CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED
CftANLUM FOP: CHIEFS, ALL AREACHIEFS
Material on Guatemala
Attached heretoopy Of in unclassified paper entitled "Soviet CosBunlss in Guateaala." This paper is being trenaEltted aa background support material for efforts designed to identify tbe Arbeni regime in GuotcroRle with the international cnmaunint movement. Guidance on recent developments in Guatemala was contained in fp memorandaune.
jobs'K. BAKER Acting Chief Poychological and raroailitary Operations Staff
: 'TABLE OF CONTENTS
Scope of the Guatemalan ConauniBt
Tha Soviet Apparatus in> .
ha Guateoalan Communistoviet Control of the Guatemalan Communist
abor and Mass Organisations* Under Soviet. .
Comnunist Controls on Guatemala'a Political Institutions
Influence on the Governmentv,'
Influence on Policy.
- : ej Social Security
Armed Forces and Police
Position in Congress '
O) Judiciary Syapatheticli) Coomunist Sympathizers in Administration Parties
Guatemalan Communism and the Hemisphere
I. THE SCOPE OF THE QDATHiALAS CCMatWIST PROBLEM -i '. .
political institutions of *the'Republic ofhavefallen, slncoa-Jg-^rtitBcieffective though sbmetiaes'oatidafiaged- control ofdel Trabajo, tho agcht of the Sovietthat country,
arp deteriorate no ao- rapidlygovernment pressure that unless action is taken.the establishment of the first Soviet-cotrtrblled "People'sypV of'.'siatV in the Astern Hemisphere-ishis would be the fira ^occasioneoinaiiist-controlled sUto had.been established outside of the area adjacent to Soviet military power and wouldreakthrough of Soviet aggression into the innerof the democratic community.
will be made clear in the evidence presented below, the Soviet-controlled Partido Guatemalteco del Trabajo has followed in Guatemala thesystem of infiltration of key government agencies andetwork of interlocking political, labor and "mass" youth organisations throughew carefully placed and wellCommunists can control the political activity of large groups of citizens.
Tho heart of the'system is the Political Conraittec. Politburo) cf tho party, hooded by Jooe Manuel FORTUKY, the Secretary Gonoral of the POT, who returnedisit to Moscow ir> January of this year.
Uembers of this Political Committee are in effective control of the "Rational Democraticho formal alliance of all partiesPresident Arbors; cf the Ccafedaracldh General de Trabajadorea de Guatemala, tbe national labor federation; and of the llationil Peaceand the principal youths', students' and women's organisations.
While the Guatemalan Communists have not had tha protection of Soviet military might provided in Eastern Europe and Asia, this has been substituted' for by the protection and active support of the Arbena President Arbena has repeatedly and publicly made clear histo the CoBUBuniat movement, referring to it in his latest annual report to the Guatemalan Congress on March, aa "democratic" andand stating that it would"sulcida" for his Administration to cove against it.
Under hia protection, tba Communist leaders of tbe POT have gained key positions in tha national Agrarian Department and the Agrarian Committees which administer tha Agrarian Reform Lawntended to transfer half of Guatemala's arable land to new occupants and owners and eventually radically to transform Guatemala's economic, social, and political structure. At the same timo, the Arbenshas facilitated tho Communist infiltration of government-owned information agencies with tho reault that tha Guatemalan public is olewly but steadily having its mind moldedroad stream of Communist Tha mind of tho next generation of Guatemalans is also being shaped by an infiltration of Communists, ao favored by the government that some have been made officials of the Ministry ofhe powerful national teachers union STEG is under the leadership of an avowed Ccccn.nltt, Pas's* 1who is currently promoting tha teaching methods he observedrip to the USSR in tba summer Aa one of his first actaT, President Arbena appointed Alfonso SOLOaZAKQ,Coanuniat formerly associated with Vicenteecano, tho Mexican labor leader, aa Manager of tho Guatemalan Institute of Social Security (IGSS) and that wealthy government agency hasocal point of tbe Communist movement in Guatemala.
The favor of the current Administration and the Communistof government agencies has made available to tha Communist PGT, government facilltiaa in tha form of free publio buildings, government automobiles, government advertising, and government subsidies which have enabled it to carry out and increase its activities.
In tha political sphere, with tha support of the Preaident, tha Communist PUT has become the dceanant poiitloai party in tha coalition of leftist organisations suppcrtine the Arbena 'Administration.
