
C- 3 Production. Soda Ash: ons. Caustic Soda: 0 tons.
Donsoda was first operated Itexpanded during the period of the First, Second,Five Year Plans, until9t was capableons of soda ush per year. During World Warplant was almost completely destroyed. Reconstructionas soon as the USSR recaptured the area and wasby the beginning The first year of fullfor this plant is considered to It has notto its former sise-
3 estimate of the production ofat Donsoda is based on the statementoviet engineerplant was rebuilt to produce OCO tons per day.
Inhe Russians reported that this plant wasons of coda ash per day. Based on this report and several prisoner-of-warroduction is assumed to have been at the rate0 tons per year. 9 the plant wasproducingateons per dayons per year. By interpolating,he followingof postwar production at this plant can be made.
No evidence of expansion of facilities for producing soda ash has teen found. Production of soda ashan therefore bc estimated to be equal to that
The estimate of the production of chemical caustic soda for this plant is based on the reported existenceotating furnaces, which yield aboutonsercent caustic eoda per day0 tons per year. It is assumed that production ofcaustic soda has been at about this rate9 and will continue to be the same Ho informationproduction9 is available.
h. VorOEhilov Chemical Combine. Uhf
a- Location. Berezniki, >tolotov Oblast (Vlll).
b. Coordinates. K.
C. 3 Production. Soda Ash: ons. Chemical Caustic Soda; 0 tons.
Originally constructedheChemical Combine was repeatedly expanded during theand Third Five Year Plans- During World War II,was the only large producer of soda ash in the USSR.
3 estimate of production of sodathe Voroshllov Chemical Combine is based on the statement of
a Soviet engineer that the Berezniki plant is capable ofons of soda ash per day. Since World War II this plant has experienced some production difficulties because of poorand lack of brick, and the loverons per day, vas therefore chosen as probably being closer to actual fact.
Postwar information is not available concerning chemical caustic coda production at Berezniki. Because there is no reason to believe that this plant has been expanded, however, currentis estimated to be at about the prewar rate0 tons per year.
The same Soviet engineer who gave the plant estimates statedew plant was being built at Bereznikiaily soda ash capacityonsearly production rate ofons) . Ko indication of completion date was given. This nev installation was also mentioned in the Fourth Five Year Plan as follows: "work on the buildingew soda plant /in the Urals7 /shall be/ begun." In planningpercent Increase in theof soda ash during the Fifth Five Year Plan, the Russians must have assumed that almost one-half of this projected plant vould be operating Previously they hod planned to have one-half of the plant at Sterlltamok operatingut failed to do so. There is no reason to assume that the goal vill be achieved in this instance. Apparently no expansion has taken place in the old soda aeh and caustic soda works at Berezniki, so that production of both products55 may be ectinatedons per year, respectively.
5- Marae of Plant Is Hot
Sterlitamak, Bashkir ASSR (VIII).
3 Production. Soda Ash: one. Chemical Caustic Soda: 0 tons.
The first half of the plant ofslated to start operating On the basis of thefigures and the yearly percentage increases In tbeof soda ash, however, lt is apparent that the first halfplant vas not in full production2 end also thathalf started limited production ln that year.
According to the statementovietplant is toroduction cfons of sods ash per
year vhen completed.3 estimate is calculated by subtracting the known production of the other plants producing aodu ash from the
total productionons. The other plants
tons,ons to be accounted for by the plant at
3 estimated production of chemical caustic soda ls calculated ln the ease way. The known production of plants producing chemical caustic sodaons. The other plantsone,0 tons to be accounted for by the plant at Sterlitamak.
II. natural Soda
There are atatural (or lake) soda plants located in East and West Siberia. In West Siberia, atndlante are located in the so-called fetukhovsky and Mlkhaylovoky lake area between Omsk and Seslpalatinsk near Slavgorod. In East Siberia, at least one installation for natural soda production ls operating near Doroninskoye (Chita Oblast) in the .Transbaikal area. It has not been possible to pinpoint the location of these plants. It is almost certain, however, that the production of soda fron those units is of little importance to the Soviot economy' oviet text on the production of soda ash has Indicated that tbe production of natural -soda is expensive and difficult and that ltroduct of low quality that is only of local importance. Hot only did1 State Plan indicate that0 tons of soda aeh would be produced outside of the- large chemical plunts, but also the Fourth Five Year Plan opporently planned00 tons ofoutside ofhemical plants planned to bo operating On the basis of these figures, it is estimated that the natural soda plants in Siberia are capable of producing0 tons of boos ash per year.
