ORGANIZATION AND TURNOVER SECTION OF SOVIET RETAIL TRADE 1948-52 (RR PR-46)

Created: 1/26/1954

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movrsjoJiAL iBTEU.rcacs report

ORGANIZATION AMD TURNOVER SECTION rfc" SOVIET RETAIL TRADE

CJA/RROPR Project 4

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE IN?

Hpyics

The data and conclusions contained ia this report do not necessarily represent the final position of ORR and should be regaraed as provisional only and subject to revision Lcmmnta and additional data vhich my be available to tbe user are solicited.

2rWITtD SIATES HITarB TBE MZAIIilJCHE BSK-CBPGE LA!/

HICH IS AHY HASHER TO AW LMlfflOBKED FSRSOfl IfiSY

AL iHTEaiCSHCB AGENCY Office of Research and Reports

CONFIDENTIAL-

NO CHANGSECLASSIFIE CLASS. CH

AUTN; MR DATE:

t

.

This report covers types, numbers, distribution, and organization of legal retail outlets, the ratio of the numbers of these outlets to the labor force, and the sales to the population, ft excludes prices, size of outlets, numbers end training of employees, and all aspects of tte functioning of the retail trade system. Although the sain emphasis"is on the, occasional references for tne sake of comparison

^ ^ 0 0

ihe report takes into consideration oil data available on the subjects covered as

The purpose of this report is to provide an Introduction to the features of the Soviet retail tradentior.ed above. Although the report is provisional, it is hoped tnat it wille dssljormal reportater date and. In any case, provide data of assistance In evaluating the level of consumption of the average Soviet worker and in suggesting future trends In retail trade.

This report represents one partarger project- Other parts dealing respectively with retail trade in textile consumers' goods, iooa supplies, and household goods will follow later. > uT^

tag

Pimbbvj -

1 -

II' irf.^it. offcl". ZTVi.-

A Masslfl -alior. ot

on

I fstry cf Trade .

a. Main

h Typical, .org ^torer.

C. PublickVCutorrk

Outletr under thcaf

2 alc OutletsoU>cr

' end Vi-^enaby . OrgawtlsYtion of Consuasrt' CoOBCTflAlft

Characteristics - .

etail jo

c of SuclaltUtloa and

oreiste nod

' "rade

Crganlxvtlat of Tree" Outlet* Kolfchiw

wudbers of -etatl

A tuatlon .

f. i).V

I Allrading FnU-i

J Atats' 1

J T'otil huAber ofers'adl;^,

Botarprj vrs . . *

k . .

5 fpeelalirederprlBes . .

6. Rotio ofulets to tbe Labor Force, .

C Significance

rv Sales to tbe Population <

A. Introduction. .

Official Concepts

Limitations

Total Sales0.

1. Estimated Total Retail .rede Turnover .

. . Retail Trade Turnover Breakdown by Channel. .

of State and Cooperative Retail Turnover

at the Expense of tierket .

a Compered lo Plan

per .

1- Limitations

Per Capita Sales Trends for the 'J.-iole tabor

3- Per Capita Sales Trends for tne Agricultural BEQ

and Hocagrlcu!tarai labor force. -

V- General

Append Ixri;

Appendix A .

Appendix Gape In Intelllcence

Sourceu and Evaluation of Source

-IA/RR

ORCAW'XATiOlv ASPXjT: yiN OF SOVIET7WJ>p>

:ORK Pr.Ject

Soviet trade at present is carried "ii ty three main systems: the state, the cooperative, and tile kolknor. Within the state trading ayste.ii the Ministry ofas by far the largest number of retail outlets,ignificant nuisbero .nd strial andinistries and departments. The cooperative trading network is ad-ninistered by three groups toe Consumers' Cooperatives, which nave the great majority of tnc trading enterprises^ the industrialand theveratives. The fcolkhux trading systex. consists of mrkets, bazaars, and fairs.

The over-all supervision of Sjviet tradearried out by the mgnest executive and ad-olnistratlve ^rgan of the slate, tnc Council of Ministers of tnc USSR. Tne Ministry of ?rade, however, is the main government planning and administrative agency in the entireetail trade, and, in addition, it isdi'vis.sir.kolkhoz trade. Thc retail outlets of tueooperative; ays ton are administered bye Central Union ofCooperatives. Xn the state and cooperative trading network the stale establishes prices accordinglanned system for the mjorlty of goods sold, whereas in the kolkhoz market prices arehat Is, determined by supply and de:nand.

The total number of state and coupe ratlins retail Outlets, which wasas reduced by abxjl one-naife war, but9 tne total exceeded the prewar level, reaching

- This report containsilable ssay Although the Ministry of Trade of thc USSR was merged in Marchthe Ministry cf Foreign Trade of the USSRrvi uu. Ministryand External Trade, this .larger was dissolvednd the earlier arrangement of seperatsnheanother for Foreign Tradere-estabiisned. Anuthei- reasonthe earlier none ,as is the case

tne report is concerned only with the period up thrcu;jh

Tte wtert ccoiUuad of **

Of th* itftta ar urban tradkater was,wpnlt,nf .be rooperetiva ir prlftttriiyfading net--Flelotiv. toite. t'XSip lov-ever, th*utletsecline ofercent fro* "oln>daaLinCbjoat Market) vim regardioo waaa it had beenet}

outlets thujinnraarlulliw al lAbor tonal and am less wall

with such enterprise* than It. had1

2 the volf sales* to the population by theooperative networksercent above th? figurehe corresponding increase In suiea per eaplta labor force of those networks beingercent, the pu-aoi'a oalea to the nonagrleullura) axd to the agricultural segments ofanor force, which was highad not appreciably narrower Xnoraaaes27 stem eveu Kreater thenirereofes tn volume, and considerlag the state and cooperative systems alone, tbey woreercent for totalivj lyfor par capita sales to labor force.

Inasmuch ae the uverag? annua) BcYlet wage hat beta Rlovl- ris|.r|* and lnasujch as it la known to have been tugbe"c toaahe general significance of toese findings appears ir,ollowBi (ij the level of aonmuaptiOD of the average Sovlarose steadily during the postwar years and atdxceeded the level'he disparity betwee- kae level

5 oi^calea, In this rep-jit, refers to sales aeasurid inrublesthat is, saler, whoso value ln current rubles has been adjusted to take account of price changes.

For statementsage trends6 -Aten appear bar* and ln other places in this report,A./RRhylet Wages,i-Differentials, C. Eval..

. Yhig statement mast be Interpreted eauti'iuely. Sot coct Is based upon flgurea for volume per capita derived byales volume by nu-noore in tbe labor force nl.ine end hot the in tire population. For another thing, it throws no light, on the two important, questions of how evenly tbe riseevel ofvat> (Ua^rtbtttmdhe major cor-ouacr grjups Intoopulatlcrbole divideshe major wants into which the Individual's OVar-Oll demand in broken down (food, clothing,tc}- s possible androbable tnat favoredx-j, theike party workers, tbe eaisgerlal clash,enefited olspropo'i 'v-eetely. It Is poaalble and even probable thatemiiuxunet. highly-fabricated Industrialroseaster rate ibur.ol conauiaptiunnoie,s of too'"'lotning. rate ' These are matters wM-i, vtilr well 4ei.erv.mt of Inves tisbtxinn, hsv for reason of keeping thio rmport within .wmageable limitseen excluded from the dis'-UHlon.

ei consumption of lluultural and hOnh-rlcuiturelof tae ifttor force, mlci strongly favored then IW',n

Art additional concluolon of cor.elderel r UW future is that 'he nuBSionn appear io the period [Mentioned to have besn "ifiv.ing slow but certain progress toward taelr eventuel ^oal ofation of the entire retail trade sector ofconomy. Prospects are good tnatrade will continue to expand a; the expense of toe othur two trading systems, and ll is even possible that Itsf tXjMMlcn will accelerate in future years.

I Introduction-

Soviet trade at present Is carriedy tnree .rain syatoiiS! tate, the cooperative, and Iheast- lo the elate and cooperative trading oetv^rk, the state asshea prices aceo.d'.nglanned aysten for the 'Majority of, urtsrsas in tnc kolkhoz market* prices are "free" that is, determined by supply and demand. All retail sales to individual state und cooperative trad" enterprises, thc procurement of agricultural and Industrial coxmcdlties by state and cooperative enterprises, and all wholesale trade conatltuls the organized market. Tha kolkhoz market ic known as the unorgeni-cd market.

* Footnote references la srabtcon* to sources listed in Appendix C.

When reference Is .wde in mis report to the fact that the eyste is not completelywhat is meant it thst Uiere stillprivate property plo* some rln>i. Loprnduen privately.

According to Karxist-Lenlnlat theory, tne existence of car.-aerc.al trade, or the exchange of goods for money, and the tnree Soviet trading syetexs are eadc necessary by the conditions of the present socialist stage of society. At present tne socialization of urban industry and tne urban proletariat Is virtually complete, -herees agriculture and tbe peasantry areess advanced stag.- Althoughtart toward the socialization of the cc-ntryslde, do spite iiavlet claims, some progress remains to be videa! iztug rurnl areas. In view of the disparity between tnc degree of so-:isl Izatioa of urban and of rural areas, commercial trade it toleratedwuiv of strengthening the economic bonds between city and country.

Withintrade, the nlstWM ol' the cooperativeaide by side wltn that ofsoxpr.'esloi *socialization of the peasantry, Xt Ic pamltied bemusea good ce&rs ofollectlve orgaol:atl.io reason for the existence ot tbe

trading eyeten is that it is considered desirableans of'uxnpetitictr9 with Uie state trading organizations and eauaing consequent laproveoent of tbe service of bctn V Tbe kolkhoc asrket le tolerated partlyeans of providing tie backward peasant!with an incentive for increasing agricultural production.

Eventually, however, when rommuiism Is finally attained and Uto peasants and the industrial proletariat are equally Integratedlanned eeonojiy, comnerclal trade will no longer be accessary aoc vlll be replacedystem of direct exchange of goods. As the 'JSSfr advanee* on tne road to coavnunletn, the disparity between town and country will disappear and all trading organizations will mergebe control of the state, lo anticipation of tbe tise when,be state also withers away and direct exchange of goods is

*

Curing the period fro* Just? up7 the relative importance of three Soviet trading systeno has ohovn ciosideruble variation, ln ezarist tiaes, Russia's small and generally retail network was largely privately operated. Peasant oarkatr, as well as asall etoreo and pack peddlem, existed to serve tne ruralTn addition, some trading was carried on by the fairly nuacrousorganizations-

After the Otobor revolution, tbe field of uction of private and also cooperative trade constricted steadily and,ecree ofrade was nationalized. This decree provided for tbe setting upetwork of state stores and distribution centers and state-controlled cooperative storesiew to the supply of all consumer goods on the basisation cord systea. Involving class differentiation. 'i*ia rationing system continued At that tiM,ueult of general discontent, it was replaced by the HEP. an SOCflOnlC oyster -hich perai'.led the coexistence of state, private, and cooperative trad?

The HEP period continuedhen onceoncerted drive win,lc to suppress private trade. esult ofrationing systea wnicn was Introduced In that year and which supplied goods in aifferentlcl quantities to different "aUiRones of tho pooulatioo. variouseuch as OBS (Otdeler.ia! n! tDijUi llrilI of Supply for Workers for the workers cf industrial Ministries, were Get up to cope with the problems of supplying the variour classes of lOfl-su'sorh. Industrial workers. pxasudaaatly tAOM eaiployed in heavy Industry

c'-gfetit^iCT;d ln asense aid does not include price ecinjK-tTHofi

.soeived the beet rations in regarj to both quantity and'"Joil:uhicti USB ol9Corganized on thenc.ple,ubstantial oidiL'oo to the rationedvf fodstuffs for tne urban and Industrial copulation, ombatrade and to aUmulaieeduction, the boviet government legalized the free sale of agricultural products on the peasant markets, -which were tnoreafter caLled kolkhoz markets, ana the third chonaei of legal Soviet trace, es presently constituted, cot* into being.

During the rationingew type of retail tradingwas introduced, the "commercial" stores, which soldof rationed necessities at hign prices. Commercialthose categories of Vie population vnlch did cotespecially the agricultural population, and served as ansurplus incomes. They alsoaeons for prsparing forof rationing, which canelose in January IQ36 by a increase In the range and quality of goode sold throughby an increase

At the start of the rationing period, by far the largest distri-butive system was the Consumers' Cooperatives. Later, stateDCre"ed aQd eventually6 entirely superseded the Consumers' Cooperatives in all large urban centers.