Communist domination of the other parties has been established because of tbo faot that it hasositive and dynamic program while tho other parties, having none of their own, have had to follow the Communist lead; bocause of the fact that tho other parties are divided among and within themselves while tho Communistsight discipline! and because of the faot that tha Communistsisproportionately large representation in tha "National Dasocratio front" where four of the twelve seats are held by party aeabers and at least four others by publicly-known Ccmnunlst sympathies!*.
Tbe Political Committee of the PGT has thus established itself in firm control of key areas of the Guatemalan Oovomoant, of organized labor and the country1principal mass organizations, and of the political parties which support tho Arbena Administration, forging the wholeingle instrument to follow Moscow's will. To keep the party oriented
. travelled in tho Sortet ortU -nS^jSned^have,o guide the.GuateaaUn Re^utila^^
21. THE SOVIET APPARATUS IB GUATEMALA
The Guatemalan Ccaaunlst Party. The Partido Cuateaaltecorabajohich now has anOO" card-carrying mea-bers,ightly, organized conspiratorial group modelled on the Soviet Ccsaunlat party of tba Stalin era. The party was- founded la secretfter preparatory indoctrination in the classicstudy groups" which were establishedrade unions and leftist political parties after the lyUi Guatemalan Revolution. The party was_ .technically illegal and remained more, or less under cover through.the, rest of Presidentda Ini strati on, until*
When President Arbens took offico onhe Ccarauniet-party rapidly caae into the open and occupied positions of influence. Onolorzano waa appointed Manager of the Guatemalan Institute of SocialGSS). On April u. go.
the first tisesigned aaanifestoGeneral of the Coaaunlst Party ofn May, Louis SAILUNT, Secretary General or th* International Coamunist World Federation cf Trade, Unionsand VicenteToLsdano, Secretary. Oeneral of the Co nf edc racl o'n-de Trabajadorea de America Lattna (CTAL) came*to Guatemala toransport worker* congress and adviovd the Ooateaajiap labor aovesent to uniteingle federation.he Communist party held its first public rallyotion picture theater provided by the Goverrcent and with th* attendance of Cabinet. Ministers and other high officials. In October, the.Guateaalan labor BOvoaentnity movement and established the Confederaclo'n Cewral de Jrabejsdores do Oca teaCGTG) .as the single national labor federation and eleotod"victor Manual CV?TfltlR5Z. an avowed Communist, as ita Secretary Oeneral at the head of an Executive, Coeeittee in which all of th* key positions were held by Communists. Despito the openlyactivities of the GOTO, it was duly registered by the ArbenaDepartment of Labor in disregard of the provision of Guateaalan Labor Code of lylT which forbids political activity by labor
he Gcaaunist party aade furthereturning".from Moscow in January, the labor leader (iitlerrei dissolved'his Communist Partido Revoluclonarlo Cbrero dc Guatemala (PROG) and joined JficfiUiXla. Partido Coatunlata de. Onhe Bucharest organ of tha Coalnform,asting Peace,eople)'3 Ceaocracy" published an article about the PCG, tnus acknowledging it as tha instrument ofCcmaunism in Guatemala. Curing the period Mayh* partyeading role in the enactaent of the Agrarian Rafora Law which .was steered through Congress by the 8pecial Congressional Ccomittee cn Agrarian Reform headed by the Ccmaunist labor leader, Gutierrez, who laeputy. The party then quickly infiltrated the Agrarian Reform machinery and used it as an instrument to gain members to expand the party Ir. rural areas. The party, which has operated openly since Arbenz' ccaing to pewor, was now ready tolegal" partyarty Congress was hold on December Th* party nam* was changed to the Partlde QuateaaltecQ del Trabajo (PQTJ and it was registered on Doceabery the Director General of the CivlVRegistry despite Articlefonstitution which elated at suppressing Nasi, Pascist and Ccaaunlat organizations by prohibiting "political organizationsoreign or international character!'.
With tho statueegal poiitloai party, the Communlat POT grew rapidly in austere and influenceu. It was acceptedember of tbe "Democratic Electoral Front' for the campaign leading up to the3 Congressional elections and all of the parties supporting Arbens united to present Fortuny as theandidate for Deputy for Guatemala City and the Communist leader Carloaas the candidate for Esculntla. According to tho statement of Bernardo .AU'AJjAPO.Monson, POT Secretary for Organisation,arty organisation mooting inho party doubled in members betweenJ2 and It has since expandedapid rate. ally Communist party newspaper. Tribune Popular, began publicationress furnished by the Government and aided by Government advertising and, according to independentovernment subsidy. Tha "Democratic Electoral Front" was transformed into tha "National Democratic Front" and came under increasing Communist domination by adding thecntrolled national labor federation CGTO and the Communist-Influenced national caapeilno organite-ticn CHCG to tha Administration parties which originally comprised it. Inhe Communist POT showed its strength by running Inelections for the first time independently, end won four of six contests in which it entered candidates.
