Created: 1/26/1954

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Gpor.tlorwl lol-lllg-nco Support DlvUlosStaff, Fl




I. Characteristics aad Cffectlvaasas of MadU.

a. Word-nf-Mojth Propaganda aad Films.

1. Tha twa mean* af public iafematlea la Onalamala having laa greatest audUnas effect ara word of month aad filmh . The farmer haa haaa ua sd by fwvarnmaat egnata aad eanawitsta ta explain aad aawalartae tha Agrarian Reform Law.

B. Pamphlets,ad Km Sh..ts.

ldenarge element af middletacom* groups, Daspete Aa high fate af Illiteracy aad lawof living, thava haa haaa tm recastoticeable Increaseaad dia earn fastion af haaha aad paiaphiata.,

af Education is aald ta have printedathe pact (our rears. Meat af tha waaha panUsWd ara af ths aamahlat type aad af inferior quality, hath ta saataat aad aaaearaaae. Perhapa far that rearea thayide circulation among tha pspalsr aad/ar revolntteanry mas as a.

propaganda haa haaa die dated thraagh thaaad fataar material. Meataa formatwell printed. illustrated with gawd drswings, hat tha Qualityla poor, amallpataad ttamc ara aaatamary.

C. Maws papers aad Magaataee.

Newspapers, msgnaiaes, aad mala ara utilinad primarily far -paUUcal prngagaaea. noah domestic aad far sign, rathar than far taterma-tlaa pur paces. Irresponsible tafUsBmatary and lib.loos reporting is tha rale rathar than exception.

Thara araaglatarad newsad partadlaal* ta Oaatemale. wtth repartad combined circulation. Tha total nam bar af raadara may ha three tiroes thla awaher. With two exceptions, all dally papers ara printed and dlstrlhuted in Oaatamala City.

3. The toUl circulation of thail-communist, and anti-government prase Ishile the circulation of the government-owned, government-controlled, and communist press. Is The government ao far haa allowed comparative freedom of the preas and of expression,heck over the press sumf tha past two years indicates that tha non-government, independent press, with Its greater circulation, hasonsistently large volume of critic!am, challenge and excusatiras regarding communist penetration. This haa not crystallised public opinion Into action against the government, however. Tha explanation probably lies ia aof causes! (a) lack of real fear aad conviction regarding theoi foreign danger through Soviet communism because the USSR isb) relatively aatUfactary aeoaomic conditions leading to desire to avoid die tor bancs to tha status quo) (c) huh oi cohca Wrntaand agreement ea alternative national policies among tha aatl-eommeniit and anti-government forces.

D. Conclusions.

material, for circulation through the maedie ofmarket women, studeata, aad similar groups offersor transmission nf prepegandei

Uttera. enclosing pamphlet material, toaad other professional men are suggested}

pamphlets and circular Utters to wuuneataaahara aad to bewsowive* alsoay of reaching groups af rising importance ia the political aad economie life of the country;

ha foregoing groups have seen special targets af propaganda.



A, Receiving Sets and Radio Audience Characteristics.

Tho total number of radio receiving aata ia use ia Ouatemala laistributedopulation of. Thisatio af as out two sets taersons. Most of these acts, however, ara found ia urban canters so thatas cent of all radio receivingia tha country are distributed4 par sens of tha population. Tha remainingar cant of existing radio receiving sets is thinly mad unevenly distributed4 par cant af tha It was estimated1 thateceivers wars located la public assess, primarily la areas where few parsons owned sets. Aboutar cent af all radios caa receive both long- aad short-wave transmissions.

For pur pes aaf com pur is oa, tha distrlbutioa of radio receiving sets In aaighbwriag countries is aa fellowsi3 setsorsoasiots} Castasts| k!ats;sts1at,

A further breekdawa of tha distribution of sets la Oaatamala shows that approximately sas half minion people,th of tha totalhave aacess as radio. It ls estimated that abouter coat of all radios are in tha Do portamento da Ouatemala, aboutar cant ia Ouutamala City aad environs, and aboutpar coat In Quaaaltenango, The availability al sloe trie power ia small townsactor influencing tha dlocributiaa af radio roc erring oats.