It ic knovn that at least one of these plants produces chemical caustic soda, but no basis for an estimate of production is available. Captured German information Indicatesubstantial share of the soda ash is shipped out of these plants, so thatmall amount can be converted to chemical caustic soda. Production of chemical caustic soda from these units can bc roughly estimated to beons per year.
I. Calculation of Input. Soda Ash.
A postwar Soviet text on the production of soda ash has stated that the consumption of salt brine per ton of soda ash is equal toubic meters of brinerams of salt per liter,onsercent salt. Kj/ On this basis,3 estimated productionons of soda ash requiredonsercent salt.
of Calcium Carbonate (Limestone or Chalk).
The above Soviet text also stated that the consumption of carbon dioxide from lime kilos is about YO0ubic meters of gas containingoercent carbon dioxide, or about one-half ton of carbon dioxide per ton of soda ons Of calcium carbonate was required to produce this quantity of carbon dioxide.
It is known that the plants at Verkhneye and Slavyanekocal chalk containingoercent calcium carbonate to provide carbon dioxide for the soda ash It is estimated that3 these plants producedons of soda aeh and therefore requiredons of chalk.
The VoroBhilov Chemical Combine, the new plant at Berezniki, and the new plant at Sterlltamak are known to be using local limestone probably containing aboutercent calcium carbonate. t is estimated that3 these plants produced0 tons of soda ash and therefore requiredons of limestone.
C - Input of Anconia.
The above Soviet text states that make-up consumption of ammonia in the production of soda ash is equal toilograms of ammonia per ton of soda 3 productionons of soda ash therefore requiredonsercent ammonia.
Fuel is used in the manufacture of soda ash in twothe burning of lime in the lime kilns to produce carbon dioxide and the calcining of sodium bicarbonate. The same Soviet text indicates that the consumption of anthracite coal in the lime kilns is equal to aboutercent of the weight of calcium carbonaterevious calculations show3 productionons of soda ashillion tons of calcium carbonate. Anthracite cool requirements may therefore be estimatedons.
The Voroshllov Chemical Combine at Berezniki and Doncoda at Verkhneye useesidual fuel oil, for the calcination of sodium bicarbonate, whereas Krasnyy Khimlk Ho.nd the new Slavyonsk Soda Plant at Slavyanek and probably the ncv plant at Sterlitamak use bituminous coal. 5j/ The consumption of mazut is given ln the Soviet, text asilograms per ton of soda ash and the consumption of bituminous coalilograms per ton of soda ash. The plants at Berezniki and Verkhneye are estimated to have0 tons of maEutnd the plants at Slavyansk andons of bituminous coal.
The input of electricity for the production of soda ash is given in the Soviet text as ICO kilowatt-hours per ton of sodahe estimated total input of electricity3 was thereforeillion kilowatt-hours.
The input of steam is given in the Soviet textons of steam per ton of soda ash. The estimated total input3 vasillion tons of
g. Input of Uater.
Large quantities of cooling water are required ln theof soda ash. Soviet statements indicate that the plants ln the Ukraine require aboutoubic meters* of water per ton of soda ash in winter endubic meters in cummer. The plants in the Urals use water from rivers that run cold the year round so that their requirements are only approximatelyoubic meters per ton throughout tho Requirements of cooling water3 are estimated therefore to have beenillion cubic meters.