2. Soviet Control of the Guatemalan Ccmnnnist Party. The Communist PGT has openly shown itself to be. an instrument of Soviet policy by its undeviating adherence to Soviet policies in its tactics and propaganda in Guatemala. Tha links between the.Soviet Comsunist hierarchy and theleadership are dose and .personal. Since the beginningth*bcra of the Political Committee have visited Moscow, Fortuny himself golne there on an extended visit from November3 tok- While tbe comings and goings of international Ccnnunist emlasartea.,in Guateaala areatter of public record, it was observed thatikhail SAHOTLQV, Commercial Attache' of the USSE Embassy in Mexico visited Guatemala3 he spent much of his tlaa with Fortuny and other Guatemalan Cuasunlst leaders. The'party leadership openly recelvee propaganda materials from the Soviet Embassy in Mexico and the Cottnform Journalasting Peaceeople'sequired reading for Coammnist leaders everywhere, ia distributed is Guatemala in the. Spanish edition. Id addition, the party aa evidenced by Its reprints In Tribune Popular, receives Moscow's New Tinea and.other principal Soviet foreign publicatione aa well asewa service. .
Kith these orienting materials, the party has faithfully followed the Soviet line even when it waauring the so-called "doctor's plot" incident in Moscowha party press found itself in the- position of intimating thatecurity police had beenon another day that the whole plotabrication and Berla exonerated, and finally tbat 3eriaraitor.
3. Labor and Mass Organinations Urdor Soviet11th ita limited membership,'the Communist PGT has relied for the expansion ofnfluence In Guatemala'a political life on its-control of tha labor-and of the "mass" organisations, all of which are affiliated with and instructed by Soviet-controlled international'Cooimunlst organizations. The principal of those organisations arei. i
aj Tha Confederaclo'n General de Trabajadores de Ouatemalahe national labor federation which-controls Guatemala's organised labor. Its Secretary General is Victor Kaaueiemberhe Political Committee of the POT who visited Moscow2 andts first Vice Secretary Oenerel le Jose Alberto CARDCZA, also of the POT Political Committee, and most of the rest of its key positions are POT members, at least four of whom have been to Moscow.
t has been formally affiliated with tha KFTU, theSovjet-controlled labor federation with headquartersand with Loobrado Toledano'a CTAL in Mexico City. Thesesend instructions to the leadershipand Gutierrez and other leaders hate attendedCTAL Congresses at which they found means to coordinatetactics with the strategy of world j '.
b) The Confederacldn Nacional Campeslna de Guatemalahe national organization of peasants, Is'under strong Conmunist influence. The Secretary Oeneral of the CHCO, Leonardo CASTTrjf) Floras', has been active in pro-Communist eauitos. He atter.dsd the WiO meeting in Vienna innd spent the following month touring the Soviet Union. Heice President of the Soviet-line national Peace Comaltten In Oueteaala and bas faithfully followed the. Soviet line cn International setters and the tactics of Soviet CcaaunlsB in Guatemalan politics. Tba CHCG Is also affiliated vlth the international Coesunist organizations BFTU and CTAL, froa' which it receives instructions and propaganda.
' a) The National Peace Committee (CoaiU Nacional de la Pas)principal.vehicle for spreading Soviet propaganda in Guatemala. la Antomnrsnrp -hvt control Is centered in theGeneral, j'arm Spy*ember of the POT PoUUcalwho spent sose four months in the Soviet Union Vice Presidents are Lulato Moscow, Gutierrez and Castillo Floras, snd MajorFRANCO^ current President of the Guatemalan Congressa World Peace Council meeting in Budapest, Hungsry in- The National Peace Committee is an affiliate of theCouncil, an international Cosaunist agenoy with headquartersCzechoslovakia. In Guatemala, it has collected asignatures on the World Peace Council petition forBooag the great powers. Including Ccsztuniet China. Duringhostilities, it Shtared throughout Ouataaale.in
a fila purporting to "prove' that, the felted Rations Ccecand alloyed bacteriological weapons.
