GENERAL - OPERATIONAL - KUGOWN - SPECIFIC - ANTI-GUATEMALAN ACTIVITIES

Created: 2/16/1954

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

via:-

AIR

1

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED

WH

ntOH : Chief of Station,LINCOLN

S06JECT: JJGOWN

Anti-Guatemalan Activities

Reference: 3

re copies of articles published by the Liga Antl-Coraunista de Costa Rica attacking the Guatemalan Government. The themes which have been utilised are those indioating Communist power in Guatemala and which tend to prove tho link between the Central American Communists, especially those In Guatemala, and the Soviet Union,

Attachmentshroughre representative articles of local origin concerning whether or not Costa Rica should attend the Caracas Conference. olumn by Mario GARCIA Arooha, points out, somewhat unroaliotioally, some of the theoretical problems which may have to be aolved at Caracas concerning anyjfpropoaed reaolutiona to be taken to combat Communist infiltration. His article reflects, in part, the preoccupation in local Intellectual. egghead) sectors that the growth of dictatorships In Latin Americaorse threat than the growth of Communism. y Victor VARGAS Quesada another of tho Liberal eggheads, also reflects the same worry about dictatorships, although ho espouses attendanoo at the Conference. ettor written by Gonzalo SIERRA Cantlllo, Secretary General of the Communist-front confederaclon General of Traba^adores costariccenaea, which appeared in La MacIon onanuary urges President PIGUERES not to attend tho Caracas Conference. SIERRA'S lettor states that the Conference isethod of. aggression against Guatemala and urges that if Costa Rica should attend, that it refuse to vote in favor of any motions against Guatemala. LaKocion published the letter under tbe headline "Los CamaracTas Piden Al Pdte. Flgueres Hohich clearly labelled the letter as being Communist Inspired. hich appeared in the Figueres-controlled La Republics, onanuary plays the story as a

S 2

straight news Item, without labelling it aa Communist.

understands that Plguerea takes no active part in runnin^La Republlca, which has consistently played up stories from any source opposing attendance at Caracas. Attachmenta an editorial from La Republlca, urging non-attendance.etter byisoberto MONTENEGRO published in the plarlo de Costa Rica, poses, but doee not answer the question, whether that democratic countrioa like Costa Rica should attend the Conference to protest against tho dictatorships, or should refrain from attending in protest. Again, the Communist problem ls relegated to second place in view of the problem of the Latin dictators. Attachmentsndre local news stories of the resolution taken by ORIT against the Caracas Conference. In connection with this, the writer had occasion to discuss tho resolution with. and Latin American delegates and arrived at the conclusion that the strong influence of exiles in ORIT had considerable to do with thatpposition to the Conference. Tho American delegates oxpressed disgust with the entire matter, but felt that they had to go along with the crowd for the sake of unity. Attachmentlea for suspension of the Caracas Conference by'a number of intellectuals, including Gonzalo FACIO, President of the National Assembly, again ln protost against the Venezuelanong statement to tho press by FACIO reiterating his point of view on non-attendance, ln which he at least admits that the Communist problem is Important, buteeting of Foreign Ministers to handle it. he La popublloa column entitled "BruJulia Mundial'*ebruary, concerns the Communist Problem. It urges. to make available its evidence of Communist infiltration to all Latin governments before the Caracas Conference so that it may be studied and plans made to counteract lt. The column hints that. is getting over-excitod on this point, and that its attitude ls not based on facts but ratherommunist neurosis. Attachments another of the Brujulla Mundial columns which covers fairly objectively the two sides of the srgument over Costa Rlcan attendance at Caracas. etter by Dardo RKGULES published ln La Pronsaebruary, also covers both sldos of the argumont. Attachments an attack on the Venezuelan Government and the Caracas Conference, allegedly ln the name of the ORIT, but obviously utilizing material suppllod by Acclon Democratioa olementa ln Costa Rica.hort editorial from La Naclon ofanuary attacking the Guatemalan corxTonlsts for objocting to being called communists byley.