2. Chemical Caustic Soda.
The requirements for chemical caustic coda for both the ferrite and lime-soda processes have been published in tbe Soviethe productionon of chemical caustic soda manufactured by the ferrite process requires the following:
Standard Fuelotal heating value of
The fuel actually used is believed to be mazut, whicheating value of00 kilocalories, thereforeilograms per ton of caustic ooda are actually necessary. It is believed that Donsoda at Verkhneye, the Voroshllov Chemical Combine at Berezniki, and the new Slavyansk Soda Plant at Slavyanuk produce chemical caustic soda by the ferrite process. It is estimated that these plants0 tons of chemical caustic soda3 and required thematerials:
A cubic meter of wateretric ton-
According to the same Soviet text, the productionon of chemical caustic soda by the lime-soda process has the following requirements:
Ash Limestone Steam Water
Standard Fuel for the Fusion of Caustic Sodaotal heating valueilo-calorles)
o ubic Meterso ilowatt-Hours
it is felt that this list is reasonably accurate, one item has apparently been neglected. ilograms of coal are required to convert limestone to the lime needed in the process. It is estimated that30 tons of chemical caustic soda were produced by the lime-soda process in the USSR and required (including the eoal needed to convert the limestone to lime) the following materials;
Ash Limestone Steam Water
II. Calculation of Consumption Patterns for Soda Ash.
It ls estimated that the production of plate glass In the USSR3ons. The production of bottles lsby using1 Planillion bottlesase and increasing this amount by the increase In beverage production1 over1 Plan. 1 Plan calledroduction of alcoholic beveragesillion decaliters, and it lsthat productionIillion decaliters. of the production of alcoholic beverages23 were calculated by using the reported percentage of increase2 During this period the production of beerercent;ercent; and On this basis3 estimate of the production of alcoholic beveragesecaliters. If the production of bottlesat the same rate13 as the production of alcoholicillion bottles vere producedAssuming that these are primarily liter bottles with on estimated weight ofuncesons of bcttlcs were produced It ls also estimatedillion glass containers of food vere packed If the glass in each containerunces, the estimated production of glass containers3ons. The total estimated production of glass3 wasons. Based on US practice, the manufacture of this amount of glossons of soda ash.
It la estimated that the primary aluminum production ln the USSR3ons. Based or. US practice, this amount required0 tone of soda ush forof the bauxite ore.
GAPS ID INTKLLICHKE
The principal gaps in intelligence concerning the Soviet soda ash and chemical caustic soda industry arc us follows:
Detailed information on Soviet requirements for these two commodities.
Information concerning proanctlon of coda ash and chemical caustic soda and start of proanctlon at Sterlltamak and the new Berezniki plant.
3- Specific information on quantities of soda ash and chemical caustic soda shipped from Manchuria to the USSR. Also information on how long this agreement will continue.
1*- Information concerning stockpiling of these commoditie
ia the USSR.
- hi -
SOURCES AND EVAIiJATIOH OF SOURCES
1. Evaluation of Sources.
This group includes textbooks, periodicals. Plan and Plan fulfillment data, and press und radio statements. Although subject to interpretation, these sources are considered reliable. Theand the Plan and Plan fulfillment data uere especially helpful throughout the report.
Received through CIA Channels.
These reports fpnn the main basis for the plant studies and were of considerable value. They are considered to be reliable.
c- Prisoner-of-Har Interrogation Reports.
These reports contributed to the plant information. Takenroup, they caneliable picture of plant operations.
Evaluations, following the classification entry and designatedave the following significance":
Confirmed by other sources
Not usually reliable
Cannot be Judged
Cannot be Judged
- U3 -
Evaluations not o'thervise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this Ko "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation of the cited document.
Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Inorganic
Chemicals and U.
Faith, Donald B. Keyes, and Ronald L. Clark, Industrial
Chemicals,.Johnons, New. SW.
2 (date of
Pravda, u. Bval..
CI. Pustyrev, Prolzvodstvo kal' tslnirovannoy Body (Production
of Soda Eval..
11 (date of information,. S
. Shereshevekiy,. Shmanenkov, Kurs
tekhnologiy mlneral'nykh veshchesty (Course of Technology of Mineral. U. Eval..
CIA FDD, R- Eval..
State, American Embassy, Moscow, Despatch,.