d) The AJianaa de la Juventad DsaccraUcs de Guatemala (AJEG),tho aost trcainent youth organization in Ouatemala, is completely under Communist control. Its Secretary Oeneral, -di-.lhrrt.r- ti-jp^ jclnft, sonrominent Comnunist Nicaraguan exile living In Ouatemala, attended the Bucharest Youth FestivalU alongarge group of members of the AJDO Executivehe group later toured In the. Soviet Union and ocae wont to Communist China* The AJDO la an affUiate of tho international Comaunlst youththe Wforld FederaUon of Democraticmu) with, current headquarters in Bucharest, Rumania. DU furniahes tbe Guatemalan organization with guidance aaterial rofleotlng the Soviet line. :
e) The Alianza Fq-enina QuateaalUoaoe country's most proalnent women's organization, is.oomunist front Its Secretary General, Doraomennist public school teacher, visited the Sovietcoaunist Chinataffiliated with the InternaUooal FederaUon of Eeoocratic
ontrolled organisation with headquarters in
f) The Frenta-Ur-iversltarlo Democratlco (FID) la the Cocaunlst front organization in the University of San "Carlos, ^uatonala's nati
unlverslly. Itinority of the student body which is preponderantly antl-Comesinist inhe FUDroup of six or more of its officers to the Communist Students Congress in fiarsaw in the summer3 and some of these went on the tour of the Seriet Union that followed. AURusteCAZALI, the FUD Secretary Generalpent the summer of that year in Bucharest, Rumania. The FUD is an affiliate of the Soviet-controlledational Students' Union (ISU) with headquarters at Prague.
IH. CCKMUSIST CGfiTRDLS OH GUATEMALA'S POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
cessunist Influence on the Governmenti Hcrklng under the guidance cf Soviet policy and Communist doctrine, the POT has used its control of the labor and mass organisation and exploited President Arbena1 sympathetictoward Communism to exert the determining influence over the policy of the Guatemalan Government and to establish control of key Guatemalan Government agencies. The numbers of publicly avowed Communists Ih key/ Government positions is enough to establish that the Communists are in" effective control of the civil Administration, even though the CooKunists, In characteristic fashion, keep their membership lists secret and it is probable that many Government officials who hare no visible ties with the POT are secretly party members.
a) InfluBncfl on policy Making
On the policy making Level the Communist-controlledemocratic Front" is largely replacing the Cabinetolicy-making body* For instanue, the Cccmunlet leader Carloa Manuel SLLECER revealedpeechhat the Guatemalan tactlca at the Cereeas Conference had been decided uponeeting attended by President Arbens, Foreign Minister TORJELLO and tha delegates of tba "National Democratic Front'. These dolegates always include two* Communists representing the PGT and two Communists for the COTO, making four avowed Conmunlsts among the tan delegates presontdainlstration party, the mi, does not occupy tbe eleventh and twelfth seats assigned to it on the Front due to an Internal party struggle which has prevented the designation of delegates). Iation, tha other delegates Include such prc-Comaunlsts as Castillo Flores of the CNCO and Major Marco Antonio FRANCO, the Vice President of the National Peace Committee, representing the PAS with the result, that the triumph of the Communist viewpoint on policy in the Front is assured.
. With policy making in the hands of theNational Democratiche argument that the Cabinet contains no Ccaaunlsts has no validity. The Cabinet has rapidly sunk into an executive and technical ageney aid for tactical reasons the CoaEuniets, who control policy, are at this stage content to allowho serve their interests be presented to the world ae Guatemala's Cabinet.
On the operating levels of the Government, the Ccemuniat PGT has concentrated on gaining oontrol of the agencies designed to implement the Agrarian Reform. Although tha Chief of the National Agrarian Department is Major Alfonsolose noo-Ccmaunlst friend of the President's, his Deputy, jfoldemar BARRIOSomhar' of
m. wife ol
the Communist PGT, andJerez doof theleader, is the Department's Secretary General. TheCorps of the Department, which is charged withReform caaes on the ground, contains at leastabout two-thirds of the
In addition, tha PGT, working through tha GOTO and CNCO,trong influence on the Agrarian Before through the Local and Departaental Agrarian Ccandttees. Coder the law three-fifths Of the membership of tho Local Agrarian Committee and two-thirds cf the membership of the Departaental Agrarian Committee are drawn froa the GOTO or CNCO and since the POT Is in effective control of the former and strongly influences the latter it is able to use these Coaalttees to its purposes. An outbreak of violence in connection with the Agrarian Refora in the Departnent of Chiquiaula on Aprilrought to light the fact that the Secretary Oeneral of the Local Agrarian Committee, the manager of the local branch of the National Agrarian Bank, the chief of police of tho locality, and the national Agrarian Depertaent Inspector for the Peparteent were all POT aeabers.