During the wartime rationing period, which began in July lot;

It ai1 Wished. ORS's were organized In the majority of enterprises in all Jie most Important branches cf industry, and public feeding was extended. Commercial stores were reintroducednd were used

period.. The free kolkhoz

market continued to exist.

in the postwart appeared that thee co se allowed to supplement the state trading system, U6 tneperatives were permitted to eelablm,retailin uT-ban

surprises of the Consume.'

cooperatives, the cooperative syatem with the most extensive retail net-

e ccns^CB' cooperative trading system today

aideto the country-

Curing the period7 to the present, the state trading ante* uaa retrsnensd wnen aeirtuiona made It necessary, but in gewrai it nao raareged t; expand atexpert of the other system. vcr

during thoasxpedient, to reatorfl trade s the state and cooperative system* brewefficient to handle the oeeda of. owever, pr<

goodsii are

wo* again suppressed kolkhoztlll permitted share of total trade turnover le relatively small, andnly loose In exeeee of state requirements When ihe kolkhoz .it referred to ust war* teat prices are not fixedignei authority as they ere in the ctr.er two major cnancela not mean tnat there are no restriction. On the contrary,any. Among others, there are state control jf sanitation, prcliiMtiOfl of speculation, and oven the Indirect control of prices result.rg 'Vua the power to set the prices ln the other aarkete. owardle end of the peacetime rationing period, tae stale system made gre*'. gains at the exponse of the cooperative network by confining the aooperevives to rural arcus and absorbing their urban outlets. When vnrtiiK' destruction of state trading enterprises made it difficult to supply the population, thc fonsuaera' Cooperativesln> trade in urban area*. Three years later, however,i tne largest cooperative trading ays ten, theooperatives, was apporantly again restricted to rural areas and the total cooperativeig Mt-vork was consequently reduced. Thus, it ap.esrs teat in retail trad* as in other sectors of the economy, the Soviet government, inwith Marxist-Leninist theory, is making tne transition to Corumimjni through the gradual extension of state control.

Tbe remaining sections of tale rsport treat tneo" aa. are devotedwre intensive study of tne outstanding feature* of the systea as tbey are today and as they have developed during the5 years.

II. Organization of the Retail Trade Systec.

A. Clasnifloatlon of Outlets.

Ofajee tradiug systems, state traded ecce. forimes as .such of tttal retail turnover as ire cooperative system and roughlyimed as ;pucr, ui the kolkhozble In the state and cooperative tradingeats, in addition to stores, shops, booths, and stalls, retail outlets include mobile trading units (handcarts, blcyelea.heieas in the kolkhoz mariielc trading is carried on JQl* Irta stationary structures, that Is,hops,r stalls iic*

ollows onelov.ollows on p.

tail CnitletB tn -I

A. Tftose run by tne Mii.lBUy of ami.-.

serving the general public.

ft.. ^specialized; model department stores; viiiivermagfc;

Gectronom, Eskaleya, second-hand mores; Soyuzoocyultorp

.'mail-order Specialized; dlng enterprises, food stores and industrial goods stores (jewelry, flowing, ruxoituie,

end so forth.)

serving particular groups such as the armed forces

he population of health resorts,and caritime transport.

Those run by other ministries and departments of goveriwt-nt*.

serving the renernl public; for example, meat and

dairy stores of Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, and so forth- (See 'fableelow for full

serving the personnel of the ministry.- (CSS,

Prodsnab).

g-operative

A. Those run by Consumers' Cooperative-p.

I. ose serving the general public,

a. Uns^ciailittJi Kaymafc, Sci'mag, Sel 'po ancps,stores-

b- Specialized- public feeding enterprises; fo-xl stores, twine and tobacco otoreal-ond industrial goods storestores'

he rootnete farollows <i< c- fl, ahlsollows on c.

2. Those serving particular groups; far -example, fiiUrlr.apG, Bovkhoa vorkora, ana bo forth,

Those rur by Industrial Cooperative*1, principally fnaoa. trial {code and repair stores serving general public.

C. Thonc run by Invalids' Cooperatives: principally feedndustrial gooda stores sorving general public.

ill. "free"

A- Kolkhoz markets, bazaars, fairs sell log, agricultural prtducia to tne general public.

a. .lue labTe excludes the black market;tletp such asores run by the Army Bunting Society arJ theociety for the sale Of spjrts goods and hunting ceuw-nent; and eertalo0 icftftar in existence In theuch aa the "comereial" stores, vhlch sold the studs consumers' goods as the rnllon stores but without ration coupons and at bigter prices- Theof cutlets shewn, although based on toose found in SovietS not follow them in sll details.

uithin tlw state trading system retail trade isr either- Ministry of Tinea, which in IV1aeeeur.tcdiv ani cooperative retailr D* mriOual industrial and ulfflr air-istr its and dconrtceots, whichpclber in tr-at jenrotal ofercent.iu the trading iwww'r. of the Ministry of Trade, retail outlets, may be divided into those wrserv? tlr* gt-neral public and those which ner"i!lar groipi'i i'he principal retail outlets serving particular group*the filavivit orttorg ktOHi for toe po^ilatloo ol health resorts; 'hi- for is.Vrooc and maritime transport vomers! awi Oa- Glavvoyei: tor.'S for officials,nd Soldier? ofimed foveas and'uaillii'f,.

tfitfclr ibq ne.'wivk 'Ac XI; intry Lu

UtirflA bwluosoa or detieet.. the

lsrgaM ini carry Uai wMiuuwlmi of roodths country;et* areuw

iities; store rand II rig tola food industrial gooda; fuvl uiispeeIndua'-r'-sl rtoyda stores. oiig tne uuapee ihl Iindustrial goods cutletsieeut store* wr.rc

o the basin of crn: cr city, cciait, or largenter; thetore* (ccecitaslvx, *t'.res lit-pha-nd Um Soyutpcsyltcrg, oroffice

Specialized retail outlets of Ua Mflatry JraSe inciulnspecialized fovdpecialised Ladu* trial nrcd*aeti

and public feeding enterprises,nsince in Soviet ncsountlug theyreatedeparates,trading enterprise^ r-i9iii stock tof cerinln tyr>es fiwut, ftsn; andit carry only roader line if foodstuffs Specialized in-Ausstores carry an asserta Ling r yf jcultural grou,a,, clothing armvail as intoinatiors atotewthe nolo groups, and otaer variations lOO BUsWOUt to aent cm.wide range of typen Off tne Mffilatrv of Trade Iethe fact that7 the KlnLstry apprwwd lypes or citypecialized types,highly Ipte'. oli-zedbeveragestypes. *n

tne field of nonfood products,ypes of stores were approved,Public feeding enterprises sell meals end raf reeboenta to the population and include factory kitchens, fining rcori, restaurants, eoffM h- use*, snack counters, and baar

Industrie: airtiniatrfe* and depart - o'.so edalnlsur retail ullets ese outlets my be div.leA intoctM

publice servingjupa. Th* storesare tlioee wt.ose naif)fc U

durted by theor by outerosaly asi;ocl.a'.fd *l'ihserving the general publ I*aaslfied asapectallzcd. The uns.eetallsed stores 'ire tnoae of ministriesIndustry of union republics,ixed asWOrUMtprM-?e1 in local iniustrlaland rre Ue?mt*a1 ir.vr Ir.i^toj

nreas. Bpeclallaad store* 'cclvdealoreadtistrial ainistrles,l ^rcd^ti^iu*lstry's

* tjru^ke is derlvadhe Huaslar, phrase dkuukalthe

/

andiled "company" or "firm" *tores IIB*roducts storese Hlul*try of Cfcemle*: .riuslry. (Bee T'blehese storesn Large cities- Vn addition, Ulrre sr* certain apsciallred atoren of nonlndustriel ainigjtrlfli anducti as the drug and sanitary equipment stores uf the Hinletry at Heal to.. i'$ee Table 2^

The store* nerving particular groups are those of.1

Frodanab {foodstuffs supply organizations; wt.ose jwln purposethe employee* of the industrial iiinletry to

attached with food and industrial goods. , ORS enterprise* accounted forercent of all retail trade turnover, whereas Pilcft are apparently Halted to the supply of workers la certain branches of nonferrou* metallurgy, accounted on Insignificant >cr-ceotage of the

Table 2

Special Ucd jltores of Industrial and Nonlndu*lrltil Ministries and

rroducts Soli

and bakery prod-Ktr..canned goods, tobacco and wine, perfuce

and Dairy Industry a/

and dairy produces

Industry a/ Light Industry a/

h

textiles, shoe*,Knitwear, glass dWh-s

Industry

jTOOMOU

ftjou-

cewlngypewriteelo-:k*

and Tractor Industry

a. taster-ice, bi-iyrl*.-

Footnotes forollow oi.

Sold

end Paper industry c/ Electrical industry b/ Machine-Tool juing c/ Health

fUrDlture and nibLl.inary electrical goons household toolsnd safiilwy equipment

news toads for the sale of newspapers, periodicals, stationary

Services in the Union Republics

repair snd building ntaterUU

Administrate on of Polygraphic Industry, Publishing and book TradeCouncil of Ministers,/

trusts of local city executive coram!ttees

boos*

flowers

Tnese 't ministries were merged intoindustry following tne govern, jntal recreant letter, ofnd. consequently, their respective stores are nowheadningle sinictry.

b. mnlstries nave beer, nerged into thc Mir.la'.ryectri-Statlons and Electric Industry since

e. inistries have been nerg'd into the Kir.lMrychlne Coo-structlcn since

d. The Main Administration of Polygraph- Irdustry bW been surged into the ocw Ministry of Culturr

The ooopc-rutlve trading systemadministered by Uif Conmners' Cooperatives, thecoperaiives, andval ids oopani-tlves. In the postwar per lod.Csccumei *' accovifor nine-tenths of the total retail turnover ot cooperative tiede. Tie Industrial Cooperatives maintainoas stores, repairtailor shops, and beauty parlors The invalids' hooper* ti vet maintain food and Industrial goods stores. It/

Theooperative trading system may be divided into outlets serving tbe general public and those serving particular groups, such as fishermen and sovkhoz workers. Stores serving the general public may be classified as unipeclalIzcd or specialized. Unspeclollzed stores Include: heayoo department store, tradingide variety of Industrial goodsayonhetore whlci is opened ln large villages at bazaar points and tradeside variety of clothing and household articles: ill the'po shop (Selaky Potrebltelsky Kooperatlvruralociety which is found In sparsely populated areas and sells dally needs .'Halt, kerosene, aoap, and so forth);the sain Sel'po shop, whichound In very large villages and tradesarge assortment of foodstuffs and Industrialecondhand stores In small cities *nd large rayon centers, where the Ministry of Trade does not have It* own retail network;ayunlvermag, rayon Industrial products departmentwhich handle all the basic groups of nonfood product*omplex aaeortmeut

Specialized outlets of the Consuoere' Cooperative system include: ;i) raykul'Uoag, rayoo cultural goodsaberdashery andstores ln rayon centers and Largehozmng, paint und hardware stores;ine and tobacco stores, which are found in large rayon centers;ublic feeding

The remaining trading Bystem, the kolkhoz market, including bazaars and fairs, la the one completely free market in the USSR. There, at free market prices, kclknozcs, kolkhoz farmers, and Independent farmers sell agricultural products in excest of state requlrcaents; Individual citizens sell their own possessions; and imndic raftsmen sell their own works, in addition, state and cooperative organizations sell industrial products at state and cooperative prices.

Kolkhoz markets carry on trade daily and arewrl ir: cities where land and equipment is allotted for thcx Kolkho; bnznart are held usually one* or twiceweek In areaspart for trade,erc are no per.wtnent structures and aroduet la Ma-played on the street. Kolkhoz fairs are held one* orjar during the time froe from field work for the mass sale cf agricultural

Qf8tlol*at'.on .aftd^Coajrol

The over-all supervision cf Soviet trade* lc narrl'sd out by eh* highest executive and administrative ergon cfheinisters of the 'JSSP. This body approve* ihe plans for roaaodlty Uirnovari distribution of central stceka ofgoods, prices on basic coartodltlen, and the structure of tradend gives dlretlives concerning the basic problems of Soviet trade.

The Ministry of frade, however, is the main government planning and administrative agency ln tbe field of retail trade. Subject to the approval of the Couuell of Hlnlitere and thc State Planning Commission, the Ministry of Trade, among other things, draws up plans fo; the development of wholesale and retail trade and public feeding, the total trade turnover of goods, and the distribution and supply of consumers' goods; sets retail prices and the amounts of permissible price cuts and markups on consumers' goods; draws up trade legislation and rules of trade; analyses market conditions; and undertakes statistical accounting of commodity turnover and in addition, tbe Ministry of Trade manages about one-half of all retail trade in the USSR and has the largest retail trade network of any single trading system. The Ministry administers the retail enterprises under Its control either through Its Local organizational subdivisions or directly through certain main administrations and All-Unlon state offices.

I. Organization of the Ministry of Trade.**

a. Main Subdivisions.