U. Eval. Yegorov, Shereshevskiy, and Shmanenkov, op.. la. State, American Embassy, Moscow, Despatchp. Coiudarstyennyy Cbshchesoyuznyy Standart (State All-UniorT
. Pustyrev, og.
CIA/RRThe Caustic Soda and Chlorine Industries in the
17- Pustyrev, on.
frhurnal KhlalchcsKoy Promyshlennostl (Journal of the U- Eval..
CIA/RR PR-1', Od. cit.
Third Five Year Plan of the
Central Administration of Economic and Social Statistics of the State Planning Commission of the USSR, SocialistIn the USSR (English. Eval..
CIAgo, Khlmicheakaya Promyshlennoat' . iT Eval. State, American Embassy, Moscow, Despatch, op. cit. 2k. State, Office of Foreign Liquidation, Foreign Economic Section,
Report on War Aid Furnished by the US to the USSR,ep 11 (date of information,. S
Air, TreasureepVofcrug sveta (Around the B- BVal-.
USSR Information Bulletin,, U. Eval..
State, American tobaBBy, Moacow, Report No.
Performance of Soviet Economyi7. C. Eval..
Kuzmlaov, "Steady Rlae in USSR Nationalocialist
oprosy Ekonomiki No. U. Eval. "Fulfillment or the State Planoviet News, Central
Statistical Administration of the USSR Council of Ministers,
U. "Eval. "Socialism Meansoviet News, Central Statistical
Administration of the USSR Council of Ministers,
U. Eval. CIA/RRit.
Some Service,oscow, Toss,on Eval..
Heport of the Central Statistical Administration of the USSR, Council of Ministers, Moscow, Foreign languages Publishing U. .
Faith, Keyos, and Clark,. Manufacturing Chemists Association,hemical Facts and
. U. "Facts and Flgureo for the Chemical Process Industries,"
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. U. Commerce, Bureau of- the Census, Industry Division, Inorganic Chemlcols and U. National Production Authority, Interview with Mr. Wesley Ibid.
36. State, American Consul General, Antwerp, Despatch No. C. Eval.. State, American Consul Ceneral, Antwerp, Despatch No. 6l, C. Eval..
37. CIA SO,1 (dote of Information,.
36. 11 (dale of Information,. S
2 (date of. S. Eval.
hi. 11 (date of Information,.
Army, ID-HQ-FTC, Report9 (date of
information,. S. . Army, S. Eval.. CIA9 (date of information, Sep.
Air, Treasure5.Krafiya Prccyshlcnmn tl SSSR (industrial Geography of theoscow, UI Kvni.. Air,A,2 (date of information,. R* Air.
11 (date of information,. S
(date of information,. C. . Air,dote of Information,.
R. Air. Air,0 (date of information,
Oct. S. . Air,,1 (date of information,
. Air. Air,,2 (date of information,
. R. Air. Air,,0 (date of information,
, R. Air
SO,2 (date or Information, prior to.
Army, ID EUCOM,eport Ho.1
(date of information,. C. 11 (dote of information,. vol..
CIA SO.0 (dote of information,.
Air,,9 (date of Information,
Jun- S. .
Air,D (date of information,-
. S. . Amy, H>7 ECIC,1O (date of
Infomation,. 8. . Army, ID EUCOM, KA,7 (irvestlya.ep Mkk).
S. Eval. RR r
CIA SO,0 (date of information,.
CIA SO,0 (date of information, Dec IQitt-Jun lQbO).
CIA0 (date of information,.
Air,00 (date of information,. R- . CIA SO,1 (date of information,. val..
4ravda, S. Eval.
Army,, Jun C. Eval.. Army, SDS C. Eval..
Army,1 (date of Information,. c. Eval. 11 (date of information,. s
Eval.. Air, Treasureepop. cit.
Pravda, U. Eval..
CIA FDD,0 (dale of. S. Eval. Army,. C. Eval..
Air, Treasure. ChernyyKTP (List ofEconomic Organs or Peoples' Commissariat for. Pacific Military Intelligence Section, PAC. S. Eval. RR
Pustyrev, og. Pustyrev, op.. . . 2i.