In the"field of government information, the PGT has also been especially active. Carlos ALVARADO Jerea. Director Oeneral of Radio Broadcasting,arty member and he lanagar thoatatioa TOW- The programs of the Guateeelen Governmentitriolic Coaaunlst propaganda supporting the Soviet viewpoint and attacking the YJestern democracies. Similarly, tha staff of thenewspaper Diario de Centre America is Communist infiltrated, including Madardon edliorisTwriter. This officialcarries Comsunist-Line propaganda on domestic and international affairs, invariably supporting the Soviet viewpoint. Por instance, it editorially charged the United Nations Command eaployedwarfare In Korea. Tho Office of Publicity and Propaganda of the Presidency also employs Communistoluding Riifluateaalan poet.
In the field of public education, the national teachers union is under Ccmaunist doalnation withj^afanl BjaMjfc,registered party member as its Secretary General. In July,haommunist-sponsored teachers Congress in Vienna and went on to the USSR where be studied Soviet educational methods. Several cfa aoat prceinent Ccecunlsts, including such persons as Gutlerres, Silva Jonaoa and Dor*ranco are public school teachers, and _Kuaberto Innacjocemunist DeputyppointedDirectorural high school after his tenure expired. The head of the Publishing House of the Ministry of Publicltor'to Torres,rominent Coasnnlst Nicaraguan exile.
e) Social Security
The Guatemalan Institute of Social Soouritynand wealthy government agency administering the Social Security Law, ia under Cosaunist doalnation through Alfonso Solorsaao, Its Manager,roup of subordinate Ccaaunlst officials. Solorsanoabor lawyer who was closely associated with Loabardo Toledano in Uexloo during hiaU exile andember of the Mexican Ccosainiat party there. In Guatemala, he is ostensiblyomaunlst and does not publicly belong to Poi-tuny'a POT, but to the left-wing PRG party. However, proof of his dedication to the Soviet Coaauniet cause is contained in the newspaper he edits, the DJario del Pueblo, official organ of tbe PEG. This newspaper follows the Soviet line on international affairs down to the use of such standard International Coomunist terminology as 'Wall Street rulinghe "war for liberation Intc. Under SolorsanoSS maternity service ia run byL-ira MAI.LCI, dehilean Con-sunlet. Tho subordinate ewplorees ofSS are organised In asunlit union, the STIGSS, which ia affiliated with the COTG.
Apart from their domination of tho Agrarian Reform machinery, information agencies, and the social security system, and their influence In the educational system, the Communists rhave infiltrated other Government agencies in numbers which are difficult tosince full lists of Government employees and PGT members are not available. However, it Is apparent that Communists have gained important positions elsewhere in the Government. ?or instance, it has come to light that the Deputy Inspector General of Labor,Ip'q.OT member and that the Labor Inspector in the Department of SantaHvrt'irto PIHRBAiarty member (Barrioe Xlee ia the brother of the Deputy Chief of the National Agrarianand is currentlyommunist-front "Festival of' Youth and Friendship of Central America and the Caribbean" to take place in Ouatemala inh)<
Armed Forces and the Police
The Guatemalan Armed Forces and the police are not at present under direct Communist control. They are, however, under thecontrol of Colonel ArbenB, who counts on their support Inout thero-Communist policies. They have shown no disposition to oppose CcmmunisD actively. The Communists have aade efforts to win over individual army officers with political ambitions. For inetance, Lt. Col. Carlos PAZ Tolada. former Chief of the Armed Forces, and Ifajor Marco Antonio Franco, now President of Congress, were sent to tba Budapest mooting of tbe World Peace Council in Captain Terencio GUILLEN, Governor of the Department of Escutntle, is President of tha Departmental Peace Ccmoittee.