Tha ewnarfhip of tha limited radio rocetviag facllltioo Is prepessder-aatly among tha rich, tha prosperous commerelal classes, same of tha military, the nrcdesetoae! aad intellectual groups, and urban centers presumably lis tea ia from ttrno to time oa theirets. Campeainoo aad urban warhars have occasioaal aacess to sets ia caattnas aad dher public places.

The radio does not constitute aa effective means of approach to the masses of agricultural workers aad apparently reachesmall number af urban workers. It ia noted that Communist aad pro-Communist organisations which have been capitalialag oa their opportunities under the present government have not tried to use radiorimary means of influencing opinion among native workers. The principal Communist

drive ha* been by direct contact, largely through local agrarian Tha importance placed on this means of contact is indicated by the fact that one thousand or mors of these committees wereactive aa of

On ths other hand, the Arbens government does utilise the official radio, "La Von den presenting the administration's view and stressing actions and policies of interact to werhera. During labor dlspates between Guatemalan workers and tha United Fruitspot comments and commentaries favoring tha "workers'* and the Nation's stand In the dispute with tha "monopolistic company" ware carried repeatedly. Tha government also brings pressure against radio stations carrying information contrary to Us policies ar interests.

While tho On stem dsn masses ara not habituated to radio listeningain source of Information, they probably consider it ansource, and they may gtva wide wnrd-of-month circulation ta Interesting rumors and news picked up from broadcasts heard ln public places.


and Wired Sate

Receiver Seta

Licensed Unite ana ad

Seta Number Lie ana ad

Radio Receiver Sets


Lang Medium Wave Wave

No. Equipped

for Shortwave



Geographical Distribution of Radio Sete




of country

af Radio Owners No Information available.

Geographical distributionTrade estimateaa af

Aodieace Tate aad hascttons.

From tha far ageing. It maat ba aaaumed that radio broadcasts ia Guatemala will he hoard mainly by tha prepertied, commercial, pro-feaaional, military and student classes. Probably there ara many woman list snare.

No eaalyeia af tha taste aa susceptibilities of thla audience IsS short-wave hrendraattng station which receives frequent cam -meats from Latin Americas listenerfhedetriking feature ofommunication* ia ths almost unanimous Interest expressed in good music programs. Sin Utters received recently (rem Guatemala bear out tats pattern.

A survey of available recording* show that It probablv is fairly difficult and quite expansive for radio broadcasting stations in the small Latin Americas countries to obtain collections adequate to sustaingood music programs. Thla fact, rather than audience taste, may explain tha preponderance in Guatemalan broadcasts of "live"regional music by local bands, as well as tha time devoted tomediocre recorded music.

All tn all, it appears that programs based oa folklore, aiming to Identify present-day Indiana with the glory of tha ancient Maya, would tail to reach tha Indians and would not be welcome to the moneyed claeaea who own moat ef ths receiving cote. The latter people, although they may he descendant, of caciques them salve a, usually want to he identified with their European ancestors while admitting tha splendor of tha Maya heritagehing to one aide, belonging te the pact. Mais/ themec from that heritage nevertheless evoke response, when applied in appropriate context.

Excerpt* from comments received from several hundred Latin American listeners regarding US short-wave broadcasts heard ia tha area ara given below. These excerpts cans 1st mainly af comments on the programs. References to stamp collecting were common, but these have been omitted. f tho letters contained words of praise for tha US company which runs tha station. These else hove haaa omitted. The moot atrlking feature of tho letters is the almost unanimous interest in good music programs.etailed study of tho enclosure may Indicate other patterns,

C Sablnae.m completely satisfied with thsch ara de signed along cultural lines aad whose theme* are concerned with tho welfare of mankind la general.

C Saainaariend invited ma to hear your broadcasts. Itreat plena are to hear sock noble program a.