The organization described Is that which existed before the recent merging of the Ministry of Trade of the USSR and the Ministry of Foreign Trade of tbe USSR Into the UrSSR Ministry of Internal and External The Ministry of Tradenion Republic Ministry with headquarters In Moscow. Subordinate to it ore Ministries of Trade on the republic level, which are also responsible to the council of Ministers of tne corresponding republics. Similarly, the organs of tbe Ministry on the oblast (or kray) level axe also accountable to the oblast divisions of the Soviets of workers' deputies. Subordinate to tho oblast for kray) divisions of tne Ministry are urban divisions and their local trade organizations (torgil and local enterprises (retell outlets and public feeding units).

Tne organizational structure of the Ministry alsocertain main administrations and All-Union state offices, which have their own enterprises. The inain administrations are primarily of two typea: (l) those concerned with setting up and managing model stores

"ljure l,

specialised or unlveraal cooralrating thoi

trade orgnnitetlona whin serve Individualf conauaers

Among theruup are CIavgaBtroncwtrat'.co of Model Delicatessen and Groeeryhlcnaatronom and Bakaleya food stores (described in previousain AdaloiBtration of Model Depsrt^nt Stores for the Sale of Induatrlalhich manages large deparUent store* in ic-Important cities, and Clavyuvellrtorg 'Main Administration for Jewelry Production andhicn controla all Jewelry factorlee And the network of retail stores selling Jewelry and watcnea.

i

The second group Includes Clawoyentorg (Malr Adraiii-stratlon of Trading Enterprleee for the Soviet ArmedtUh manages the acttvltlea of military dlatriet trading organizations andide network of enterprises for public service; Clavtorgmort.ran* fMain Administration of Maritimehich organizes trade Inand serves passengers on seagoing ships; and GLavkurorttorg (Main Administration for Trade in Healthhich supplies lood products to senatortuna and rest homes and carries on retail trade it food and Induetrlel good* lo health resort areas of All-Onion Importance. 2j/ The offices of these main administrations have under the* not *ily networks of trade enterprises but also focd-aupplyioR enterprises, auxiliary faras, workshops for the manufacture of clothing and footwear, and repair shops. Tbe Ministry include* tit following additional eels adalolstratlcce: Clavtorgplodoovosbcn (Main Ad-nlnlatratlon for the Procurement and Sale of *rulta andaleh supervises trusts and offices in the procurement, processing, and sales of vegetables; Clavtorgoash (Main Administration for UM Production of Commercialndhich la In charge of plant* producing machines to be used in trade; and Glavsnab [Main Administration of Productionhich supplies tia-ilrw organizations with trade equipment and special clothing.

The All-Union state offices, wnion uavs their own enterprises, are lioyuzoptgalantereya, Soyuzoptoetiilorg, aivl

SoyuzopUul 'ttorg.rganizations are engaged in whole-lie trade in haberdashery, knitted and aewn gocds, furs, and carpets; wtal jrc-

duetSj and stationery and cultural goods,

The local torg (trading enterprise) it th* mainil sale* unit of the Ministry of Trade Tcrgi usually direct aof storesarticular city or locality, whicha specified group of products and eupply the aain bulk of necessities to moatoosu.aera. Tx-rgl are classified accordingdslnlstrailve-

-he available Information does not indicate shatter tnes of fee* All.llnlon office* Include retail outlet*

gccret

of 5TATE and consumers' cooperative trade w

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

ojvmio* ai*vmcuwi oc

oiiiw of bt ma

3*wjci

COraiWK*il>aitn;

.tie*

Mil fa*>

uMOU

i>iu

win it urn* of iDHi run

HFl'.i. WH HO IX HID HI

(IIP!

cflttl'. *I0

iMn nam

owl!

wt yai Mil

MENS, fUJFS

("Mttfil

Kin iiiryrin Cf

V

1

ems.nn

Km

OOfl'Htfl

ntvitn

.

r.ui

i:

lIlt'-ilLlll

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organization of the ministry of trade

OF TRADE OF THE USSR

MINISTRY Of THAOf WHOM "VUtUCt

r

KUROftTTORa I

AOVlWSTMtlOW'

roe RfTAH. nuot ciAvroes

OF THE i

WUTARY

T

or net

j

J mom j Tom J an J ow

1 i

territorial liaiu: In wti<:fi tcey can profitably carry ur trade, lepeuli on the density of ire populat oij in the area they serve. POThere are torgi woitfnrade operaU-ns within the Licit*republic, within so ctioat,groupithin city Halts, rf'.thln several rayonsnd withinIty rayon.

n

Torgl are further -Tlaaalficd according to the type of goods In which they deal. There arelaneoua torgl whichoodstuff* and Industrial goods and usually operate in small citiesit leto divide trade activities tetveen two cr ,norerganizations- In larger cltiea there arc specialized torgl (ProntorgL

and Pishcbetorgi; wblci deal ia Indualrtal goods and foodstuffs, respectively. Za very large cities, such as Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, and Baku, specialization la carried etill further. There are bread torgl

ruit and vegetable torglnd torgi

for the sale of cultural goods25/

A torg has several staff divisions, namely: Management (Director, Deputy, and Legal Adviser,', Organization-Inspection, Trade, Industrial Enterprises, Planning, Eookkeeplng, Cadres, and Administration. Of these divisions the Trade Division Is tbe most important. It orKamzeo tha purchase of goods and supplies for the retail enterprises under tnc control of the torg and aaintaine warehouses for this purpose.

In addition to managing retail enterprises and warehouses, local torgi control subsidiary agricultural enterprises, such as kitchen gardensdairy and livestock farms. Tbey also organize the production of consumers' goods (nonalcoholic beverages, ice cream, confection-ry and sausages', from local raw

h Typical Torg Stores-

The retail shops belongingorg fall Into two csie-gorie.- j large uutonomous shops, having their awr. Independent budgets,edlt direct fron the hank andair I* large decree of Initiative In -ontrsr.ting for supplies; and mall shops or ever, booths and stalln directly managed ir detail by the ttrg. 'ft* bead of an autuoomcus stop is terael the 1irertor, andmall shop, the Manager JjJ

Stores and shops are differentiated from stalls nrn tie baais of having roonc in which custcicre can walki- 2jJ/ Stores ore,ule, on the ground floors of aporbVsYU of SSajTstorlss. Stall* are generally used to carry on trad* In thinly populatedcities, workmen's settlements, andural

,. v?ical tcrg store it designed Wthe ordinary urban population and is supposedly locatedonvenient joint t'or tne greatest mister of eonsueere lor example, the foodi bread, swot, groceries, and vegetables from separate eepartaenia o'n the smallerrom different ports of the sane counter, industrial goodstock textiles, clothing, and boots. Where there are large concentrations of industrial workers, specialized torg shops exist for the sale of clothing, footwear, or furniture. Another type of torg univermag Is often located ln the Immediate neignborhood of the peasant market for the convenience of the peasants bringing pro-

Torg shops selling nonfood manufactured goods inlarge cities normally are open. to. on 6ofay The food shops are open fro*. with the exception or the hour.are cloced forthe urban area of

possibly in other lesser cities in the USSR, the smaller food stores are open.he larger food stores between. andnd restaurants (alcoholic drinks available) between Restaurants and other public feeding enterprises *ork sll the days of toe

C. Publictvork.

'-- State Outlets under the Ministry of trade.

T^art offeeding network is controlled by the Ministry of Trade, although the 3RS system, Prcdsnaby, and the Industrial,nd Consumers' Cooperatives alsoor-cider-ible nuaber of :iuhllc feeding enterprises

Uje orgonize-tlonol structure of the Ministry ofe or-r.lStratlon of Public Feeding, whichof the entire public feeding system- ddition,loeeilete supervision of tbe Mini, try of

enterprises

rnese are specialized as to lotion or oc upttloaal groups served w>

f the twoi.aA-ai-.iEtrntioa

rT&SttZLTS0et5oRM-agUvrestoran (Moscowo occupat'.ootil

group served is- GUvvoyentorg (deccribedhich manages some public tee&M^ enterprises for military personnel .widnd ilea.

Those male Bdralnistrationa,irve both general locations andoccupational group-; are CInvdorraaWren Vu<yJ VMair. Administration ui railroad Lunch counters ind KestAurunu ofJest snd tbe Berth)

oaA Ci-ivoorrft-urac Voaiokn .Wain Administration c

Clw kurarUorg feadir* ^vrW -

t-Hi. Of iwcltu

rUnUtry Of Irmlt airej

its unionuhlant, kray, and city ministerial oraiinWi aJilc-i ft aeotore lv read Hit; ulfilment, bynd otter orgaaitalleuhwvf public feedingf urdcra oi thefxfeeding. -These sectoris fjr reduction o:uper-vlso the sanitary eoraUiiona of public feeding enterprises, awl alffborattveO method* ofpopulation

a. toree.

l<Yie retailn are attached to Industrial end other ministries and depertaent* carrying on retail trade are subordlne t* on the highest level to their respectivery which in eome oaans if of the All-Unlon and ir. others of thc union republic level. Oeece.tg'.ne me edaLnlstratlve pyramid, the atorea ore accountable to main Industrialieiratlona and. finally to trur-ta, combines, and market offl*:ea Unlike the organization of tbe Ministry of Trade, tbe industrial rlcl*tries do not have torgl among the divisions rakingir structure

b d lVclsnaby.

An OS.'- ie sn organization similarepartment within an enterprise Jplait ornd it and Its retail outlets, including public feeding units, are tubordlnale to the directorate of theact-ry, or mine in which Uiey are found. An CPS within an induatrla; enterprlae is headedeputy director for workern' sujply- Tne general- lo eacn bronco of Industry Isutain Administration of Workers' Supplyhlcrhc activity of the OKU entar^riaes either directly ort.ie Administration of Workers' Supply 'UBS!, lo those casestey large number of tne CM and tne complicated administrative structure of tha induotrye an intermediate link An Otf' generallya tradeublic feeding eatabi'lahnci'tr grot: for produOtiOB *ttWrfrtaM (isttludlng auxiliary turn.,^ dppori.xnt, and n

roduction supply) exist for servingmployeesew indue trial branches of some Ministries, stun nickel, copper, and tin industries Ir, the Ministry of (fctallmri -l" industry, they are subordinated directly to tbe Glevura, whirr-,

Uo naa^ontro1 ovor rganizationsn that Ministry. It appears fromabove].

S!fl"U

3 - Organization of Consumers' Cooperative Outlets -a. Principal Characteristics.

n -

Aa the Consumers' Cooperativesonsiderably laraer retail and wholesale trading network than that of the Industrial and Invalids' only the organizational structure sumers' Cooperatives wilTce described in this paper.

of the Consumers' Cooperative system

tne Al po, the rural consumers' society. The Sel'po carries onactivities within the territorial boundsural soviet or of several rural aovleta. In thinly populatedeypo (rayon consumers' society) is formed for the whole rayon- in several small cities, which are not served by the trade network of the Ministry of Trade, city societies (Gorpo) are organized.

onsumers' societies are combined within the Unite of tbe administrative rnyons into rayon unices of consumers' societies. .Raypotrebaoyuay) . There Is further integration into oblast or kray unions (Oblpotrebsoyuzy orepublic unions, and

Consumers' Cooperatives (Teentrosoyut),

The activity of Taentroaoyuz and the entire system of Consumers', na

!SCoo'>er6Uve6 ls supervised by the Main Administration of Industrial and consumers' Coooeratives, which was created innd

t0 mCilMlDi8tersamamong other things, cheeks on the fulfillment by cooperative orgnnUstiooo of the state plans for the development of trade and production of goods, takes waoures for the improvement of quality and wsort-ment ot goods, and coabata corrupt practices ln trade and production. bp/

organs of all sections of Consumer* '

Cooperatives (adftioiatratWe boards of ace ie tie* and unions) areetcrt as follows: in the Sel'po. by general meetings of shareholders,the remaining grou^a, by .Mxigreeaei ofdealed by subordinate groups, 'a* administrative board of thel0 electedongress of authorised representatives of tbe' Cooperatives of the fJS:^.

rieaberpociety mwu t'^lriK-vivitiea. ey contribute shares In aSMMTfta determined! bymeeting inforin of BOOCV deposits hid share fundthe basic source of the a 'po

have from several hundred to weveral thousand aharetlO] ders.

The usual Sal'pohops snd supplies theingle village, but Vbe number of shops varies greatly depending upon the size of the village and its prosperity rge and prosperous Sel'po's usually have their own bakeries, dairies, and siusage-making ent prises andarge staff- Additional functions of the Sel'po may Include purchase of goods from various Industrialuppliers, and the Sel'po may act as agent for its members In selling sur.iluB farm produce to botn cooperative and state ,mrnwising

The higher links in the hierarchy of tho Consumers' Cooperative concentrate on wholesaling functions. The Paypotrebsoyuzy, however, also bave their own stores in rayon centers for tradearge variety of goods- Tsentroeoyuz performs roughly Ihe laaw functions for the Consumers' Cooperatives as the Ministry of Trade does for the corresponding state apparatus. Teentrosoyuz is responsiblethe development of rural cooperativeulfillment of the state plan for procurement and purchase of agricultural products snd raw materials,rganisation ofwn production of "imsumers* goods for side ln rural communities-

b- Typical Retail Outlet.

