GENERAL- OPERATIONAL - SPECIFIC- WEEKLY PSYCH INTELLIGENCE REPORT, 5-12 APRIL 1

Created: 4/22/1954

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**ec,ne* Wcokly Psych Intelligence Report,24 REFERENCE: HULA-40

one of the last weekly psychological reports fromwritten In late January, wo notedeelingwas deflnitoly spreading. It ls bolieved thatla also valid for the2 the present reporting period the feeling ofovershadowed by that of norvousnoss. Insecurity,uncertainty regarding the future as foltenemy

esume of whit aro bollovod to bocontributing to the attitudes of friendly andwith attention given primarily to the capital cityis regretted that our knowledge of theargetao limited and it io hoped that wider coverage can boduring following weeks.

ESTIMATEHEMf SITUATION

Reporting period has been narked by an ever-lncroaslngand uncertainty throughout most of the arenas of interest. The government has lagged farther and farther behind_JLn paying the wagos Of itsha struggle Tor uhTty In pro-government political parti es^ias not met with cob:'late success nor ar* the Communists satis field with their position, and rumors concerning activities of high-ranking military men are rifii. Tho government has sought to hold the groups which support it by such moeaurea as oponlng an exhibitGuatemalan success at Caracas and by froolng one of thorisoners, while at the same time dl splaying Its uneasiness In such actions as tho arrest of Oscar COKDE on his arrival In Guatemala. In addition, the alleged attempt on SOMOZA In Nicaragua and hismeasures have been the subject of government press releases and havo received wide pressresumably in an effort to

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divert attention from tho local scene.

pril the press reported that complete work stoppage was threatenedublic roada workers due to tho failure of the government to pay their salaries for theeeks, and onpril announced the protestembersostalw orders' union regarding thoir failure to receive overtime payments duo then; for theonths. Kunicipal employees are also awaiting labor benefits afforded then by the Hirst Labor Courtecent ruling.

Although the PAR Congress, held during the latter part of rare sought to re-establish party unity, five now "independent" ex-PAR Deputies havo still not been restored to party membership and in addition, there are approximatelythor "dissident" Deputies (formerly of the PRO and the RN) who no longer claim any party affi liation. While it is not know how serious the government considers this rift to be, tho fact thatunity of the pro-governmentbloc has been wcakoned la believed significant.

It haa been strongly hinted that those five PAR Deputies who are still outside tho PAR fold are strictly opportunistic in their political outlook. At tho samo timo, however, each would notto seok an audience with President ARBENZ for the purpose of informing the latter of any attempt to "convert" or to attompt to influence the Deputy to Join some other cause currontly regarded by the government as in opposition to their aims. In other words, if the Deputy were approached and asked to ongage in something contrar; to SRBEKZ1 way of thinking, tho Deputy would run to ARDKNZ an anin order togiin the supposed pat on the back he feels would be forthcoming from the President.

The ^oramunists themselves havo been rumored to be too afraid to attempt any disturbances in the near future and are makingplana in theeod for such should arise. During the period they havereat deal of attention and publicity to the forthcoming May Day aiobration and parado in an effort to furthe solidify their position among labor. It has previously been reporte that Carlos Manuel PELLECER, Communist labor leader, has boon In the Quezalte%ngo area during this period where his efforts among market

women have not been received with favor. It has also been reported that ho may be "exiled"iplomatic post in Czechoslovakia due

to his differences with the head of the DAN, Major Alfonso MARTTHSZ.

Heretofore, PELLECER has held undisputed away in the Eacuintla area

and has personally supervised the campesino invasions of Oneas thore.

His removal and the campaign to install "ARTIHL'Z, with his pledges o;

just administration of tho Agrarian Reform, as the ultimate authority

in agrarian matters, appear to be partlan to "play down"

Communist Influence in thia realm.

Carlos

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As for military circles, rumors of discontent with theamong high-ranking military men continued to be heardof an nrmprt movement against the government planned forCol. GONZALEZ Segui was reported. Col. <

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Enrique DIAZ, Chief of the Armed forces, is reported to have said that AHBSrTZsetting sun" shortly before he departed for Souf-America accompanied by two aides. Although there was muchin the press concerning the purpose of his travel, the cover ment issued no statement regarding his departure nor the true reaso behind such travel at this time.

pril Col. AlfredtfvteTAIJEDA Rodriguez, arrested in conne tion with the Salaraa uprising ofias released by the government while universitys tudents demanded that attention be giv the case ofniversity student similarly arrested who Is believed to be losing his eyesightesult of maltreatne In the Salama jail.

However, despite the example of government leniency toward opposition elements mentioned above, Oscar COWDE, outspoken anti-Communist owner of Radio Universal, was arrested as he arrived at Aurora Airport following his return fromthe Caracas Conference. Although he disclaimed any illegal activity, he was still believed under arrest as the period closed.

pril the government, under the directionof the Foreign Ministry,Caracas Exposition" in the Uationalic' exhibited press clippings, photographs and works of art in an of for to defend and glorify Guatemala's stand at the conference. The "Caracas Exposition" is gaudy, colorfol and boastful. ew Quetzalos were spent in its preparation and theault i3 ar. eye-filling array of huge photographs (in color) depicting the forceful stand of Guatemala and TORIELLO's brilliant speeches durin the conference. It Is noteworthy, however, thatandful of people aro seen at any given time within the "Exposition" and it ca best be describedlop.

The reporting periodt ths end of the month-long student "strikeVvacation and was the week in which the student variety shevpril) and paradepril) took place. Although both hadanti-govemment political themca, they wore carried outpirit of good humor and satire andthout anybitterness with. and the Caracas Conference comine inarge share of the "treatment." It was noted that police con flscated anti-government, anti-Communist propagandalocks after it had begun to be distributed among onlookers. However, onl-an inebriated individual who had volunteered to held circulate this' material was arrested.

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ESTIMATERF, FRIENDLY SITUATION

The feeling of expectancy montioned in paragraphbove, waa combined with hopefulnoos on the part of opposition groups during reporting period but was temperedote of Impatience.

There his been an increase of anti-Communist, antl-governno-it feeling among friendly groups within the capital during this period due primarily to tho approach of Holy Weekw ith Its elaborate ro-liglous processions and rituals and the well-timed appearanceastoral letter prepared by the Archbishop which clearly brought out the danger to Guatoraala inherent In the anti-Christian, anti-rellgio tendencies of the present government. Anti-government feeling has also been sustained among landowners due to daily reports ofillegal invasions of fincaa by Communist-led campeslnos.

A chain reaction was set off by the releaso by tho independent pressprilastoral letter callingational crusade against Communism which was prepared by Archbishop Mariano ROSSELL y, Aroliana and first presentedermonpril (Soenterest was aroused by this letter tc lead local Communists, including Alfredo GUERHA Borgea and Victor Manuel GUTIERREZ, to rep] for the party in thepril issue of Trlbuna Popular, POT daily organ, in which they accused the Archbishop of forsaking his own fiv of religion to entor the political arena and of following theine as "the reaction and the imperialists." Bypril thepress had begun to take issue with the "onmiunist views as pi sented byorges and GUTIERREZ and were replying in their ed: torial columns. It Is anticipated that the issue will bo koptby the press and sustained by ESSENCE efforts to publicize thethroughout the country. Despite the Communist rebuttal, it Is bell that this lotter mot with almost universal approval within the eapi and represents the first Instance in which an antl-Communlst/rollgi* appeal has ovoked such widespread interest and-approbation among al! sections of the populace, including non-practicing Catholics and Pr< testants from all economic levels.

Clara H. Heagey

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