K-PROGRAM - REPLY TO GUAT 375

Created: 4/21/1954

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o*ur orAL RR,|EWAS SANITIZED

Reply to

ATTHi Grtbu L. PkGK

accordance with your request, therecnoiae statement for your adaptation aa appropriate, tef J} con8ua$jtlaa.

The non-intarrention policy of the American Government la known and established. Thle policy baa tba await of morality and dignity in international affairs* it distinguishes the united States from the soviet Onion, with ita constant intervention In the Internal affairs of other atatee. However, the realities of International life today being what they are. the scrupulous observance by the American Government of tbea-intervention policy hasoodly number of private and influential American citl-sens, both Daaoorets and Republicans, to chafe at lt. hould be familiar, froa Ms study of American opinion, with the overt Amarioanof reeentoent at some of the caunaions of the American Government in internationalwit, atatenents to the effect tbat the united States Government is not doing enough to aid indigenous anti-Ccnvamlsts throughout the world. Because of this sentinent, on numerous occasions, private American groups have banded together to support this or that anti-Communist cause In various parts of the world. Radio free Europe is en example of such private American initiative; the Freedom Train, organised

by Drew Pearson, ia another; the activities of the Ford Foundationhird.

. In tha case ofroup of American Individuals, Influential in the preao, the profeaeiono and business, and joined by peraonalommon interest in Latin America and common devotion to the antl^cmoantiat cause in the western Hemisphere, have bended together to support any legitimate.

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decent, opposition to tho Arbens regime. Thia group, which prefers to remain enocymoua, does not uiah to embarraea or to burden tho Guatemalan anti-Comaunlsts with political or eoonoadc Tba reeaonlng of th* group on thia point la vary clear. Th* Soviet system la nonellthlo; th* Soviets cannot brook any deviation froa their ocaaaada or any disobedience to thalr orders; the Soviet* must, in order to aonoeed aad to survive, have tbe world organised strictly according to their dictates. The requirements of American deaocracy are quite different; Aaarloa Itselfluralistic society, ccejposed of many diverse groups with competitive interests; each nan's and each group's freedom Uvea by dint of the other nan's and the other group's liberty; the sua total of Individual liberties guarenteoe the survival cf democracy. By tba same token, la foreign affairs, enlightenednorl can olreeognlseluralistic world society, composed of many free and independent states Is more useful to tbe Amerioan way of lifeax Americana. Freedom end independence, wherever thay exist, are ipso. fjkflip_ hostile to the Soviet union and therefore beneficial to tha united States. Enlightened Americans, aueh as those who compose th* group that ia aiding antl-Comauoisa in Guatemala, would thsrafor* consider It inlnioal, to their beat efforts to attempt to detract froa the independence of the Guatemalan antt-Coaannlst movement by loading It with political entanglements.

... This American group la also wall aware that freedom and Independence can only spring from native roots. These things must be desired by ths peoples of various countries; they cannot be granted or imposed. The group therefore conceives its function to be mora that of eliciting local sati-Coanuniat strength, of supporting it sad guiding It, than to control it or dlreot it. is previously stated, each local and individual upsurge of anti-Coaxunlsm and freedom benefits the enlightened interests of Aaerlcan cltisane and tba acre genuinely Indigenous such an upsurge, the more beneficial to American interests and tbe acre ontl-CoaaunlBt will it be.

In seeking Guatemalans whoso onti-Communist activities itthe American group necessarily bad to select exiles, boththeir aooeaaibility and because exiles were tha only ones who badfreedom aneech and action to be able to make their positionsupportingCALLIGERIS, tho group in no way meant to pre-judge

any choice by the Guatemalan people} once It entered Into relations hips with these two men, the group of course felteep and abiding loyalty to them; but tbe group, nonetheless- considered and still considers these men vehicles for tha benefit of the Guatemalan people end the anU-Conouciet cause la Guatemala. The group certainly hopes thai its choice of theae two man will bs borne out by the public acclaim and the support they receive and it certainly hopes that these two man enjoy the public confidence at preoant. however, once the Guatemalan Coaauniota ore defeated, tbe group would assume that the normal process of political events, where the beat man should win, would again take over in Guatemala.