The typical Sel'po shop usually sells various kinds of foodstuffs; cigarettes; and various articles of clothing, crockery, and ironmongery and is served by one or more full-time employees. in large villages or towns where thererimary industry as well as faraing. the individual shop is more specialized Xt may sellclothing, or goods for the common needs of tha agricultural peasant, in addition, tbe Sel'po may have booths or stalls for tha saleommodities only, such aa bread, firewood, end kerosene. Such small selling points are openoursiiae and often noteek

c' Decree of Socialization and Control.

Altoougn tie Sel'po' are in theory democratic, ln fact tney arc directed by the state ln all essential matters, re governed fairly Dlosaly by the annual economic plant adhereofficial policy in the matters of pricing andrates and cap!to Investment.

Nevertheless, cooperative trade if notrolled as state trade. Heaters of the cooperative anare ir, dlvidVM payaents out of tne prof Ita of the organization, and managerial ins tietive rests with, representatives of the aeabership. Altnough theoperativea are subject to the turnover tax, they axe utusallyower rates than coaparable atate agencies. In addition to regulaMr^ the Consumers' Cooperatives through tae turnover uu, tnepercent profit tax on their operations, but thla la gen-rally lower than the equivalent profit tax rate or. atate industry. hi/

in addition, the Consumers' Cooperative network exerts its own internal oontrols over trade. Tbe inspectors or tne Main Administration for Industrial and Consumers' Cooperatives are authorized to check the work of local cooperative organizations. Por thla purpose, there Is an extensive system of inspectors in republics, krays, and oblaats. In addition, auditing and atore comml.slons whlcn are elected at the general meetings of shareholders supervise the activity of the enterprises of the Btl'po.

a. Jther Forms of Control over State and Cooperative 'JrnA^

foe general economic activity of state and cooperative organizations and enterprises and their fulfillaent of established decreee and Instructions concerning trade are supervised by the Ministry of State Control of tne USSH, by the State Trade Inspectorate of tre Ministry of Trade, and by the State Sanitary Inspectorate of the Ministry of Healtn of the USSR.

The organs of the Ministry of State Control examine the accounts and expenditures of money and materials at the disposal of the state and cooperative trading organizations. The State Tradeof the Mlniatry of Trade has charge of preventing tie use of false weights and measures and tne cheating of consu-rcra, checking on the observance by trade enterprises of established retail prices, and ^on-trailing the fulfillment by trade enterprises of sanitation rules

Tne State Sanitary Inspectorate of the Ministry off the USSR oontrols tne sanitation of food industry enterprisea. trade enterprises, and public feeding units. Sanitary Inspectors onrepublic, kray, oblast, city, and rayon level close stores and warerousea in case of unsanitary conditions, prohibit the sale of food products eon-side red unfit for use, and lopcse fines for violations of esUbllshe rulea of sanitation and ny^leae.

There is alao public control over state and cooperative trade, xfl atate trade, public control is toe responsibility of the trade unions which exercise supervision over shops and public feeding enterprises strive to eliminate malpractices ln trade, and see that customers ere properly served. Public control of an unspecified nature is also carried out by public controllers, who are appointed by the trade union organizations of institutions and enterprises. Another form of public control ia the inspection of the work of trade enterprises, which is carried out by members of the trade commissions of tne local Soviets of workers' deputies.

In tbe CPS units of industrial enterprises, auditing eora-missione, walch are choseneriodear by the general meeting of workers and employees, carry out public control. Their duties' include the audit of OBS activities and tne elimination of violations of trade rules.

5- Organization of "free" OutletsKolkhoz Markets.

Kolkhoz markets are held lo the USSR in various localities, cities, towns and railroad stations. In citiesopulation up0 persons there isarket, where, besides meat, milk, fruit, and other food products, trade ie carried on in cattle, fodder, fuel, and handicraft goods.

In citiesopulation of more0 people there are,ule, several markets. One of the markets usually engages in trade in agricultural products; others trade ln cattle and fodder

According to their construction, city kolkhoz markets are classified as open, covered, or combined. In open markets, trade ie carried on from stalls and froa covered tables. In covered markets, trade is carried on from special buildings. In combined markets, which hove become most prevalent in recent years, trade is carried on from stalls with tables and also In one or several pavillioos..

In the trading premises of markets in large cities Mere are rows of small shops, open stalls, and bare and covered tableB for tbe sale of agricultural products. Most of the saops are rented to collective farmo selling meat, dairy produce, vegetables and fruit. There are alac shops and booths for state and cooperative trade in industrial goods, such as wooden utensils, resdymade clothing, textiles, crockery, orfoodstuffs. Toe kolkhoz workers and Independent peasantsmall space on tables on whicn tney set out their produce.

nf1aoJcontaln premises of thelUeterinary the hire of weight; Jarc^,

SfS^SJrossing shops; and^ oaks for the sale of newspapers, sandwiches, and Ice crearu W/

. /easant market, tn the provincial towns are generally laree

dlvl.loc of kolKhoTSJ. iSStajL

In cities numbering at least eight markets of markets which arethee bank. anuaryii?,

'ttK ui

aot "rket all over tne

USSR are deUralned by supply and demand and may chanae oulcklv 7L

Ill. Bumpers of Retail Enterprises,,

This section, vhicn is based on Information found in Tableattempts to show trends In the number of state and cooperative enterprises in the USSR and in retail outlets ln each of the three major trading systems: state, cooperative, and kolkhoz markets. Information concerning these totals is scanty and indirect and is derived from tbe state plans, occasional mention of numbers of trading enterprises in newspaper articles, or from Soviet authors writing on domestic trade. Absolute datathe number of retail enterprises io any trading system are almost completely lacking. With these limitations.an, therefore be regarded onlyough approximation of the actual situation.

A. Present Situation.

The total number of state and cooperative retail outlets, excluding tne kolkhoz markets, which numberedwppeared to beoq of this total,,ercent, belonged to the staterercent, belonged to the entire cooperative trading system, including the Consumers', Invalids', and Industrial Cooperatives;, or about u9 percent, belonged to tbe network of the Consumers' Cooperatives, the largest cooperative trading system.

B.

1. All Retail Trading Enterprises.

9 ollows on p. ah.

The retail trade network exceeded the prewar level9 and has continued to expand each year although at less than the planned rate. The total number of retail trade enterprises ln the state and cooperative system was reduced somewhat lees than one-halfhe high point of the German invasion of the USSR. 3 to the end he total hod risen steadily,hortage of shops, which are, of course, only one of several types of trading enterprises.

Tabic 3

Number of Retail Enterprioee in the USSR by Major Channels

Total Consumers' Kolkhox

year and Cooperative State g/ (All Types) b/ Cooperative Markets

e/

. .

. .

f/ g/ .

E7 . .

y j/

1/ .

n/ .

p/ -

s/

/ .

aT All totals for number of state retail enterprises have been formed by subtracting the total number of cooperative retail enterprises in all yearsK>2 from tne total number of stale and cooperative retail enterprises.

b. All figures for total number of cooperative retail enterprises ln all years have been formed from tbe figures for totol number of Consumers' Cooperative retail enterprises by adjusting tho latter in accordance wltn the proportion of Invalids' and Industrial Cooperative retail enterprises to the Consumers' Cooperative network in In, Industrial Cooperativesotal7/ This7 is divided by the totol of cooperative outlets of all kindshlchesult of aboutercent, which we have rounded toercent. UQJ c &

d. The figure for the total number of Consumers' CooperativeO is formed by subtracting from the total number ofCooperative enterprises the sum ofncluding public feeding, planned, the planned Increment for the year loAl, vhlchemainder. This is rounded to the nearest

Table 3

Kuober of Retail Enterprises In the USSR by Major Channels

(Continued)

tbe territory subjected totores, liningand other trade enterprises were destroyed or ubtractedigure for total numberand cooperative retail enterprises,emainderC0.

As some trading enterprises were undoubtedly built in the unoccupied areas of the USSR from loAOheas been arbitrarily Increased

the destruction occasioned by the German occupation,of Consumers' Cooperative shops remaining open fell0 Is obtained by applying the ratio of shops toenterprises which existedj*/

total is based on Trud,ecedberaa quoted inReport No.. This figure Isrom the totalCO0 by adding torading enterprisesa reported in Trud,, the figure ofan estimate of additional openings between July andof ration cards Inecond sourcecalculations by stating that the trade network decreasedompared to the prewar period and bythe increase forearmounted- This figure is derived froa Information In Barodnoyeas quoted ln US Embassy Report Ho.*, tothat there were to beC0 enterprises duringFive Year Plan and that total outlets at the end of the0 more than the number,

k. Thla total Is based on Coaplan as quoted tn US Embassy ReportJ, C, which0 enterprises openednis figure Is subtracted7

1. he trade network of rural Consumers' Cooperatives increased0 onsumers' Cooperatives0 trade and public eating enterprises In cities and workers'/ There were0 Consumers' Cooperatives ln citlaa at the end TOua, It la0ronsumers' Cooperative trading enterprises were added In cities ln 1PJ*7. 0 for eitv Increase inis0 or rural increase to get total Increase70 is subtractedigure and rounded to the newest thousand.

NuiDber of Setall Enterprises In tbe USSR by Major Channel

m- Baaed on US Embassy Moscow,, llR, to the effect that achlevenent fell somewhat short of planned figure Confirmed by second source In manner explained by footnote h, above..

o. in lotoS-ltS0 stores0 tents weredded to total of state and cooperative enterprises5 to obtain total It Is not certain whether public feeding enterprises arc Included ln total.

p. The network of Consuieers' Cooperatives IncreasedJ. 0 Ls added to the figure in. Total9 has been formed by subtracting8 froa0 figure and dividing the differenceo obtain an even Increase for intervals89 and9 This quotient is added toigure and rounded to the nearest thousand. An independent source states that by the endhe number of stores in the USSR9 percent In relation, which seems to indicate that our loAS figure Is, if

r- The Consumers' Cooperatives0 new trade enterprises 0 added to figure.

t. ew shops were opened ln state and cooperative tradeince the ratio of shops to the total number of trading enterprises added in the yearsIsos multiplied1 figure to get totol

u. O the Consumers' Cooperatives opened more0 new trade This figure is added to the figure

ew shops were opened in 3tate and cooperative trade i

jj/ Since tha ratio of shops to the total number of tradingadded la thesos multipliedndigure to obtain the totalw. It has been assumed that the ratio between increases ln outlets for the total system12 Is also the ratio between Increases in Con-susers' Cooperative outlets Inears.

x. hehe nuraber of retail and public feedingin the country increased byf0 or slightly more than one-half were stores. JkJ dded to the figure for end

Continued;

Number of Retail Enterprises in tne USSR by Major Channels

Continued)

y. Tne number of trado^enterprises subordinated to Taentrosoyuz (or the Central Union of Consumers' Cooperatives) ln rural areas increased by08 On tne assumption that additions to tbe Consumers' Cooperative system ln tbe towns, ln tbe early part of this period were offset by thc known cutback of this part of the system0 le taken toeasure of the net growth of the entire Consumers' Cooperative system and added to7 figure toigure Theor2 is based on thessumptions: (l) that the12 increase In number of shop* for the state and cooperative system combined is also the ratio between12 increase Inooperative outlets,nat the increasectober to tho end of the2 was one-fourth of the total Increase for the

mietbe regarded, therefore, with some reservation, as they have been

* cooperative enterprtaeelrL

the total nueber of state and cooperative enterprises.

theo^^

nd declined by approximately one-half during the later postwar years. In the whole, the wholef

needs of urban rather than rural consumers. No information Is^vaTl

aUaerB'Retail Tradlnp

theMCerrXiD* nuaberof

the Consumers Cooperative ayetem, which Is apparently confined to rural areas, i8 relatively fir. and abundant VolnfornatloTlBa-ai!-

vjoa.aQun lor tne number of

cooperative trading enterpriaes have been forced by SmSS tne

aSd lb0'with

iiU JncreftrfaUsystems

win, therefore, reflect the trends enovn by theConsumcra'

Cooperative retail outlet, and will not be discussedZoTt

"umber of retail enterprises in the Consumers'

M^-KS SirsffiaTJS^

number of Consumers' Cooperative outlets grew ateadily cach^ar

^"eUSirt^ coinciding with tof^er^aoUlOB In the fourth quartero permit the Consumers"

eWl1 tr**inS ^its "rban From

of the cutbacK of Ita retail outlets in cities In that year. Ijj

Tbe restoration of the rural network, whlcn for practical purposes ia administered by tbe Consumers'ppears to have been slower than planned. Thelan0 rural trading enterprises, but the number of enterprises in the Consumers' Cooperative system appears to bet the end7 or aboutercent below Furthermore, in3 the trade network of rural Consumers' Cooperatives had reached3 percent of the Prewar level. 8l/ AUo9 the re.toration of Consumera' Cooperative trading enterprises in villages was still falling behind

ate of expansion of Consumers' Cooperative trading outlets has declined each year, being smallest, The steady decrease In tbe rate* of growth of these enterprises9 hasecline in the ratio of these enterprises to the total number of retail enterprises in the USSR.

0 the ratio of Consumers' Cooperative outlets to tbe total number of retail enterprises was aboutercent, while2 It had declined to aboutercent of that total. Thus, althoughonsumers' Cooperative units expanded about tvlce as rapidly as those of the statend, the rate of expansion of the Cooperative outlet has been less than tiat of tbe state trading system in the years, and in the period0 on viewedhole. Also the state network surpassed the prewar level7 whereas tbe Consumers' Cooperative outlets barely surpassed ithe decline in tho ratio of the Consumers' Cooperative retail network to the total retail trading system appears to be in line with Marxist-Leninist theory that toe stateore advanced stage of socialization should eventually supersede the cooperatives and control all internal trade.

*. Kolkhoz Markets.

The number or kolkhoz markets nas recovered rrom wartime losses and nowe prewar level. There wereolkhoz markets 5 there wereolkhozeduction ofercent from the prewar level. utotall8 were located In cities,ere rural markets. 0 the number of marketsain of aboutercent as comparedS and of aboutercent as compared Tne rate of increase of Ihe kolkhoz markets00 Is about that of the state trading network during toe same Bo InformtIon Is availableplanned figures for kolkhoz markets or concerning the number of markets for any year later

Specialized Trading Enterprises..

A aajor trend of toe postwar period baa been tbe considerable Increase in the nueber-of speciall/ed-trading- enterprises, particularly ln the state trading system, woleta cetera to.tlie urban population, andeaser extent-'In-.tne Consumers' .Cooperative network, which Isin'rurai>n.tbejnetwork of thef Trade, wbietr-'has'toe*largest^nuaberJof trading enterprlaee-fln-tne" state ayatem, the dumber ofed stores-In the yearsrose asakerieseat oodifiuh stores, itbOilkercent; end'fruit^and-vegetablelmost'6 tines. Still more significantly roseetworkspecial ixed stores for the sale of industrialo ^addition there has been some increase in the number of specisJlsed stores In rural

..

Among the specialized trading enterprises in rural areas, the number of public feeding enterprises roseercent In2 as compared with Tbe number of public feeding enterprises In both the atate and cooperative eye tees rose by approximatelyercent0 as comparedr0 ln0 ton-

6, hatlq of_Retall Outlets to try? Laboi /orce.

At present there ereetail outletsf the total labor force. TableIndicates that the ratio of the total number of retail outlets to the total labor force has declined, or roughlyercentO Although this decline Indicates that-the labor force was leae well supplied with retail outlets2 tnan it waa In i'Ao and that dlatrlbutlon of consumers' goods to the population may not be aa efficient now as in the prewar perlod. It oust be remembered that the above-mentioned ratio isery brood gauge of the efficiency of the retail trade system and does not take Into account other possible off-setting factore.

Table ii follows on

There were only UkJ rural outletsf thelabor force2 as comparedrban outletsf the nonogrlcultural workers ln that year, tne ratio of rural outlets to tbe agricultural labor force be.ngpercent less than the ratio of urban outlets to the nonagricultural labor force. It appears from Tablethat the trend2 lo the ratio between the number of retail outlets to the labor force baa tended to favor therather toon tbe agricultural lahor force. Even) the nonagricultural labor force was better supplied with retail outlets than jb,'j the agricultural Labor force, tne ratio Bf rural utlet* to tba

agricultural population being approximatelyercent less than the ratio of urban outlets to the nonagrlrultural labor force. The ratio of retail outlets to both the agricultural aod nonagrlcultural labor force declined severely during the war, but the ratio of urban outlets to thelabor force recovered the prewar levelhereas the ratio of rural outlets to the agricultural labor forcetill aboutercent below the prewar level. Xt should be noted, however, toat the rate of Increase in the ratio of rural outleta to tne agricultural labor force has been slightly faster In tbe postwar years than that of urban outlets to the nonagrlcultural labor force, woich baa remained relatively constant The present more favorable ratio of urban outlets to the nonagrlcultural labor force than of rural cutlets to the agricultural labor force Lb further emphasized by tho fact that some nonagrlcultural workers, for example, lumbermen, are serviced by rural retail outlets.ndicates, therefore, that although toe ratio of retail outlets to the total labor force has declinedhe nonagrlcultural labor force, which wao bettor serviced by retail-outleta than theworkersas2 in an even better position in that respect that the nonagrlcultural labor force, tt appears, therefore, that the Soviet government has devoted more attention to meeting tne demands of the nonagrlcultural labor force for consumers' goods than It has to meeting the needs of the nonagrlcultural workers for such item.

C. Significance.

The recovery of abate and cooperative retail enterprises from their wartime losses has been slower than planned. Even at the end2 the total number of retail enterprises had not reached the planned level The failure to achieve planned levels of retailapparently result* from the unwillingness of the Soviet government to devote moreinimum of its resources from the build-up of producers' goods and war potential in order to improve distribution of consumers' goods. For example, thc ratio of retail outlets to the total labor force has declined ln comparison

Nevertheless, considerable effort has been made by the government In the postwar years to build up thc number of specialized shops. Increases in the numbers of specialized shops have been spectacular in the urbanbut the rural network has lagged behind in this respect. In fact, the agricultural labor force wass it had beeness well serviced by retail outlets than the nonagricultural labor forces and even less well supplied with retail outlets than it had been

In the yearshe rate of expansion of the state or urban trading system has been higher than that of thc cooperative, or primarily rural trading network. The state system surpassed its prewar level of enterprisesallc the cooperatives barely attained the prewar number of units The decline ln the ratio of the cooperatives to the total retail trading network appears to be ln the line with Marxist-Leninist theory that as progress Is made toward socialization the state should gradually supersede the cooperatives and extend its control In retail trade as fully as.in other sectors of the economy.

" .V*IV

IV. Sales to the Population.

A. J&

I. Official Concepts

Sales, or the exchange of goods for money, is not admissible under strictest Interpretation of Communist principle.. In Its present stage of socialistic development, sales are permitted in the USSR because the state dees not own all property orlaim to all production. In an attempt to overcome this incongruity of principle with actuality and maintain socialistic principles, official Soviet reasoning has defined retail trade turnover as the sales of Items of consumption for the materialf the population, so that total retail sales Is equated with total Income of the population. This definition Is further modified to include Only "economicnd to exclude certainfrom the official version of retail sales-

Since..the above concept is Inconsistent with Coaaainlst goals tne feasibility of ejtchahge without money bos been tested by the Soviet governmentn experimental basis. The latest of toese attempts, as proposed by Stalin and calleds the direct exchange cf AsTo!Btal* indU8try farms ln central and southern

nception of the current Five Tearhe official definition of retail trade turnover was broadened to include the turnoverider range of goals and certain personal services. Besides

and the following discussion, except the next paragraph, are baaed on the definition obtained from two statistical textbooks dealing with Soviet retail

" "Material welfare" is planned and therefore does not allow theto make decisir-

" Bconomlc goods in Soviet terminology are the goods of productive activity as opposed to gocds of nonproductive activity. Entrepreneurial enterpriseproductive activity. Seeelow for further exp.ansti on.

--

thc goods produced and usually accounted for under national economic planning the new Instructions received froaUSSR (CentralAdministration of the Soviet Socialist Republics) Introduced for the first tine into retail turnover accounting the following Items:

receipts' of craftsaops for tbe repair of goods for

f cfaftsnops for the making of clothing

and footwear from material supplied by the customer.

o. The sales of agricultural products, cattle, and poultry, direct from sovkbozes and thenterprises.

d. The sales of houses and dachas.

In addition,1 definition is designed to keep the volume of sales comparable to the "time of sales and of delivery in order to calculate the' costs Of c'ircAilation' and wages of the particular accounting period. Items specif led for this adjustment arc: to rub11cat1ons, the sales of equipment and uniforms to workers (onthe sales of houses, and craftaaen's sales which extend over the accounting per led.

.the aales of goods between trading organizations,and enterprises, which according to Soviet classification are called "small-scale wholesalere also Included ln retail trade turnover. These sales include the turnover of goods to.Bana.VirIa aai rest homes; orphanages;nurseries; and other/organizations, establishments, 'andThe volume cd"*sa&s; "however, in this type of turnover is rather negligible when compared to total turnover, since It has been estimated this category accounted for lesBf total turnover/ "

In this instance the "auxiliary" enterprises are organizationsworkero and employes with agricultural products. "On tine,"

Many sources have stated that these facilities have increased, but there Is no evidence that the proportion of sale* to these facilities baa changed In the period since

Except for the pervices noted above, nil other services especially doeuatio and peraxial are omitted from tnv official definition of retail turnover. The major excluslwis from retail trade turnover are;

ree" goods (gifts).

turnover of such services as, halrdreaalng,

laundering, bathhouses, the theater, and so forth.

gooda exchanged under the eyetem of -produktoobmeri."

for tne means of production of consumers' goods.

(ha , that In tho past tbe Heme now Included tn

the definition of retail trade turnover were too unimportant and too

nc accoUDtlllS nll trade turnoverhis move is Interpretedefinite attempt to coordinate the total wpply of goods with total wages and salaries so llvat household expenditures and goods consumption may be better equated for plannin* purposes. At the same tuae, the temporal adjustment, made In the

extooded froaaccounting period to another

will aid the planners ln making more realistic plans-

. tne over-all goal will enable lea Soviet autaoritics

W make core realistic plana, it should he pointed out that there are basic discrepance, in this concept of retail trade turnover unless adjustments have been made for the following factors:

consumers' goods are exported.

consumers' goods are stockpiled.

wages and salaries not only representcf

goods and cervices, but also ravings, contributions' tc stale bonds, and union and Fartv due. and tees

d- Other consumption values ere not Included In retail trad-turnovar such as certain personal, doeestlc, social and' recreational services and goods

c. hange in eonsu.-er choice *ayeviation free

Planned .evala whereby total UttOM and total aonauatra' BOOdlot eo,_al.

2. Limitations..

Since, except for military affairs, no sector of toe Soviet economy Lb kept more secret than the level of consumption, the method of deriving total retail trade ln tne USSR Is Indirect, and the conclusluns drawn from the data presented In Tablehould be interpreted with care. This method, however. Is believed to approach the true accounting series used by the Soviet authorities and, therefore, may be consideredirst approximationrue statletical series. Of itself themode lore reasonably consistent, and most other available information Is not obviously On the other hand it should be pointed out that further refinements and moreon absolute values would lower total retail trade turnover. For instance, Soviet data concerning the increase of trade turnover froa year to year have been relied upon and It Is definitely known that Soviet relative increases are

Total Sales0 and lc^.sa.ewa

1. Eatlaatcd Totol Retail Trade Turnover.

Total retail trade ln the USSR2 amounted toillion rubles, or more baan double the 2l6 billion rubles retail turnover In value, this la an increase cfercent above tnat7imes that In eacn of the postwar yearsetail trade has Increasedoercent. In the moreterms of volume, growth was not so great, in these terms, aa shown in* total sales of the state an! cooperative networks Increasedillion rubles0ercent; and this, tt should be added,omewhat Inflated measure of the difference between the prewar eraecause of the intensification of military activity, was an abnormally low prewar year from the point of view of the volume cf retail sales, all allowances are made, however, there remains sume pretty solid

ollows on* ollows on p. See methodology inor computations and explanations. According to Soviet practice in retail trade Indexes, noia mode for tho exclusion of goods, or the reIntroduction ofline, or tbe Introduction of new goods. Thus, Soviet trad2 statisticshifting base weighted Index. This type of Index is contrary to Western practice, which uses forixed base weighted index. This type of index is contrary to Western practice, which uses for thiseighted index.

See Table ollows on p.

d videos* to substantiate the conclusion that reta.lto the ti'uvlut populationoday eppreciably aocv? the level of prewar years Certainly they are far abo.elevelhe Increase In voluae between this year2roent for the state and cooperative network*.

2- Retail Trade Turnover breakdown by Channel.

Of toeillion rubles or retail trade turnover2 the state and cooperative trading system annountcd Torhe balance being taken-up by the koikhox market. Although total retail trade turnoverisestate and cooperative retail tradeines in tbis period. tate retail trade turnover Is eetlnated to have accounted fur almostercent or the total turnover. 0 the state system accounted forerceut of total state and cooperative trade turnover. 9ythis proportion approximates theoatio that existed lnetween state and cooperative retail trade turnover

During the postwar period, cooperative turnover probabLy baaounted to such gore Lnanerceut -t' total retail trade In the OBBB. (See Tableelow.) Of total cooperative turnover; Misusers' Cooperatives accounted for over ^oopf.ratlvt-retell trade waa reintroduced in tbe urban centersbapse ofears, during whichooperatives serviced only the rural population. This was because of tne fact that tbe shoi tage of goods wan so pronounced In the state tradingnat the govern-wnt permitted Consumers' Cooperatives to establish trade outlets In large cities. And,oaeumers' Cooperatives accounted for overercent of total state and cooperative retail trade. 9jj/ As lore goods became available, however, the state reversed its earlier decision to permitrade in the urban centers, and starting In, Consumers' Cooperative enterprises In th* cities were gradually transferred to the state system. It is thus likely that the percentage figure0 Is nla-ter uian loose for later years.