The national police, although not under direct Coram.mat control, has been useful to the PGT by suppressing the opposition. TbaMinister of the Interior. Augusto CHARXAirnpeech before the CcsBunst-frcnt "Second Continental Conference ofLawyers" in3 expressed thariterion in the statement "To be antl-Ccmmunlst Is to be anti-Cover-went", Followingccoptolice have arrestee! or driven into exilej most of the principal opposition antt-Communist leaders in connection with alleged subversive activities; The Partido Unlficaoldn AnU-Coaunletahe principal party opposed "to the Arbens regime, has seen successively its Secretary General, Luisycinena, and its Acting Secretary General, Jose' Luis BARKERA, flee the country, the former after being Jailed for three months. The principal leaders of the Cccflte do SstudiantesAnU-Cpmunlstahe students' anti-Communist organization, and of the Conlte' Ctvico Nacjocalhe largest civic anti-Communist organization, were arrested or fled the country under police pressure The anti-Communisthas thus, to the benefit of the POT, been effectively decapitated.
.The police have been particularly useful to the Communists by. protecting Communist acts of violonce. Starting in3 and.lasting through April of this year, the Communist leader, Carlos Manuel PellecSr, spent most of his time touring rural areas urging farm workers to seize land whether or not lt was subject tounder the Agrarian Reform Law. When the farm workershis advice, there were naturally clashes with landownere and loyal farmworkersumber of people were killed. Tha police did nothing to protect property or lives. Similarly, masked noodlums broke into Ouatemala City or.ti-Ccmmuniot radio stations, beat up the personnel and smashed equipment. In the latest of theseaid by five masked man on Radio International on the night ofolice stationed at nearby buildings did nothing to interfere.
Conn must Position in Congresst The POX holds four-of tha seats in'ihe Congress Decause it was not an open partyelections:snd had been legally registered lessonth in theelections. The Party has already served notice that if willseats in the next elections scheduled for the endb Already the PGT's influence in the Legislative branchauch greater than the nunberof ita Deputies indicates. POT labor leader, is Chairman of the Special Cosnittoe onand his associate, Jose Alberto Cardosa, is Chairman of theon Labor Code Reform. These two Committees are ofsince the Agrarian Refore and Labor Cods are the foundaticn
of polltlcal-oconcmio relationships under the Arbena government.POT's domination of the "National Democratic Front" allows itthe votes of the other Administration parties, since oncehasecision ita component parties are obliged to followa matter of discipline. This givesomauniat coloration tomajority that in March,the Guatemalan Congressonly legislative body outside of the Soviet orbit known to haveat the time of his death: Itinute of silence in
Judiciary Sympathetic to Communistst Until February,Judiciary branch of the Guatemalan Goverrjzent was relatively freeinfluence, but at that time four of the five judges ofCourt were removed by Congress with Arbena' approval forthe constitutionalityrovision of the Agrarian Reforajudgea who replaced thea were willing to acquiesce in theof the Administration and non-Comouniat- Judges in theno longer dared to hand down significant rulings opposed todesigns. (For exaaple, the courts avoided taking up the question
of whether the registration of tho PGT was constitutional.) The newof the Supreme Courts Marci.ul yifllCSZ Montenegro, headed tha Guatemalan delegation to3 "Second Continental Conference of Deaocratioeeting held under the auspices of- the Internationalof Democratic Lawyersoviet-controlled international lawyers association which, among other things, has endorsed the "ease" that bacteriological warfare waa msed in Korea. Mendez Hontenegro was also at the airport in Guateaale city inb, to welcoso Obdulio BABTKE, the Paraguayan Coomunist leader who cane to live in Ouatemala after being releasedaraguayan Jail.
) Cceununlat Syapathlaers in the Administration Part lea 1 The Cctaaunlsta'1 dominating influence on Guatemalan political institutions is further enhanced by the presence of Communist sympathizers in the leading positions of the political parties supporting Arbenx* "
The Partido Accion Revolucionaria (PAR) ia currently headed by Julioa lacc=st-oriented intellectual whoso Soviet leanings are such that hoessage to the North Korean Government In June,while he was President of Congress, expressing sympathy with tha Korean people and charging that they had been eubjeoted to bacteriological warfare. His predecessor'as PAR'Secretary General was Franoioco Fernando FHCiAHDEZho stated Inpeech in Congress that all of the Adninistration parties were destined to disappear into the great world Coaaunlst movement. Another prominent aenber of the PAR, Major Marco Antonio Franco, is the Vice President of the National Peace Committee and travelled to Budapest in
The Partido de la Rcvolucidn Guatemaltoca (PRG) is headed by the Minister of theugusloCitAItiiAt.'Don-Ccnauniet who has, however, been in political alliance with tho Coaauniats most of hia
polltical life. Among the most Influential persona In the party are Abel CUEKCA.ember of the Salvadoran Communist party and leader of tho2 Communist uprising in El Salvador, and Alfonso Solorzono, the "independent" Communist who heads tbe TOSS.