Nueva Resits. CoakuUa, Year station la principally interesting for ita music. My preference ia far the classical,lso enjoy popular melodies afest type. Tour interviews with Latin Americana, and your reading and commenting on listeners' letters are aleo good. In addition, your commentaries ara Interesting an any subject, except politics.



Teplc, Na yar its That following eaaimaati ara both my own and those of my friends. First, congratulations on your good taste in choosing your music. ray that you will continue to broadcast good music, particularly since tha local programs are so bad. Tour lectures and commentaries are also good, but couldn't thoy ba ahorterT Regard-lag newaon't think these would add anything since we already get news from other stations in tha US, Canada andhink it would bo geod to Include programs giving tha latest develop -menta In the flalda of art and literature.

Msalce PFl Your classical music programs give me stupendous satisfaction, both daring aad after your traaamlaaloaa.

SaltlUo.ish yourong Ufa ta view of tha quality of your programs, especially their instructional aadpe eta.

ongratulate you on your oseelleat record library. May yau continue to delight year Us tenors with selections from ft.

MoaaeoPri To* ara to ha highly congratulated oa your wanderful, altruistic work. Tear station is moot welseens hare hecauee af the excessive commercial propaganda en tha local station*. Re your1 prefer claseioal music, particularly Beethoven. Tchaikovaky, Borodin and Chopin.hink that newseceeeity, bat pleas, make tha items short.

hanctlI do not think yen could improve your cultural, musical and informetieaal programs.

ave listened with cetiafactien to yaur highly eultural programs.

Raaes. Orientallister, to your station ovary day ta enjoy your musical programand cultural talks.

Manea at!eaataat liateaar aad muck enjoyaa steal music.ould prefer that you aot broadcaste hear enough of that on other stations. uggest that you might rsbrosdeeet tha United Nations programs which deal with individual countries, theirndustrial develearnest, etc. They are vary plsasant and

Guantanamo: Everylatao to your station which is outstanding for tha quality of tha manic.

Sanlka manic and old mas tars. Modern, of any level, is the ncdae of cats and dogs. Nothing batter thaa Liszt, Brahms, Bach, Wagner, Chopin, hfeaart, Tchaikovsky, etc.lways tone ia to stations which tranamit classical music.

Sanike ywar programs vary saash and hope thay continue as thay are. Some monthsimilar station began broadcasts aadew weeks changed to dramas about the Iron Curtain,

San Rafael daake this oewortunity ta salute your marvelous station with its cultural programs and me partial commentariso.

San Josoi Tour programs arera sura Um majority of ihortwuve listeners ara tired of political commentaries, commercial advertising, and common music sash as manahos aad worse.

Puatsjoamsi Tour programs are very good, esuorlally those related to good music.

Estado Miranda: This Is the fifthare listened ta tha broad-east,m an enemy of eorroog isitisiio butia view af tha eaality of taa programs, especially commentaries and the toadast writeave concert music (Lisat, Uoaart, Beethoven) and operas.

San Cristobal, astaaaisten to yourvary day.articularly enjoy your good music,

ongratulations ea your cultural and goad musicisten daily.

pparently tha horrible radio programs wo are afflicted with hareontinental phenomenon. Aaywuy, tha three hoars from your station are my salvation.

ow consider the hourho boot af the day sinceear your beautiful music. oader If one day you could play soma band Souse marchesompare with class it ial music.

6 /


m sure they would please your Latin Amorlcany oloctric power only starts. Hcndnraipe eo Ibear the roet of vour

Boacoi My family La immensely pleased with your progm'. eepodally the musical part. Wo like Tchaikovsky. Rav si afovieg.


My familynjoy both your das ileal al popular music programs. We also like Argentine and Braailiaa mulTr particularly interested in bearing scientific talks. These eaWtf as since toay instruct us and let us loam about things of which net* com plctely ignorant.

Asuncion! My prefer ease is far elssslcial music, ospechttrlso enjoy popular music, except for tha masnbo. Gef4 oas ef

my favoritas.

m interested In national and International ouhfeW abova all. Also la programs oa all aspects of life tn all cities ofhe history af music, programs of chamber music, andof tha moat dUttaguishod msnaf the Hew World, also would ba got* .nh-Jecta. rin-llr thero ara many as poets af California history which would interest the people of Spanish America.