Official data concerning the kolkhoz market in the postwar periodbeen veiled and very unenl.ghtenlng. Pravdaaron lsa9 states that8 kolkhoz trade wasnat larger than thatnd Lints stateB9 kolkhoz trade amounted toercent cf total trade, not taking into account differences In prices- Thus, deeplte the fact, rerlfledu*ber ofat Ink-lkhos trade was higher than In , Indication* are thut It was not ;mich more, and, in any case, has not ln":rea*cd nearly aa nueh asther sectors oftrade .roportlor. to tf.tal retail trade haarars be*njvon belo. tneercentepresented its share 9

Value of Pctall Trade Turnover In the VSCP Total und by Major Channels

Hill ion Rubles

Major Chapaa]

and

5

>

u9.0

Cooperative Kolkhoz

3

6

State and Cooperative Retail Trade in bite USSR Value, Voluas, and Index of Retail

lear

7

1

and

Kubles b/ )

. 5

Rubles y

ndex d/

CO!

5

LflO.6

"forollow on p.

Inble 6

:>tetc and Cooperative Fetal) Trade In tha lISPp Value, 'Jvluoti end ,ndex of Jtetnli Irlrea oj

'.ontinued.

a! Tbe "kolkhozLb dlscusvcd eleevber.-

19A0 figure la given lo mny aourcea;ree.nnd are derivedettedconjunction with the table'

figures ln thla coluan arequotients obtained byin counter par to In column 3tnat la.the value figure for each year by the amount of toefigure representing price Level.

la discussed ln Appendixa. It should behowever, that toe reliability of thla aeries as an Indicatorprice changes rests on the assumption that planned decreaseslevel (derived as explained in Appendix B) were realized.

- . allatv i *

turnoer.

*l'r c-f .ttriwted not

o expander,prcduetU*.

butUp to the Soviet Ull*.; Vhla ^parai.o

U being carried out to laej^c* ^rfcet, whlc... 5

tnere has beeu anysignificant wren compared to totalwhich would have occurredctny tan state and cooperative trading network 'be Lnoreoacafor atate and cccverotlve -tradeCTte to-beed for the kolkhoz market Thla recalls Soviet policy pursued37 when the kolkhoz snare of total turnover dropped fromercent It should also be noted tnat ratfonins waa abolished, and prices were reduced In the state end cooperative aystera both in the period37

One of tne strongest Indications that the role of kolkhoz market is gradually being reduced la the disparity in the reduction of price* in the controlled trading ays tea and that of the free system.rices are estimated to have been reducedercent" in the state and cooperative system, although priccB foilercent" on the kolkhoz Another feature of the price reductions, especially those1s that of total savings to th* population realized Trcm the various price cuts of consumers' goods, nc proportion which accrued to those trading on the kolkhoz market was more than the kolkhoz share ln total retail trade/

It has also been pointed out by the planners in one case tnat plans for satisfying, through the kolkhoz market, the demand of the urban population for meat were unfulfillede-ouse of the prW reductions in the kolkhoz market in th* autumn period

Other factora indicating that official policy lntemdr to the role of the kolkhozonentity aretber^tlooV

^IknoSt'inTwill JfZ TaltTJ'^

collective system through privileges

below discussing "produktoobien."

-

granted, st.cn as supplying go-xU not available to the kolkhoz and by discriminating Ln price or value Another io.star.ee leading to telale that InCOOsl taxes Naveineivesing at an Increasing rate in recent years^ond thai* line leer, mi itull*at tneaoc been raised on urunn workers,g tse oalanee of these Increases to be furnished by the ogrlcu'ili.ral seetor cfconomy.* In this rcapect It should be noted tnat tne incidence Jf tne currency refornid not effect redepoalt* tate enterprises but treated the cooperative and the collective farmer leas favorablythat is, the exchange of old rublea foriesn state-owned enter-prlaea and at varying ratesrond so forth) ln other sectors of the eccoo-ay.

As for personal opinions, toe forner British Ambassador to Moscow, Sir David Kelly, has stated that the role of the kolkhoz will be reduced in the/

h. Cujipared to Plan.

There has been no postwar information concerning thefear retail trade except ln the over-all announcements of the two postwar Five Year0 In tne period covered by this report there have been announced increases of the current year over the previous year in "comparableor every year- Tola la considered odd, since all reports and computations paint to the factJanner year (second onlyot only for the USSRhole, but also for the Individual Soviet citizens, as ueveral computations Indicatexceeded retail tradein the state and cooperative eector7 by almostercent. (See Table The only postwar year ln wnlch tne retail trade plan was fulfilledas tne only year in which th planned fulfillment dropped moreercent points below being fulfilled. It should be noted that If store Information were available, the8 night be somewhat less than theIncrease7 at computed.** Itossibility that Soviet authorities did not care to mention an increase3, since the total amount did not exceed the increase65 and tnatt is also poaatble that the value of retail tradeaareduced by restrictive monetary and fiscal policies, indicative of tnls is the fact tnat turnover taxes1 billion rubles below those planned Other factors that may have caused ntata and

During the postwar period tneie has been evidence that incoje tax rates have been Increased on thele the incooe tax rotes on urban workers uove remained constant. See Appendix B.

H

cooperative retail trade to fallanhat the population did not core to buy ahcddvnda services offereds very inefficient.*'

If the computet oi:t; ir. "able tiuove are. nearlytne current rates axe exte'iaad to toe end cftotol stateretail trade willlion robiea,O. Tne volume of retail -trade, nojever, willercent If therle reactionscontinued untilof:

c- Soles per Capita.

1- Limitations.

The data presented in Tableupon which are based the folio-ing statements about per capita sales, are, like those ofbove, subject to extensive revision and criticism upon obtention of more complete information than is presently available. Wot only do they take no account of kolkhoz trade and possible variations in the extent to which It services different segments of the labor force, but they are groundedumber of assumptions wnich are known to be not completely true. Principal among these are: (a( that the state network services nonagricultural workers exclusively and (b) that the cooperativeservices agricultural workers exclusively. The statements about per capita sales made In thin section are, therefore. Incorrect to the extent the defects of the assumptions fall to cancel out. Since tne rerobability, however, that some such canceling does take place, it can be contended that the general usefulness of the conclusions reached is not seriously impaired.

2. Per Capita Sales Trends for tbe Whole Labor Force.

Based on the value or state and cooperative trade in current rubles, per capita sales to the labor force In the USSH reached the figure* rublesigure wnichercent above the corresponding figure In volume, Mia figure Is reduced0 rubles and the percentage excess0 toercent. The rise In the postwar} wasercent altnougn the annual rate of increase during tnese years has recently tended to slacken.

Many statements concerning shoddy gocds and Inefficientre placed on the Ministry of Trade. ollows on p..

I

| i-

a

I

1

3

I!

989

X> ^1

.

n

S J

K

a

I

22

^j

5!

u

i

j

DON

889

sc.:

II

a I

o

j-i

53:

Li

3' Per Capita. Sales Trends for Utf Agriculturalnagricultural LaEor fone-

Tne divergence between avciaev agricultural and ii-juigricultura: Labor force per capita Balesiaes In favor of tnclabor forcer approximately the same as It was Although tne Indexes point-to th? existence, ln recent yeara,low shift In favor of the agricultural laoor force,as tne ratioo sales per capita this group, asercent for the nonagrlcultural labor force, the sraall-neas of the ealft. In conjunction with the deficiencies of tbe data upon wiilcn the Indexes are based, precludes attaching much significance to it.

D. Significance.

Retail sales to the population on the USSR are now appreciably above the prewar level0 and considerably above thathis conclusion remains even after allowances are made for price increases and for growth in population. Zn the most meaningful terms used herevolume per capita labor forceales2 wereercent above sales0ercent above sales Given the lack ofcoange ln the basic wage rates and the Increase (albeit alow Increase) In tne average annual wage, the further conclusion seems warranted that In terms of material welfare the average Soviet worker is today not only better iff than he waaut better off, even, than/

Although per capita sales to tho entire labor force havelarge increase, there la as yet no significant sign of an increaseshare of sales that goes to the average agricultural worker, asto his nonagrlcultural counterpart. To the latter therebe sold from imes as ouch as to tne former, which wouldIndicate that Soviet policy of favoring the industrial worker, which from the Inception of the fliat Five Year

unchanged.

See footnoteon p. fl.

To this evaluation of tbe data on sales one reservation in particular should be added and that Is that figures1 andyears are undoubtedly Inflatedertain extentesult of the broadening of the concept of retail trade dlscuascd above. On the other hand, attention should be drawn to the possibility tnat this inflationary effect has been in aooe degree offset by an opposite effect

resulting from an increase In trie type of transactions called for by tne new theory of "produktoobnen" wnich, because carried on directly without the passing of money, escape- Inclusion within sales totals.

Another conclusion to berom this consideration ofis tnat the role of the kolkooz lavkets is apparently beingtheir scope of operations increasingly Limited. Monetaryinformation,1 revision of trsde accounting, and theof the syatem of "produktootoen" all lend support to this - .

V. General SlgnlfIcance.

An examination of the trends indicated by data9 on the establishment of retail trade outlets ln the USSR, on their sales to the population, andhe ratios of outlets and sales respectively to the labor force, leadumber of conclusions of broad significance. Most important of these Is the conclusion tnat tne level of consumption of the average Soviet worker increased considerably in the postwar years and2 was appreciably higher than thatq. Thla conclusion is strongly suggested by the fact that sales figures, when adjusted for price Increases and Increases In populationhat la, when cast In terms of volume per capita labor forcean over-all growth ofercent for the period mentioned. It is .node more.secure by the additional information that the average annual wage, during tne same period, was rising slowly but steadily."*

A second conclusion of importance is the conclusion tiiat tbe gap between the level of consumption of the nonagricultural segment of the labor force and that of the agricultural- segment, already wide, did not narrow significantly with the succeeding years, and2 remained much the same. This conclusion depends on assumptions that sales of the state system are for all practical purposes equivalent to sales to the nonagricultural labor force, while the sales of thesystem arc similarly related to saleshe agricultural labor force. The limitations and qualifications of the above-mentioned assumptions which have been discussed previously, ere not to be passed over lightly. The correlation involved, however, is believed to approximate the reality andeasonably sound basis for the conclusion.

An additional conclusion of potentially considerable significance for the future Is that the Russians appear. In the period mentioned, to have been making slow but sure progress toward their eventual goal. As

Sea Section IV, A, I, above. See footnoten p.

staled In tne beginning of this report, thU goal lit the complexion cf the process of socialization through tbe jerger of all networks under tne direct control of the state, -bleb Soviet theory describes as triefore still more distant goal of substituting tne direct excnange of goods for tne "money-for-guods" type of transaction presently prevailing.

Progress toward the goal of completing socialization in indicated by the fact that the suite network of tne Soviet trade system appears tti have expanded more rapidly0? than eltner the cooperative or kolkhoz networks. Tbe percentage of state retell outlets to the total number of state and cooperative outlets Increased froxercent0 toercenthereas the ratio of the totalsystem to the total number of state and cooperative outlets fell from aboutercent0 to aboutercent In addition, thc state and cooperative percentage of total sales has Increased2 a* comparedneieae tne kolkhoz3 decreased by about one-half. The ratio of state outlets to the nonagr'.cultural labor force haslight but roughly constant Increase over0 level during tnat period In contraatecline of abouteraent in the ratio of cooperative outlets to the ncnogrtcultural labor foroe.

Prospects are good that state trade will continue Ij expand at tne expense of the two other trading systems, and It is even possible that Its rate of expansion will accelerate In future years. This'possibility Is supported by historical precedent and tnc seeming emphasis given to It by Important officials atn Party Congress in October

Kaleokov, Caalraan of the USSR Council of Ministers, stated tnat collective farm property would eventually be abollahed In favor of "general publichat the eele of commodities would be replaced by direct exchange, andentral authority would be established to determine production and distribution for both state Industries and collective farms. Following Stalin, Kalenkov added that this would cot occur in the "nearut would take plac? steadily, with ;ut nasi tat ton at some unspecified date.

. Mlkoyan, Minister of Home and Foreign Trade, statedreat roorganl-atloo must occur ln the work ofnd supply organs In tee sphere of exchange between ten and country. He stated that It was necessary, as advised by StallD, toslap by atep thc spnere of action of trade circulation; expand the field of produce exchange, including the aurplusea of collective farm production in tae general state planning, and prepareradual transition to the Comtiunlat method of distributing the products tf labor. ICg/

iu tne past tie Bin toendency to extend its controlwhenever it felt reasonably confident of it* ability to providewitn needed goodshat la, in lines cf relativetne end 01 tne peeWtlM stlonlog periodS.*te

lo*.o, wtenwereingavailiblc. ths i'onsuners' Cooperative syhten, was forced to concentrate ofi eei vlng the ri.ral population, leaving the supplyhi urban population largely tcate

Conversely, contractions in the atate trading system and consequent pauses in the rate ofation of the trading system have occurred only when the government had difficulty ln distributing adequate supplies to the population. ?or example, lnwhen the numbers of atate outlets were stllL seriously depleted by wartime destruction. theCooperatives were permitted to reopen retail outlets in the urban areas probably ln part to ease the burden on the state distribution system. Similarly, the state legalized the kolkhoz market3 to Btisulate agricultural production and supplement state and cooperative trade ln seasonal foodsime of shortages. Thus it appears that the state, barring unexpected difficulties in the supply of consumers' goods, will race slowly but surely, as It baa done In the past, toward the realization of Ite Mam let-Leninist goals in retail trade-

1. Organizatton of Sovietrade.

Tne section*organize!f Soviet retail tradeynthesis and condensation cf Intelligence vbtt.ncd froa;various sourcesn Appendix C.

a- * of Retail Enterprises. fy Ha.lurable f,

Tne estimates nods Inre based on Wis linguisticnat tne term "trading enterprises" as used In Saviot publications, and other sources rofers to oil types of retail outlets, specifically Including public feeding enterprises, wlbn the exception of mobilenits. These estimates are based cn the further eaaumpllon that lo-.seJy specified spans if tine during jaich Increaaeaumbers of trading enterprises are aald to occur (that) extend from tne beg inn in, or the first year mentioned (or, for tne purposes of Tablerom the end of the year preceding tbe first year) to the end of the last year mentioned (or, in toe example given, frot6 to December LOJi' .

Est-.sates have been formed by starting frcaa relatively fIn figuresew years and working forward by addingncreases to taosa benchmarks or working backward by subtracting ficei tnem known increases In earlier years. The relatively firm figures In uuastlon are those07 Tor both tne total number of Stats and cooperativeand the number of Consumers' Cooperative outlets. 0 figure; arc derived froa tne State Plan1 andgenerally acce-ted. 7 figure for total number cf stats and cooperative enterprises Is derived indirectly from an official Karat aid Is CMsldered relatively reliable, altnoigh tnere is seme uncertainty ao to wiwiher It UfeSladM public feeding enterprises. igure for the number of Consuaers Cooperative enterprises is au absolute figureoviet source.

7 figure for Consumers' Cooperative enterprises is particulariimportant, since to it has been added0 enterprises by wnicb th* lonsuoers' Cooperative system increased in rural areas92 to o. lain? figure. It nas hem MKsKd tnat additions to tadooperative systeia in the towns, Ir. tnc sarlj part or this parted, were offset by the known cutbank of litis part of

system0aken toreasure of the net growth of the entiie Consumers' Cooperative system and added lo thootal 2 figure has been adjusted tc take care of thc probable growth ir. the Consumers'trading system through It the assumption that the32 begins with7 is incorrect, and the interval starts In2 figuree number of Consumers' Cooperative retail enterprises would be substantially larger

Inigure for the number of Coneumere' Cooperative enterpriaeahe figure given ln Llflls, Sovctskayaeyckancoicheekqy gblznlas been rejected asasis for ourt/ The figure o'.ven in the above-mentioned sourceutlets0 puolic feeding enterprises. This figure applies presumably tonen the book went to press, which means tnat an estimate for the end1 would benterprises, origher than toe figure estimated ln this report 1 estimate for the number of Consumers' Cooperative enterprises has been built up by adding clearly specified increments to7 base. Moreover, Lit Its' figureough one, and if it had been used, the ratio of additions to the Consumers' Cooperative enterpriaea1 to the total Increments of enterprises In all trading systems In that year would have become unreasonably large

An undocumented figurenterprises given In th USSR

Information Bulletin of1otal of outlets of" all

kinds within the Consumers' Cooperative system naa also been rejected./

Tbe reasons for discarding this figure are, in addition to tnose given

above for rejecting Lifils' total, that the figure given by*

Information Bulletin ia considerably larger even than that of Liiits,

which presumably refers to the same dale, and that it la very close to

the figure we have developed for the totaL number of cooperative outleta of all klnda.

The totals for the number of cooperative retail enterprises of all types In allave been formed by increasing the figures for total number of Consumers' Cooperative outleta ln accordance with an assumed ratio ofercent between the outlets of the Invallda' and Industrial Cooperatives and total cooperative enterprises. This ratio wae derived by rounding very roughly the mean hctwoen those ratios for8 as given by Schwartz in Ruasla'a Soviet/ and for certain prewar yearo as given in Social let ConstructTun In tne.

All totals for tne nuatertate retell enterprises have be-r. forced by subtracting the total nuaber of cooperative retail enterprises froa tee total number ofooperative retail enterprises in all year* froa IQitO

Tor number of Consumers* Cooperative retail enter-

prises and for the total number of cooperative retail enterprises docs not include outlets in the reltK- Republics. ot certain whetherigures Tor the number of kolknoz markets, number of state retail enterprises, and total nuaber of state and cooperative enter-rises Include outlets lo tbe above aentlooed localities. It laowever, that all totals in the postwar period Include enterprises in the raltlc Sepubllca.

All figures Lnave been rounded to the nearest thousand.

i- detail Outlets to Labor PerceAfjJ.

rigures for the number of urbanel retail outlsta uaed in mis table are based on assireptlons, wnich are Mp'.alned in the table. Itself.

It- Kuabers of Retail Enterpriser In tlk- USSR ^Explanation).

Thl6 section merely interprets and analyses trends observed innd 3-

5. Kothodolo.jy d_6.

The series feralng tne principal content of tneee tablesnotably, tbe value of Soviet trade ln current rublea and the price index which permlla the conversion oferiesolume seriesre based oniscussionhod rauKl therefore beeln with tbe latter.

11 Hgthpd Crderlvling-table

Procedures used ta commutefigures shownre tne aa-t, wlt^ sllgat acd If (cations, as tnose uaedL- Awn toailor tabU inappeared

OS/ igure7tarting point, biese procedures entail building upon it corresponding figures for later years that take account of intervening price reductions by utilizing official dataurnover tax revenue, planned and realised;planned savings fromeductions)ealttcri in-rekfinw >r. the tfOaUft* of turnover

*oilows on p.

a cnosentarting point because it is the only postwar year for whioo toe Russians Issued relatively complete data, The figure for thisillion rubles, represents total state andturnover. Xt is derived by combining tne information that turnover in tneooperatives sector anounted* billion/ with tne information that Consumers' Cooperatives accounted forercent cf total cooperative/ and tnc inforiaation that state turnover accounted7 percent of combined state and cooperative turnover. Ill/

Table 6

State and Cooperative Retail Trade In the USSR Computation of Values, Pricee, and quantities.

Slillcn Rubl<

Year

g

turnover

from

Planned savings to thefrom price reductions

month 5

during

calendar year / 6 9 cj

Turnover lax on

planned vclumc, bus-ilng no price

reduction

/

ollow on p. *o

Caavutatlon

BtlJ Lon Kubl*i

Tear

o^

taxon realized voluoe and prices, date of price reduction

5 U3 B,

Planned vclv-ne of trade, percent of previoua year

of previous

lla.a

8. Value of trade,

at prices ofyear, and planned volueo of given) of previoua

9

of trade, at prices and plannedf given year

UO9.I UUo.O, 6

Realized volute of

trade, in percent of

previous yeary ^ ^

H. indicated pere.entage

fulfillment of retail trade plan

SB-it d/

State and Cooperativerase In tne USSR Computation of Values.s,uantities

.Cootlciad!

illiitji -uoler*

.Indicated value of re-tall trade, as!

13* Indicated planned

price level, given yearercent oof previous f/

la. Indicated planned

percentage doorcases In prices In price cut (forqualo "moveate of price cut froa date)

i

/ 0

4.6

s7.9 3 0 3 2

i2.1 8

evision mid extension of 'able found on. Ames, Soviet Retail Trade and w, flee Appendixof jeUod.

alendar year was tne saw asacnUiigure Is given in source noted. Trie sa-oeare ausuied02 that existed in

source cites asillion/

torough modification of principal wtbod, explainedA,.

computation, sec Appendix A,

>cr tnan

should be clearly understood tnat "Indicated" here meansdata on savings and value of trade ins glannedlted. For further discussion see Appendix

Promdditional data referred lo, the pi

gresslca to figures for Inter years Is marked by the working out at direc obtentloo of throe priori pal intermediate quantities. These are: onf Tableae planned Increoso In turnover volume of tt* nej over tne previous year; unhe value of trade in the new year, at tbe prices and planned volumele year; and, ct>he realized Increase In turnover volume cf the new over the previous year- Realized vjlume Increase,s supplied by official sources for ev-ry year Appllcetloc of It to planned volume increase, lines readily seen toercentage figure representing degree ofof plan, which in turn Is readily seen, tnrougn application to the value of trade In the new year, at the prices and planned vol tune of tne new year, lineo yield the desired resultalue figure for the new year, at Its prices end realized volume, The derivation of linelanned voluae Increase of the new over the previous year, and linehe value of trade In the new year, at the pr'-ces and planned volume of this year, are adequately explained Lnle itself.

Or the general method, as outlined above, tbe derivation of the value-figureA billion rubles, represents somewhatodification. The modification consists in tbe fact that, in the absence of an officially supplied figure for realized volume increase7, percentage fulfillment (line ll) is calculated by applying realized turnover tax revenue (lineo planned turnover tax revenue (linend becomes tne determinant of realized volume Increase (through application to planned volume increase Inather than Its derivative, as In the ease of the other years.

The procedure used to obtain decreases in the price level brought about by the price reductionsine I* of Tablen which Is built the price index ofnd so. Indirectly, tbe volume series of that tablentails, uulte simply, taking planned savings for the balance of the calendar year (lineerived as lndlcoted in the Table) and applying tnem to figures for thc value of trade, at prices of previous year, but planned voluae of given year (line 8j. The decreases ore fasniooed into thc index ofy being linked together and then placed0 base, tneking this possible being that tne price level8 was twice tnat The voluae series of Tableinallygiving total state end cooperative trade In constants obtained by dividing each term of the value series by tbe amount of the corresponding term of the price index.

b. As sumptions Underlying IV in eg.

umber of assumptions that underlie tne method described above, therearticular tout need to be pointed out ln order to guard against erroneoua Interpretation ofarlier tablet dependent upon It.

The first of thesec assumption that In Soviet accounting practice, savings to the population vblch are planned to result from price reductions are planned at the expense of turnover tax revenue, and nothing elae (as, for instance, the profits of enterprises producing consumers' goods). I!trung thla aaauoptlon la csnnot be gauged. Its practical Importance in the present context, however, does not appear to be very great,eparate calculation made by Dr. Aeea restingroader assumption (namely, that savings affected deductions from profits of enterprise as well as turnover tax revenues) ylolded results differing' by lessercent froa those based on the narrower onehat is, the one nade/

The second assumption of Importance is the assumption that the figures for price decreases found inf Table 8which, strictly speaking, are figures standing for planned price decreases, being derived from data on savings and turnover value as planned for the year In question rather thanair gage of price decreases as actualized. The laportancc of thla aasumption is measured by the fact that upon Its accuracy depends the accuracy not only ol the figures ln question but tbe entire price index as well and the volume series based thereon. Tbe reasons for making It are: any eetiaate la to beof price decreases aa actualized, and If it la Impossible, as here, because, of lack of data on realized savlnga, to make such an estimate directly, by dividing realized savings by realized turnover, tnen the assumption of some planned -acutal relationship Is unavoidable;eaching the actualized price decreases by assuming planned price decreases to be realized {computed bv dividing planned savings by planned turnover value) la as reasonable as tbe mostaaeiy, (a) assuming planned savings to be realized and dividing by actualized turnover value, or (bjixed proportion between realized and planned savings (to the establishmentlch therenimpressivepplying It to the planned figures, and then dividing by flgurea for actualized turnover value. Fortunately,lgnt be added, the Issues Involved hero are not of great account when menbured by lifferences la resulte. Where proceeding on the assumption elected by this paper brings the price level down*droceeding as In {ai above would bring it downond In (b)

The ttilrd assumption cfance Inaatio3 endrise levels. upportassumption it can beet the general relntlcns.iip isby tne results ofrief comparative survey of prices of

a number of specific commodities0nd the results ofimilar survey0nd comparing0 level In terms7hen7 level ia treated) with8 level in terxs7) worked out In the Rand/

c Checks.

Information not incorporated intoheck in the caseuafcer of its figures, principal among vnich are the following?

3 Figure for Value of Turnover (Table 3)

This figure is checked by the information8 increased byercent/ taken in con-

junction with tne assumption that the state proportion of total state and cooperative trade, which6 percentemained at aboutercent and consequently the cooperative percentage atercent of7 cooperative figure28 figurehich Is seen to be exactlyercent.

1 Figure for Value of Turnover'

A projection of reported turnover data for parttl6 yearesult pretty close to this figure. The reportsestion were to the effect that the Ministry of Trade and Tsentrosoyuz espectively,5* billion rubles worm of trade during the/ On tne assumption that the shares ofn total stale ond'cooperatlve trade were respectivelyercent andercent, and that their rate of doing business remained constant through thc year, total trade turnover for the entire year and the entire state and cooperative trading systemillion rubles- The further assumptions that the figure reported for the' Cooperatives excludes turnover of the Producers' Cooperatives, and that tne share of the latter in total cooperative trade remained atercent,otal figureillljo rubies, which compares favorablyubles reached by tne calculation of Table S. Of course, tne rate of turnover does not renain constant throughout ihe

year, and It huepointed outor theanuu isos Uian lurltig tne Lastninths of tne preceding year. Unless there'occurred,f change in -n? dtraction in ue rate of tusn.ver during the laat lv .icaths of ih- year, and tne re have Men eo induattwns cf this,1 figure isoo far orf.

? Figure for Value ofabiaillion

This figure is cnecked pretty -ell by results obtained froa Information that the volume of retail trade turnover Lncimes in the period from too end of tbe war up to the endnd know data on cooperative turnover7 isd Its relation to turnover Tbe facta that cooperative turnover72 billion rubles, that this was twice Its amountnd that the amountsercent of total state and cooperative' yield the conclusion thai total state and cooperative turnover?illion rubles. ultipliedesultillion rubles, wiilcQ compares favorably with uie result reached byble.

elatlonattlps Involvingure for Volume cfable o) lTUor. rubies.

The relationships between this figure and voluae figures0espectively, are cneckea pretty well by officialtnat sUtc and cooperative trade turnover2 was double thatndercent over that / Tne ratioo tne volume figure8 given Ln TabTe, Is readily seen to be slightly higheroUle Its percentage ol the figure0 given by Table, turns out toercent.

7. Methodology to Tabic 7.

Tnls Indeii is In terms of units relevant to productiont-iat is, average sales of total turn-over per available proactive population. This Is but tne roughest or Indicators since the asauaptlonc made are net etrictly edited, nor docs stricter refinement Justify the accuracy of th- assumptions :

It nas been assumed that the aoaagricultural labor fores Is serviced ty the state retail trading System and that Uw agricultural laborU serviced by (he cooperative tradinghe breakdown by trading system lB taken from Table 6.

Tne following are soon of the more objectionable featureB of tbe urban-rural Index as herein calculated:

trading systems operate in each others' areas as

are some rural workers Included ln theforce.

sales pertains only to the state and cooperativeand thus excludes the turnover of tbe kolkhoz market, wbienIn both the urban and rural areas.

labor is unaccounted for.

reduction amounting toercent would scaletotal trade turnover. If the soles betweene eliminated.

gaps in inmLiGaeE

Information on the organization of retail trade Lo abundant and detailed, but thereonsiderable leek of absolute data concerning the number of retail enterprises In the USSR, particularly of the number of state retail enterprises, Including those of the Ministry of Trade and thehe number of enterprises of tbe Invalids' and Industrial Cooperative systems, and the number of sales. Even when absolute data concerning the number of these and other categories of retail outlets are available, there is frequently uncertainty as to what types of trading enterprises are included or excluded by the data and the exact date or space between dates to which the information refers. In order to improve tbe accuracy of estimates made Lnnd Tableore information is needed on the points mentioned above.

Evaluation of Sources.

Tne sourcea which were used In compiling this report can be classified Into the following groups:

publications.

Theseations comprise books, periodicals, plans, and press statements. Tney are considered reliable and furnished the bulk of intelligence concerning the organisation of the retail trade system in the USSR, the number of retail trade enterprises in tbe various trading systems inSSR, and retail turnover.

Department Reports.

Two reports from the American Embassy, Moscow, were used One furnished the key information on which our estimates of the total number of retail enterprises in the USSR (Tableere based, and the other gave data concerning planned figures for certain types of retail enterprises. These documents were considered generally reliable,ere Is some uncertainty na to whether the later of toe two documents Includes public feeding enterprises in its figures for tne total number of retail trading In certain years.

Reports and SO Reports.

These reportsaall but fairly valuable uontr.buti< to intelligence concerning the orgnnlzutlon ofegment of Soviet letail trade.

d- Woo-Soviet Cooks, Paniphletc^ and Pericdicals.

These sources provided very useful supplemental information csales, thc organization of Soviet retail trade, and supporting evidence for fragmentary data previously ibtained from Soviet sources concerning the number etail enterprises In the three Soviet trading systems. In .Articular the ya^er written. Ames was relied upon ashe .cost useful for procedures In estimating retail trade

Evaluations, following the classlf ieai ion entry and designated "Eval <ive the following significance:

of Information

- Completely reliable

sually reliable

airly reliable

ot usually reliable

ot reliable

annot be Judged

- Confirmed by other sources

- Probably true

- Possiblyoubtful

- Probably false

- Cannot be Judged

not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cided document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this report. Bo "RR1 evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation of. the cited docuiient.

CIA9H..H- Uflts, Sovetskaya torcovlyo i

v ckonoalcbeskoy znty.nl 57 EvnL- RR CIA FDD1fIts, gkonoalka sovetakoy

. R. ,ykov, The Development of the Soviet EconomicC.

U. Eval. PRH.A. Vosnesensky, The Economy of the USSR During World Mar XX,

y- Eval. RR

*}- E. Bubbard, Soviet Trade and. U. Eval.

6 R. Ryouaov and N. Tttel'baum, Kur^ torgovoy statistlkl,

U. Evol-

7. v Krenev,ekiuiika. Eval.6S.V. Serebryakov, OrganlzatsLvasovetekoy torgovol. yt, Eval. RR op. cit. '

9-

10

rnrroc, Alerted ChaptersIoo-ekqnr*njgh*sfcoy atatlatike,and'revised' Eval.rentv, cp..

- 69

0 I"

CIAg, clt.

B. Ryauzov and M. Tltel'baum, op. eit.

CIA FDDV-Z. Vinogradov and1 tekhnlka sovetakoy torgovll,RH

A. Kainlnskly,

ciaSM.M. Llflts, Sovctakaya lorgovlya,

U- Eval.. lU. CIAg. cit.

15- CIA3V.I. Vinogradov andaninokly,ekftnika aovctskoy torgovll, CIA,A.I. Matvcyev. Tsclebrovsklyj Trade Work of the Rural Consumers' Socletlca,. L'val..

CIAg. clt.

CIAClt.

CIAp. git.

i- .

CIAaB.I. Gogol, Sovetskayaeyeaxodncei CIAg. cit.

CIAg- cTt.

Krcnev, op. CIA FDDog. CIA R. Eval. CIAg. clt. CIAg. CIAg. clt-

Krenov, og. clt.

Bubberd, op. clt.

R. Tltel'baum, Statlstlka Obshchestvcnnogo Pltanlya,. U.

Eval.-

Krcnev, og. clt.

Rubbard, op. bit.

V* Golubevo,FoodJSSft Information Bulletin,

0. Eval-.

CIA SO, -

Bloknot Agltatora, Ho. U. Eval- .

3*. a. Oblovalskly,lmilrovanlyg sovatefcojrJor&'Yl1..

Goetorglzdat, Eval. Ibid.

g. el_t. CIAclt.

g- cu.

S. Gurovicn, "Soviet RuralSSRWiietlne

t&- '.

19 Krenev. og- clt. *Q. CU tx>7 og. Bit-Sal* Coon, The Bole> tscal System In the Covlet Economy, Dissertation, Departmentecs. University of Chicago, o. . CIAlt.

The_Sovlet .Trade PglOM During the Period of the Postwar Fly?

u*

*T. *6

Year U, Eval.. Dadugtn. Kagarlitskiy,ekhntka kholkhoznoy baramoy tor gov11. "j. Hubbard, og. Krenev, op. clt.

H.ussia's|Sovlet U- . Socialist Construction lu EES- V.

Oblovatekly, og- cit.

3

5*

50/ CIA FDD Translationtate_Hsn for the Lttvelopment of^the national aoonomy or" tnVPartrade Turnover." S. Eval..

CIAg. clt.

ciait.

R. "orou, Cooperation lo thc Soviet Union, prepared for the Fabian

OT Eval.DO TransO,1 State Plan

for_ the Development of tbe Rational Ecjnoffiy 'jf_the USSR,. S. Bval. RR5 Trud, 0. Rval..

American Embassy, Moscow, Report, Ho.ar 1QWJ. C. Eval..

9 60

American embassy,eport Ho.g. cit. CIA9. Kllaov, Soviet Consu.aers' 8. Eval.. 6l. CIAV- Pavlyukov, "Tasks of Soviet

Trade in thc Continuous Development of the Nationallanovoye khotyayatvo. Ho.- R- Bval- RS? American Embassy, Noscc, Report, H.

Eval. ibid.

CIAp. clt.

American Embassy, Hoscow, Report Ho.g. clt CIAil.

g, eit.

65. cian, cTt.

Evai. p$

ia. cTt.

68. j. cit.

69- izvestiya, 0, Bval. CIAit.

71- Report of tneAdministration, USSR Coudcil of Ministers, in Pravda, Uvcetlya,, Current Dlgcat SoTigTPress, Vol. XV, Bo. 3- Eval,-

T2' Pravda, U. Eval..

73. CIA FBIS, R. Bval..

7U- fravda, lU U. Eval.-

75. Ibid.

merican Embassy, Moscow, Report Eval--

FBIS, R. Eval. RR CIAit.

79- Voproay Kkoncaikl, Ho.ook Review byonskaya and A. Harkovab, of Ya. Kistanov's "Potrebltel'skaya kooperatsiya SSSR (latoricbeBkiyzdatel'stvo tsentrosoyuz,. U. Eval..

American Embassy, Moscow, Report, op. eit.

CIAu, op.

CIAP. cit.

p. cit.

CIAp. cit.

Pravda,ecop. cit.

Oblovatskly,lt.

B. Ryauzov and R. Titel'baum, op.p.

H. Ryauzov and H. Titel'baum, Stallstlka sovetekoyPP.u. U. Bval..

R. Eval. R. Bval..

"Stalto on tbe Fifthhe Economist, p. 0. Eval.

po aotalal'no ekooccilchcskoy etatistlke, lfM,

. U. Eval. H. Ryauzov and H. Tltol'baum, Kuro torgovoy.

0. Eval.. *

92. H. Ryauzov and M. Titel'baum, Statls.lka sovetakoy

U. Eval./

93- CIAcit.

H- Ryauzov and H. Titel'baum, op. cit.

CIAp.-

-

CXA RR8 3. Eval..

99- L'V. Flaeyskaya, Ya. U. Aronskiy,. Spabteyn, under direction. Morgunoza, Planlrovaniye tovarooborotarcsta U- Eval.

101

102

State9 London,ublished in fhe Listener. U. Eval.. For some noteshe contribution of this situation of the price reductions which havo occurred annually since, see CIA, RRNew Soviet Decree Reducing Prices of Consumers'8 S. Eval.. State Department OJR, Intelligence Drlef. Eval.. CIA Fills. R- Evnl.. CIAo- clt.

USSR Infonsatlon"5jlletln,I. U. Eval.. B. "Schwartz, og..

Socialist Cone true tln the USSR, op. clt.

. Ames, Soviet Retail Trade and">'rlces,ederal Reserve Board, Washingppendix. val.-

Voprony Bkonccilkt, Ho., U. Evol..

CIAop- clt.

B.I. Oogol, pg.

S.B. Cohn, op. cTtT,

, p. I. U. Eval...

l. U. Eval..

State, Moscow,. Evalt Stateoscow, U. Eval

V. Lavrov, "Snlzheniyo Roznichnyxh1 Ukrepleniye OovetekogoP, So. U. Eval..g.- Planovoye klio^yaystvo. Wo.. 3- U. Eval.. cohn, og.

. Eval.. Soviet Lard, eupplcoent Ho.0 U. Eval.. CIA FBIS, U- Rval-. Ames, op.

Rand, , Retail Food Prices ln tnehapman, U. Eval.nd RM'BSS-l, 'detail Prices of Manufactured Consumer Goodr. in tho2 U. Eval..

Voprosy Ekcpoclal, Ho.g. clt.

Vavresyuk, Eazervshlye zadachl kreditovanniya tovorooborota, Flnoni

i ta-edlt SSSR, Ko.- hO. U. Eval..

0. Eval..

Voprosy Ekonoolki,p . CIA rPIS, 0- Eval.- CIA FBIS, 'J. Eval..

Original document.

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