CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM
AMERICAS' REACTIONS TO THE GUATEMALAN CRISIS
Castillo Armas revolution in Guatemala has been almost unanimously attributed by tbe rest of Latin America to the intervention of Washington acting through theof Honduras and Nicaragua. Some governments have voiced approval, but "anti-intervention" demonstrations and editorials have been widespread and in some cases violont. Many government officials have hinted that Washington either suffers from excessive anti-Commtunlst zeal or is undulyby tbe interests of the United Fruit Company.
During the early days of the crisis, many governments appeared stunned by Guatemala's by-passing of the Organization of American States in favor of working with the Soviet Union in the United Nations. MoBt of them expressed fear that the future of inter-American rogional machinery was in grave danger, andf them agreed toall for an OAS meeting based on Washington's draft resolution setting up measures to combat the Guatemalan threat. Only eight had previously agreed to accept the resolution.
After the initial shock of the UN appeal wore off, howovor.umber of governments took the attitude that It would be impossible to discuss charges against Guatemaladiscussing Guatemala's own complaints. 8 Juneproposal to alter the conference agenda to this effect was voted down in the OAS Council but received the support of Ecuador, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. The last three of these countries havo also rejected Washington's request that they refuse political asylum to Arbenz followers.
Most of the attacks on the United States have stemmed from the belief that Washington intervened in tho affairs of another country. Many of tho anti-interventionist demonstrations--which took on major proportions in Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Uruguay, Honduras andtouched off by pro-Communist student and labor groups but were joined by large numbers of non-Communists. In Argentina, the Senateesolution reaffirming the principles of self-determination and political and economic Independence as standards for the hemisphere. The major Argentine labor federationeclaration that "every nation has tho right to solve its own problems without outside interference." The Chiloan lower house refusedfor the foreign minister to attend the OAS meeting scheduled to discuss only Washington's case against the Arbenz regime.
Mexico, atudontslack-draped wreath at the door of thoan embassy "in memory of the Rood neighbor policy." In Uruguay, and elsewhere, normally pro-American pape accused the United States of acting "hastily" and "without regard for juridical order."
In only sixthe Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Paraguay andthe press been relatively free from criticism of American xcept Id these countries and possibly Colombia, that portion of the press which tended to Ignore the Issue of Washington's "intervention" and to explain the nature of international Communism has boon all but drowned out. In Brazil, forwhere the government has been attempting to reconcile diplomatic differences between the United States and Latin America, almost the entire noncontrolled press and radio has expressed suspicion of American motives.
The Guatemalan crisis has also given rise to fears wider than those of American "Intervention" and "dollar diplomacy." Ecuadoran president Velasco reportedly fears the Guatemalan crisisrecedent for Peruvian invasion of Ecuador anduly speech called for reaffirmation of the "juridical" principles which protect weak nations. In Costa Rica, there were reports that the Guatemalanwould soon join Nlcaraguans, Venezuelans and former Costa Rlcan dictator Calderon Guardia to overthrow tbe Figueres government. These reports were given added meaningenezuelan plane dropped "obscene" anti-Flgueros literature on the capital.
Meanwhile, another sort of criticism of the United States has been voiced by officials in the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. These officials have accusedof "poor timing" and of giving the insurgents too little aid to ensure success. The Panamanian foreign minister, on the other hand, said onune he believed the United States'was fully defensible but that it had been presented
A number of governments have been disturbed by theof popular reaction, and it is believed that thegovernment has warned the press against further attacks. Bolivia is thought to have censored all press comment from tbe beginning.
The major points of irritation may be somewhat smoothed by the indefinite postponement of the OAS meetinguly and by the filing of antitrust proceedings against the United Fruit Company on the same day; no specific reaction to these moves bas yet been noted, however.
9 JulyINTELLIGENCE9Original document.