C. Broodsssttag stations snd Curreat Sltuutioa of Broadcasting.

Despite tha limited number of receiving sets ia thocttro radio statisae. Three ate government-owned. Thastation iskilowatl government-owftsd Voice of

biany staUons barend short-ware euulument. Two aso fm transmitters In portable units far remote-control broudcattiag. There la aa coordinated network.

All radio stations broadcast. aad.

Radio stations operate oa temporary licences valid for eta mouths. This systemactor In making effective tha antra-official press* re which frequently Is put on to silence programs critical of tho adnata! st**tlen.

The government transmitter, "La Vob de Guatemala"a tha moat Important, tha beet organised, and the only station heard with sufficient strength and regularity to warrant regular monitoring at VCB, The atatlon operates under full government control and aervea as tha official broadcaster of government news, announcements, policies, and information,

Tha broadcasting pattern af TOW approximates that of an Independently owned commercial atatlon. The govamment utilises it. however, to promote special policies ar projects. Besides tho regular radio fare end reports on government affaire, "Lo Von de Guatemala" carries fear complete newscasts compiled by "our own professional reporters from nawa gathered la European and world radio-telegraph nowao particular nawa agency haa been credited af late by this atatlon.tha aews formerly woe gathered from the Guatemalan dally DIARIO DE LA MANAMA.

This statioa aloe covers, by remote eantral, special events each ne meetings and conferences hold by the poll He si parties, tha labor unions, the "nance partihe democratic youth movement, and more recently, tha anti-Communist movement'e or gam national effexte.

The station car rise muck aews af tha Coatral American and Caribbeanpetally Cuba and the Dominican Republic, and haa boon aa important laetrumeat In promoting the "Organisation of Central American States."

Under the Arbona government, Onntemalaa radio etatioaa have ape rated uninterruptedly aad free freea excessive govarnmaat ceatrol or interference. Pressure la exerted fas varyingowever, against luhawarm aad enll-edminiatrstion stations.

The latest available) of programa aad operatioaa af tha government-owned station todiesha following:

1. Control.

a. Emergency Reatrlctionot The Government has found it neeesaary to lavake certain restrictive or control meaeurea, aa regarda radio, only during periods when disorders have occurredational emergeacy has arisen.

b. nvsragOl Ta# ArDCBB Government bos sot imposed any special meuurti, nor passed any BOW Laws which have greatlythe radio atatioaa' freedom of action which thay have enjoyed ia the past. Oa tha other hand, at least outwardly, tho Government hoiand enforced the electoral Coda which snake it mandatory for radio stations to make special time available ta all political partiesreelection political campaign.

Actually, the opposition, during tha campaign for tha Ouatemala City mayoralty election which took place early iaas hoard oa the air far only two wooks prior ta tha election,and their speeches wore much mare subdued ia tone aad lass vociferous la their denunciations thaa ware tho speechea far tha pro-Government candidate. Prior to that, during time apparently allotted ta the opposition, tho announcer would state that this time had boon set aside far them,rief pnaso would read the applicable section of tho Electoral Coda, and thaa would announce that due to the absence af re pre seats Hon from the opposition records would bo played, without giving any explanation as ta tha reason far tho failure of the opposition to appear.

No elocdoa returns ar announcements that tha snti-Cexamuuist opposition actually had wast the elostiaa waa made until at least forty-eight hours after tha bows waa kaooa from other sources,UTKRS despatch from Ouatarnala City, ha tha inter im, music took the place of the usual newscast0 OUT.

2. Pomastle Services.

a. Broadcasting Pattorat Despite tha complete domination of "La Von da Guatemala" by the Government, it has developed its operation tooint that its broadcasting pattern approximates that af aa Independently owned commercial station, However, tha Government does utilise this station ia promoting special paltcies or projects, and ia presenting the administration's view. This was evident during tho labor dispute between the Guatemalan war koro snd tha Halted fruit Company. Spot comments and comments lies favoring tho "'workers" aad taa Nation's stand in tho dispute with tho "monopolistic company" ware carried repeatedly. The same form of attack and propaganda against the "unrelenting foreign-owned company which operates the International Railroad of Central America" waa employed by the railroad workers union which demanded that tho "IRCA" oust Its vice president, and also rehire twenty-four workers who "bad been fired without Just causa. "

and extendi remote control facilities to, presentation of events daring which sntl-TJS elements sre allowed to make vigorous attacks against ths United States and Its Interest. During tho important convcntioei held to carryerger of the major Guatemalan labor organisation*nified centralconvention attended by President Arboan him self--the Mexican Communist labor leader, Vicente Lombardo Toledaao, viciously attacked the United States ia one of the lengest spa aches carried by thla station

c, Anti-BriMaht Ths British usually ara included In attacks made bypeakers er commentators against the "capitalists and imperialists who Interfere la Ouatomslaa business and natsttnalnd tha statloa le used to promote the Government's desire for the return of British Honduras to Guatemala.

3. Foreign Services.

a. AnM-Francoi One-half hour weekly Is allowed byVoo de Guatemala" for the "Committee fa* the Aid of the Spoanah Republic" tohow entitled "For tha Uheration ofhla nrogrom devotee most af its Ume to attacking the Fraaeh Government, reiterating hope for the "liberation" af Bpaia, Whether or aot the more fact that the Ume le gives indicates sympathy of tho Power nine af or tha radio which lt ceatrols with this movement la apaa to argnmeat, bat tho fact remains that high Governmea* sflUUU, landing Guatemalan laharad ether prominentho exiled Spanish Be pah Ureas have often been guest speak or a. Tha latter groupt' haa reported oa the progress of the aati-Frnase mavwmaat both within aad onteida af Spain. Isdtretlons that there wouldtrong ami-France protest movement ansong factory workers in Industrial cities waa made byoa thla program before tha outbreak af the strikes ta Barcelona aaa Pamplona. Tha chow ie beamed to "Spanish Republicans In turtle" oa both continent..

On Novembernnouncement was made that duringand December thoprogram would be of only fifteen minutes' duration, but that the normal half-boar broadcast would be resumed in January,


"Tit Boleae Hour"! The program sponsored by "tha free people ol Guatemala who support tha BelUans ia their fight fora beamed to "Delias, Oa territory which tba corrupt British imperialists erroneously call Britishighly inflammatory commest, usuallyingle theme, la ready alternately in Spanish and in English by two aauouacere, with music setting off the differentaction a. The half-hour program la broadcast three times weekly.

Dj Comment aad SscsCBtlsos.

broadcasts directed to the knosm listening audiencea useful psychological waapoa against Communism aadOar ta ma la. This la aa audience, however, which ie alreadydivided lata these who already fear aad distrust communismas who are either caatvinced communists cr who accept tha thesisAr hems Government thot communism in Guatemalaecalunder domination af foreign, specifically Soviet, cemmuaiate.

propaganda should be directed toward:

a. Disproving the government's claim ta tha above affect withfactual informationi (manufactured evidence la not necessary la thla ease aa there ia plenty af factual evidence)

h. Dlecr editing intellectuale who have fallen for tholnei

C. Warning intellectuals who may be USod by Communistsi

d. Citingnd praising intellectuals who have refused ta be aaad by the Cemmaniatai

a. Dlecr editing tha government oa grounds ofarticularly for lta folly la allowing Itself to hs duped, deceived and trapped la it. present unfavorable international situation by agents af international communism, sent to Oust* me la from ether countries far precisely that par pose)

f. Building up the idea that there la no advantage in supporting this government which has already sat its course toward inevitable destruction] the Communists will not let saything survive which they cannot dominate, once thay haveosition of any Influencehis truth can bo shown by tracing tha history of the Communists ineal ah Republic aad after tho Civil War: they brobo up aad destroyed ail moderate leftist groups, betrayed every collaborator whom thay could net ahaorb. Thay have daas tha same thing to tha Spanish Circuleo in Guatemala. Mexico. Cuba. (There Is abundant ovideaoe oa this subject) lt might he used to offset tha time given by tha official Guatemalan radio to Spanish Republican affair..)

fU Beoaaahasiaiag the sUcgationi that Col. Araaa was assasslanted (and taken aod of Arboaa' way) solely because of his opposition toinfluence in tha government,

h. Praising the energy of tho new goaeration of Latin American women who nave gone Lata teaching,ut warning against tho false attractions of oxtrensiam.

E. Eetortrdamont Broadcasts to Support Propaganda.

The fallowing program possibilities hava bean developed as though for productions ia series. Although not used serially la the sense ef regular periodic broadcasts,ollected on this basis can ba orgaaised easily, aad caa be asad so as ta gftva an impression of verisimilitude If tha rrUoution is ta operate In tha guiseegular station.

Tha sampHng of possible oatartataaaoat suctorial also has boon selected with tho idea of appealing to tho Later est or taste of potentialOt varying hours of tho day.

*. hareliminary experimental selection of recordings it waa rssaindodes sosa bio approach ta the preblom would ho ta Imagine tho attitude of the owneradio station in Guatemala, should ho howith money aad free entry through customs, which weald allow htm to select recordings la Hew Tor hi ho doubtless would try to satisfy snd flatter the taste of listeners with "goodut at the same time make selections likely to cause them to stay tuned ia if they dialed into the middle of one of his broadcasts by chance or were ragular listeners.

flavor are abundant. None nave been purchased so far, but some might be useful.

Good recordings of classical, semi-classical music by Spanish and Latin American eompossrs as wall ah Russian, German. French, art readily available.

The cost of recordings ls0 for each five to sin hours ef playing rime.

*i Program Suggestions.

1. Russian Composers; Prohofieff aad Shostakovich

- Several Latin American listeners writing ia comments ea US short-wave broadcasts requested works by Borodin aad Tchaikovsky! It caa ba assumed that works by ether Russian cum posers weald ha appreciated.

Presentations of the music ef ProkoAeff and Shostakovich, with biographical notes interpolated, wouldine vehicle for propaganda bitting at the theme of Soviet enslavement ef artists. The experiences of Prohofieff and Shostakovich provide vivid illustratleae of the political repression aad exploitation of even Russia's greatest musicians under Soviet rale.

Americans, especially students aad pro-

fessors, take their culture seriously. Mast Latin Americans lava poetry aad these uma don't lava It respect if. Tha Communist intellectuals have taken great advantage ef Oris special predileetiea by exploiting tha talent of Pablo Norada aad other poets who have loa* their art to the Communist


tt might be possible to capitallae oa this interest ta got listeners and at tha same time draw attention away from tho Communistood criticism of literary deterioration of some of the poets and writers who have prostituted their art to Communism might be prepared, possesses an example la Otto Raul Letvu. Ana Louise Strong


Interviewed (and praised) him recently. Now the orthodox Communists say sheYankee spy"ib una Popular..ine example of how fast sn Intellectual or poet can rise and fall on the perfidious wings of Soviet politico-literary fame.

Sample recordingeautiful treatment of poems of Garcia Lores with musical background; intended for illustration of technique only, not far broadcast, aa tha poet la identified with the extreme left of the Spanish Republic.

eligious appeal, Th* Catholic Church has4 a* "Marianear of apocial veneration af the Virgin Mary, and has proclaimed certain indulgences In thin connection. Programs dedicated to the religious patronesses and moat famous manifestations of tha Virgin fat tha Latin American countries haa goad possibilities fat this connect!on.

Religious music interspersed with historical sad legeadary material on this subject can ba provided.

Other aerlee: (a) Music of famcue citiesi (b) Ua|yar*ltle* of the World; (e) Polk music of the world; (d) 8panlsh Bar sue la s| omposerith selections of the works and biographical notes on tha old master a.

Original document.

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