The Partido Ronovaclon Kacional (RSI) is currently divided Into twobut in recent years Its dominant figure has been JaaaeSecretary General of the Presidencyaily associateArbena. ally to celebrate the Koreane greeted this truceictory of the people overdescribed it as another step toward the establishment of a
IV. GUATEMALAN COWUNISH AHD THE HEMISPHERE
in ounoary, than, it is apparent that the Soviet instruaent in Guatemala, the' Partido Quatonalteco del Transjo, has already extended its influence ever moat of the country's principal"political institutions. In Government, it exerolses the decisive voice in policy making and its influence has resulted In an effort by the Guateaalan Go Vermont to disrupt the American eeeawnity. To protect the POT, the Arbena Acainistratioo aUfedrew in3 froa the Organisation of Central AnerioanSCA) and, in the3 Beating of the CAS Council and the Tenth International Conference of American States at Caracas inU, it waa alone among the American States in opposing measures tonternational Communian. At the Caraoas Conference, the inter-naj.onel Communist orientation of Arbena' foroign pblicy was such that Guatemala abstained on the voto on Panama'o resolution against racial diacrlnination on the grounds that it used the phrase "as one of tho means or oombattlng International Ccccunism" and the Guatemalan delegation absented itself from the session at which the Conference at Cuba's pro-posal paid hoaage to the United Nations dead in Korea.
In doaestlc policies, the' PGT has seised effective control of the Agrarian Refora machinery and other leading positions in the Executive branch, and the Congress. It controls the country's organ!ted labor and has covered Guatemala with mass organizations, which Stalin enca defined aa the "conveyor belts" of Communism through which the party'sUUd t0 tha raa3ae3" by this apparatus, the POT has effectively established ita supremacy over the political parties which support the Arbenz Government and used its influence over the jovernsent to obtain the suppression of opposition tooint that
f0rc" ofo longer operate effective-
ly within the Constitutional framework.
The Coaawonist position in Gaateaala contains both inoediate and rl'Vt^t Constituting on. of the iaaediate dangers is the fact that Guatemalaefuge for Communists froa other Aaerlcan statesase for these Communists' actlvlUes hostile to theif own countries. For instance, Ouatemala is the center of the CoanuniBt-inriltrated ParUdo Democratlco Revoluclonarlo Hendureno (PDRH)whloh has been opposed to the Honduran Government snTo? the ^ovTsnento deartidarioa do lacnaunlet dominated orgwTaaUon directed against tho presenTBIcIHgufln Government. There ax. also Joftlst exile organlsaUona of Salvadorans, Dominicano, etc, and prominent Latin American Coaaunlst exiles, the latest of whoa ia Obdullo Bar the of Paraguay who arrived la
In addition to harboring Communist refugees, Ouatemala offers haven to sucn disruptive elenonts as Carlos PADILLA, an officer of theuerto Rlcan Nationalist Party, who after arriving in Guateaala stated
that hie nIun from arrest in Cuba had bean accomplished through the intercession of the Guatemalan Ambassador there.
The role of Ouatemalaisrupting element in Central America is already becoming evident. Several of the persons who participated in the recent plot to assassinate President Scooia, such as forge HIVAS Ifcntea and franciaoo TBABRA yavorear. bad been exiles in Guatemala where they had enjoyed close relations with Guatemalan officials as members of the Caribbean Legion. Before the disturbances in Honduras broke out in Uay, iySlt. the Guatemalan Government bad assigned special consuls to Tela and Puerto Cortes in march and Apriluatemalan military airplane landed at Puerto Cortes without clearance ono communicate with the Consuls
However, the long-run danger of Guatemalan Communism Is of The official party program is labelled "Theand lt Is essentially an attempt to estab-
ommunist-controlled state outside of the sphero of Soviet Influence. This has never successfully been done before but probably nowhere else outside of areas within and neighboring on the Soviet sphere baa International Communism come so near to havingountry's political institutions. If the" of internationaloes unchallenged by the democracies, It is an experiment which over the years can be repeated in other countries to the peril of the free world.