3. Beginning onanuary the pross services began to carry

Storieslot against the Guatemalan Government and denials of the same. Onanuary INStorylot against tho Guatemalan Government which had originated In

6

3

tho Communist La Tribune Popular In Mexico city. This story was carried by all the local papers. On tho seme date there appeared in Laong article reprinted from CEUAOE indicating that civil war in Guatemala is Imminent.. The accusationsA and the United States which wero made by the office of Prosldant Arbenz on

January were oarried in the local presa on the morning of

January without comment, although they were given prominent display in all papers. The matter continued to receive lengthy treatment in the presa onanuary (Sunday) without editorial comment on the press servlco releases. . and Nioaraguon denials of complicity were given adequate attention, as were accusations of atrocities committed by the. Ho papers are published on Mondays,

so there was no commentebruary. ebruary, the press service stories on the matter again wore reprinted without editorial comment, but with headlines which were unfavorable to the Guatemalan Government. The only editorial commentebruary on tho Guatemalan charges waa made by Abelerdo BONILLA, In La Kaclon. BONILLA's characterization of the Guatemalan accusations as "toofantastic to be true" ia belioved to reflect public reaction to the matter here. here was considerable general interest in the matter when the charges first began to circulate by radio onanuary and in the press onanuary. However, when the details of the accusations became known, the customary Costa Rioan skepticism went to work,. countercharges met with general publlo acceptance. The press service announcementebruary, reprinted in all the local papersebruary, that two newspapermen had been expelled from Guatemala naturally caused tho local papers to scream with rage. ndre typical of the items published in the press as the result of the action against the newspapermen.

II. Attachmentsndre articles concerning Jorgohe Panamanian Diplomat allegedly involved In the plot against Guatemala. ebruary La Kopubllca published an artiole stating that the Panamanian diplomat" who had been Implicated in the plot was In San Joseithout mentioning DELGADO's name. On I* Fobruary, La Republloaeport indicating that Delgado had been dismissed from his post by the Panamanian Government. .

Attachmentshroughre non-attributed articles concerning the alleged plot, and the Communist hold on that country.

oncern the request of the Guatemalan government to the Costa Rlcan National Assembly for asupporting the Guatemalan position in the alleged plot.ndicates that the President of the National

4

Assembly at first attempted to pigeon hole the Guatemalan request, but that It was finally necessary to turn It over to the Foreign Relations Commlttoe of the Assembly for study, because of the Insistence of tho opposition. Attachments an odltorlal from La Keelonebruary opposing the passage of tho resolution of solidarity with Guatemala. The matter was finally broughtote onebruary and the following non-committal resolution waa passed: Costa Rica "renews its faith in and adherence to tho lnter-Amerlcan principle of respect for the sovereignty of each country, and condemns all foreign intervention in any American country. In accordance with the Bogota Charter and Montevideohis resolution was prefaced by the statement that Guatemala had not proven Its caso, for which reason Costa Rica waa unable to fully comply with Its request. Onebruary Acting Foreign Minister Fernando FOORNIER told Mr. C. Allen Stewart, First Secretary of tho Amerioan Embassy in San Jose, that the resolution had been worked out carefully to avoid siding with Guatemala, and at the same time not Insult that country by refusing to pass it, or merely acknowledging their request. Curiously enough, tho opposition deputies who Insisted on the introduction of the resolution In the first place, attempted to substitute for the government resolution during theebruaryesolution which merely would have acknowledged tho Guatemalan request.

Attachments the firstorlea of three artloles which appeared in El Dlarlo do Costa Ricaebruarythe text of the Guatemalan charges. Onebruary AlJilarloetter of protest from the Nlcaraguan Ambassador denying completely the charges made by the Guatemalan Government.

Attachment lp3 ls an article datellned Washington, which appeared ln La Republlcaebruary, concerning Senator Fullbrlght'a speech praisingta Rican handling of the United Fruit Company situation ln oontrast with the same Company's treatment in Guatemala.

Attachmentshroughre news stories and articles concerning the Dominican Republic's charges that the communists are transferring their center of operations from Guatemala to Costs Rica. These charges caused considerable roactlon here in San Jose; much more than the accusations made by Guatemala. Of particular Interest Isn editorial from

La Republlcaebruary which *tates ln the penultimate parefraphittle moroonthominican Diplomatertain Costa Rican doctorysterious trip with the following itinerary: Mexico; Miami, Ia Kabena, Ciudad Trujlllo, Caracas. Tho last lap of the trip was madelandestine manner, that is, tho arrival and doparture of the

hybat/

plane waa not legally recorded"^ Naturally, thisto the trip of Rafael Angel CALDERON Guardla toand odacid have both previously reported that

Government circles in Costa Rica were aware of the trip, probablyombination of Costa Rican diplomatic reports, and agents of Juan bosch and Romulo Botancourt.

Attachmentonsists of an envelope of press service reports on Communism in Guatemala, tho Caracas conference, the Guatemalan charges, and the Dominican charges, which appeared in the local pressanuaryebruary. It should be noted that while the papers generally publish the news service dispatches as rocolved, they have used their hoads and sub-heads do some editorializing. urvey of these heads indicates that Guatemala Is often labelledamning phrase in democratic Costa Rica.

Sto/an R. Labanow

Enclosures: As abovet__

obruary

lles

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA