Created: 5/5/1954

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^imrPTT HUMERAL Nicarguan Matters

SPECIFIC Position of Anastasio SOM02A

REPi li

There isemorandum prepared for the Chief ofutlining relation between Costa Rica and Nicaragua and analyzing the present position of SOMOZA with reference to PBSUCCESS.







SOMOZA Plana Re Coeta Bloa

During the peat few daya Coata Rloan official* hare oh own an increasing emount of apprehension concerning eotivltiea ln Nicaragua, thla feeling of autual suspicion dates book to tbe days7 whenUERES decided to take affaire In his own hands and see that ths will of ths people vaa respected. It is fel?rly clear Otllio ULATS defeated Teodorouppet of Rafasl CALDEROH Ouardie, In ths electionsd, but PICADO decided to take offloe enyeey. PTGASHESroup of ranohera in tbe Mlla and, aided by sympathisers froa Bicaragua, Guatemala, Henduraa snd tha Donlnican Republic, he aarohed on tbe oapltal snd deposed PICADO. PIODERES renal sort as chief of state9 when be turned the governseat over to ULATE. The letter was thea elootedour year tare FIOLERES vaa elootedb.

SOMOZA snd PIGUERES bare always disliked each other intensely. Ideologically tho two ere far apart, and personal natters are also involved. It is understood that SOMOZAucrative but illegal cattle business with CALDRRON, which he loet when the latter vas expelled froa Coeta Rica. PiauSRES was on friendly terns with the 'liberal'1 governments of Central Anerlca and the Caribbean, or Ouatarsals, Mexico, snd the former PRIO

la Cuba. SOMOZA feared the capabilities of thla group, aa ha naturally felt that Nloaragua was more or less homed ln, particularly If El Salvador'* whose position was always uncertain, ahould aide with ths "liberal" nations. SOMOZA was supported by Honduras, the Doalnloan Republic, Venesuela, and Panama, to scan extant. FTCCERES welcomed exiles from the dictator countries, end this further irked SOMOZA.

the suiti3 thereorder clash betweenand Nicaragua. Troope of both countriea crossed the frontier, but

it eppesred fairly definite that Costa Rioa,roup of exiles supported by FIOUERTS, aede the first move. Tbe OAS waa iamedistely oailed inommission was went to petrol the jorder. SOMOZA waa angry end said on aeveral ooceions that ifented to start some thine, tha Ouardla Naclonal woulJ be in San Jose withinours. During the next few yeare there vas constant friction between the two countries. Nloaragusn exiles snd the Conservative Party plotted regularly to overthrow SOMOZA. Tho latter has always been on tha alert for any invasion from Costs Rica,


but Uwjd aro rev ir_2Ac.ticca that be ever considered en attaok oa that ooontry, Ua did dve eupport to CiLDERCH and PICADO, and many reporte were received that Coata Rican en laa attempted to regain control of their oountry through the purchase of eras and the active baoldnc of the Ouardla Naclonal. Certainly somoza did not do much to dlecoureje their activities. PICADO vaaovanrant Job by SOMOZA and he was alvaye oloae to Nlcaraguan offlciale,

U. Thia was the situation when PBSUCCESS etarted oporaticoe. * aa attes-pt ass aade to overthrew SOHCZA, end theTioaraguan Conservativeo, based their operations la Coataware brought acroaa Lake Nicaragua froa points user the frontieron to Managua. SOMOZA knows that thle aWfeaasst received eupportend the latter le undoubtedly afraid now that the Ouardla-aova against Coata Rica In line with the many threete whichaade. Costa "lea has evldenoe that troooe are beinp trained Insite la supposedly at Tipltapa and this

location ia oonneotediver to Lake aioaragua and the nos to Coata Rica by an all-water routs. It ie believed that FICOERES sincerely fears SOHBA'B Movee, The fact that Franoisoo CaLDEROM Guardla, tha brother of Rafael, has reportedly been eeen at training areas In Nicaragua haa done nothing to allay theee auspicious,

5. The possibility certainly axlete that SOHOZA may be planninglookovyoerta Pica, but this appears In the opinion of

suoh intention. Alia redly be would take no action wnioh sight riskUnited Statea. eoeat conversation Scr-OZA stated that Costabe grateful for the Kutual Aid treaty between the States andas now he cannotove against Costa Rioa.

I lie policy haa always been to be ready to repell any atteca. However, he probably would agree to supportotorial beats any move directed against FTOUE PS, which would apparently originate within Coota Rica ltsolf,


Analysis of SOMOZA Plans Ks Coats Rloan Situation

The key paragraph InT ataoay Is the lasta eye In effect that although tha possibility exlate, itA nay be planning to uaa PBSUCCESSloakaore against Costa Rloa.

thisully agree eren to they that under tbe presenthaa so nuoh to gain from not taking any action againstand so nuch to lose If he should take euob action, that heundnrtake such action for the present*

of th- things be has to gain by aot taking set loooontlnned Massing ef the US| (b) not baring to sake good onagainst PIGORHKS but still having the ability to talk bigeanc internal political banefit therefrom. In fact, itprobable that the noise that 3CM0ZA aakaa in the directionPica is eoatly for internal political reasons.

Since It le iaprobeble that SOMOZA leuse PB5TJCGSSSloakovo against Costa Rica, itthere ia little current danger to PBSUCCESS from SOMOZA en

With regard to the Coata Rican fears ofreason to be frightened. They knew that they haveSOMOZA bylot bgainst hln recently. TheySOMOZA Is threatening PIGUKPES In public statements, knov of broops training In Nicaragua. In thiaquestion arises ae to whether it woold be useful to ealnqualamOZA, aod if so what would be the beat waythen.

b. Conclusioni It eacas possible that Costa Rlcen fesraused to scan advent-ape of PBSncCESS. These fears night bea peg to get some kind of cooperation out of Coata Rlee inaoae kindnmiee or guarantee of Costa Rican safety inof Invasion froa Hies: .


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