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and alland ne written egreenttnta be taw sn tbaC JandT,ERI3 exlat relate only to the beet way of gettingoat of Guatemala. At ae tine haae any political or eceoosdeoo tba part of thaleadera to aay foratga laterdieouaeedi the only understanding that exists la that Guatemala, waderpolicy, wouldeaceful, neo miaveraiva setaralationa aad that Guatemala would afford foreign economictreataentcoaiateDt with the beet intareats of Guatemala aodgenerally accepted aores of oommerolal interoouree between demooratiogroup baa specifically excluded from its ranks any Individuals withindirect financial concern in American enterprises presently operatingas previously stated, th* group is first and foremostallnl noting th* Ccemauilat* aad it believes tbat eufficient benefits topeople will flow froa tbe eooonpliearnest of tbat objectiveeccnosde interests nasi take their torn atendlong ef tar tha primary Job haa bsen dona. Furthermore, th* group,and without any written connectsCALLIGXHIS, la

in no position tc rwmeat any speolfio political or ceononac gaersntee*. On ths other bendf _Jand CALL1QKRIS, being preoUoal aen, know fall well that thay are not In any position to make any promises aad being devoted to Guatemala, know that they will have to oonsult representative segments of the Guatemalan public lntereat before they ereosition to treat definitively on such natter*.

s stated before, tha group attaches great aigniflcanca to th* truly indigenous oharaotsr of any antl-Coaaunlat movement. This means that the group, on principle andatter of practicality, places no reliance on invasions or on external action directed against Guatemala. One of the moat era of theistinguished political scientist, has consistently maintained that soy entl-Communist movement in Guatemala which bore the stamp of an Invasion would provoke such public resentment that it would only serve to iPFr'all Communion permanently In Guatemala; tha leaders of the group and th* members of it ahare thie saint ol view. Therefore, one of the primary criteria applied by the group to f_ Jand CaLLICErOS waa whether they Beamed to have an appreciable and honor ablo following inside the ccuntxy. This waa determined to tb* group'a aatlafaetloo. In conferences with^, Jjand CALLIGBRIS, It waa establiahad that they, too, stoutly oppoead any thought of invading and that they were thoroughly convinced that popular action againet th* Guatemalan Connxuniata would have to coma from Uie inside of tbs country.

Toe analogy ic undouotedly unfortunate, but it is, historically, ths beet known availablei It ia envisaged tbat CaLLIGKhlS, something like LENTS, will return fron exile to lead the popular antl-Coanunlet movement. At the opportune ncmant, CaLUGKkLS will return us Guatemala and will nobUlsa his follow era from within tha country and not fron without. e exact manner in which he will do this cannot now, of course, be revealed, but the general

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principle la onfficientlv Indicate try tba analogy. At tbatALLIQE8I8 will have hitand repressntativoa briefed end la place to aolleit tha instantaneous support of aaa each aa

?.ord about tba ourreat division of laser bstwsaaf^ 3 CALLICraiS has primarily aa artaalsaUeaal reaponslcharred with politioal planning. At tho proper tlaa.

GALLIC KRIS will ba reeponaiblo for avift aad dacialre acUoc,

will bo reoponalblo for tha local, edatinlstrative aad politicalthe uti-CoaBBunlst order. TMe division of labor between tbe twororlaloaal one andCALLIGERIS hero ever

concelTad of theneelves aa anything but willing to receive the asaiatance, the advlae, and tho support of saw adherents.of oompereblo stature to tholr councils. Indeed, both of then here regretted that few nan of known reputation and ability have thus far been willing to make their stand clear and thay would be the first to welcome and to reward further adherents to their cause.

lu. It lo olear that neither new nor in the period of victor* oanany selfish haggling or wrangling over posts andCALLIGEPIS throughout have pursued thoir enterprise withnatter what their detractors may any, and tbey neon to oontlnnspecial bill tlee, high or low, at tho moo ant seen necessary tovictory and the permanence of anti-Cceammi am in Gnat Thoy willto accept into their ranks anyone who ls willing to Join in that atercoenrae,rue tore will have to bethe now regime. CALLICERIS are of the firm opinion that

the united will that vilTTead to victory can also devise an ami noble and practical resolution of these leaser probloaa when tbo tine lo appropriate.

.CALLIGERIS have now been workingeam for over a

arTrof that tine, thoy were virtually alone and until thoy we)

year.

able to noMllae certain denonatrahle re scarce a, tbey did not havo the support of the Aaerlcen group. The group baa, bower er, now promlead them support until success ia obtained, at whloh tine the group will recede from the picture and leave to normal Guatemalan developments and to the lwnnel courae of interne-ticaal relations tho future of antl-Ccrajmlam In Guatemala.

3. Tho above was dictated Idin the approximately thirty annates that were available to the writer between receipt ofnd his own departure by plane for consultation at Headquarters. Its defects are all too apparent to the writer. It would be appreciated if Graham L. PACK would request clarification of speoific points by cable.

JEROME C. DIHSAK

JCD/JTayeaf4uaSemala

Washington

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