Created: 10/13/1954

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible


Thc recent unprecedented aerial activity in Northeastern Siberia has focused an increasing amount of attention upon the Soviet Arctic. Onriefing was presented in the OCl Situation Room, which was designed to provideinformation on the Soviet Far North and an assessment of current activities in lhe area. In the belief that thiswill be of general interest to the intelligence community, ORR is publishing it ae an Intelligence Memorandum.

Since4 it has been confirmed ihat the Directorate of Special Construction has been transferred from the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route to GUPR (expansiona new chief directorate subordinatehe Ministry of thc Maritime and River Fleet. The Directorate of Special Construction is continuing to work for lhe Chief Directorate of the Norlhcrn Sea Route. The significance oi this transfer hasl been determined.

- in -



Summary and Conclusions

II. urvey of Current Development* in thc Soviet Arctic



troy . .

III. Soviet Study of the Arctic


and Ice

P. The Yakutsk Cosmic Ray

Expeditions to the

of Current


Appendix A. Locations of Soviet Activities Mentioned

in This 19

B. Glossary of Abbreviations

C. Personalities Connected with the "High

Latitude Expedition of Drift 23

f). Bibliography

v -




Summary and Conclusions

The USSR long has recognized the peculiar role of the Arctic from both the economic and the strategic points of view and has created two majorhe Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Routend the Chief Directorate of Far Northern Constructionor the purpose of studying, exploiting, and developing the Soviet Arctic.


Among the currentithin the Soviet Arctic are the following: shipping, construction, polar aviation,reporting, and the operations of Dal'stroy.

A significant increase in Northern Sea Route shipping has taken place during thc past few years. essels per season now operate upon the Route, as compared -withessels7 and The supplies necessary for the maintenance of the various Arctic settlements and activities arc the major imports, while the primary exports consist offura, and raw materials. River shipping plays an important role in lhe Arctic economy, and river shipping agencies arc-in operation on many of thc rivera within the Arctic.

Thc major recent construction project in the Soviet Arctic,

haa been identified as concrete runwav construction. The Directorate of Special Construction ofis the major construction organization operating in the Arctic and has an as-yet-undetermined connection with the military.

* The estimates and conclusions contained in this report represent the boat judgment of the responsible analyst as

** lossary of abbreviations used in this report, see Appendix B.

*** For the locations of activities considered in thia report, sec Appendix A.


Directorate of Polar Aviation is the air arm of Glavscv-morput'. serving the territory along the northern coast of the USSR. It also provides such specialized services as icein Support of shipping.

The Directorate of Polar Stations and Scientific Institutions, Glavsevmorput'. operatesolar stations located along the Northern Sea Route. These stations perform the basic function ofeteorological and ice log, and some of them do additional specialized scientific research.

The primary function of Dal'stroy, under thc Ministry of Non-ferrous Metallurgy, is thc exploitation of thc mineral resources of Northeastern Siberia. These resources include not only gold, tin, and tungsten, which are mined by eight regional Directorates, but also uranium and possibly other radioactive ores which are mined by thc First Directorate for the Soviet Atomic Energy program. Facilities for ore concentration are available in the Dal'stroy area.

An extensive program of Arctic studies was undertaken by thc Soviets in thes as an essential accompaniment to the work of construction and development. This program includes work in several fields of science, including hydrography, hydrology, meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, gravity, actinometry, theof permafrost, the ionosphere, and the propagation of radio waves. The development of the science of ice forecasting wan especially important to Glavsevmorput' as an aid to shipping on the Northern Sea Route.

The USSR has sent many expeditions into the Arctic, especially since the creation of Glavsevmorput' Four expeditions which took place51 were particularly One of these provided data relative to the behavior of the sea and ice in thc waters to the immediate north of the traffic lanes, while the other three obtained information on meteorology and the behavior of thc ice pack in the Central Polar Basin.

Very little information is available on Soviet Arctic expeditions during and immediately following the Second World War 7

an important (light waa made to the North Pole which "opened up wide prospects for the farther thorough study of the Arctic with the object of finally mastering the Northern Seahe report of7 flight provides the continuity between the expeditions ofs ands and those of today.

Onzvestiya reported that expeditions had been active in the Central Polar Basinnd stated that new research work in the high latitudes was to be undertaken this year.

the establishmentrifting stations which have personnel and of atutomatic radio meteorological stations in the Central Polar Basin.

While the exact purpose of this activity has not yet been determined, it iaolar research expedition similar to Chose of the past, althoughuch larger scale. There are in Ihc Arctic nowery high-ranking polar researchwho describe thcmselvea as members of thc "High Latitude Expedition of Driftnd who probably are conducting work in astronomy, meteorology, hydrology andterrestrial magnetism, biology, zoology, and Thc Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station also may be connected with the expedition.

Thc implications of this activity arc several: first, there should be an immediate improvement in thc USSR meteorological reporting; second, the research will be of interest to the Long Range Air Force and the Air Defense Organization (PVO) from both thc operational and navigational viewpoints; third, the effect of arctic conditions, especially with reference to terrestrial magnetism, upon inertially and magnetically guided missiles must be understood before such missiles can be fired from or over thc Polar regions: and fourth, the current research should resultore efficiently operating organization of shipping upon thc Northern Sea Route.


I. Introduction.

Since theew phrase has been added to ourhe polar concept. This concept Is based upon the following facts: all continents in the Northern Hemisphere meet at the ice-covered beaches of the Arctic Ocean; nearly all of the most importantand military concentrations aro situated well north ofNorth latitude; and the shortest routes the great circle courses between the industrial and military centers of the US and thc USSR cross the polar regions, some of them quite close to the North Pole.

Because of these facts and the development of long rangethe Arctic has emerged as an area of special importance, one deserving of close study.

Thc USSR long has recognized the peculiar rolo of the Arctic, from both the strategic and the economic points of view. It has created two major organizations for the purpose of studying, exploiting, and developing the Soviet Arctic. These organizations are the Chief Directorate of thc Northern Sea Route (Glavscv-morput') and the Chief Directorate of Far Northern Construction (Dal'stroy).

GUvacvmorpul" was established on2 and given Ihc task of "conclusively developing thc Northern Sea Route from the White Sea to the Bering Strait, of equipping this route, keeping it in good order, and Securing the safety of shipping along it. "*

liaving been given jurisdiction over all territory north ofN and cast of the Urals,he organization expanded rapidly and successfully7 navigation season whenhips were trapped in the ice at the end of the summer and freight and construction plans were hopelessly underfulfilled. During Lheears Glavsevmorput' was purged anduntil, he present basic structure emerged.

** This territorialbolished8

At thc present time Glavsevmorput' is organized into several functional directorates which assist in the general exploitation of the Soviet Arctic. Among these directorates are those concerned with Arctic sea and river shipping, polar aviation, supply, trade and agriculture, polar stations and scientific institutions, and construction.

Dal'stroy was organized in thea for thc purpose of exploiting the Kolyma gold deposits of Northeastern Siberia. Its mining activities have been expanded to include other metals, principally tin, tungsten, and uranium. Subordinate to Dal'stroy are nine known mining directorates which arc responsible for thc exploitation of these raw materials. All other Dal'stroy. activities are centered around the requirements of these mining directorates.


A Survey of Current Developments in the Soviet-Arctic.

A survey of the current status of the several activities taking place within thc Soviet Arctic includes: shipping, bothand river; construction, polar aviation, meteorologicaland the operations of Dal'stroy.

i A. Shipping.

7 there were abouthips andhips which operated on the Northern Sea Route. At the present time probably0 vessels are in operation per season,ignificant increase, and one whicheasure of the success of the intensive work done ins. These ships operate primarily from each end of the Route, in toward the center, and out again Only abouto lb cargo vesselsomplete crossing of the Route each year, most of them going from west to east

Cargo carried by the vessels entering the Routeof supplies necessary for the maintenance of the various arctic settlements and activities. The primary exports arefurs, and raw materials, including Pechora coal from Nar'yan Mar, fluorspar from Amderma, nickel from Noril'sk, and ores from the Dal'stroy port of Pevck.


Ships often travel in convoy, especially at the beginning and end of the navigation season. Icebreaker assistanceis required. Last year there were approximatelycebreakers on the route. For purposes of control, shipping is organized into two sectors, with headquarters located at Dikson and Pcvek.

The Lena Riverajor .Siberian transportation artery. It in unod for ships carrying cargoes into and out of the Arctic, and is one of thc more important Dal'stroy supply routes. Tiksi, at the mouth of the Lena,ajorbase.

There are two river shipping organizations operating on the Lena River. The major agency is the Lena Steamship Agency, subordinate to Glavsevmorput', with headquarters at Yakutsk, and thc other is (he Lena Gold Fleet.

At the present timeowing vesselsarges are operated byna Steamship Agency. Dal'stroyarying number of thc barges for transporting supplies into the Dal'stroy area. The Agency has shipyards subordinate to it where towing vessels and barges arc constructed for its own use. Self-propelled river vessels constructed in the European portion of the USSR arc sailed across the Route and up thc river to Yakutsk. Last year the Agencyons of dry cargo.

Similar fleets, most of which are not subordinate tore in operation on the Ob', the Yenisei and other rivers which reach into the Arctic. Dal'stroy controls thc river shipping on the rivers within its area ofhe Kolyma, the Indigirka, and the Yana.

D. Construction.

The following three construction organizations work for Glavsevmorput'; the Department of Capital Constructionhe Arctic Construction Trustnd the Directorate of Special Construction (Spetsstroy). Thc Department of Capital Construction plans and Supervises the work of the other two organizations.


The major recent construction project in thestarted at

8 locations*9 and completed It hasas runway construction and is atn size. This area, if rectangular inas con-

crete runway construction iaconstruction at theand islocations except Kosistyy. Whether

is anan entirely new runway is unknown.

Arktikstroy formerly waa the major Arctic It handled all Clavsevmorput' constructionand time it gradually has become lcs> and today itminor construction work at smaller Arctic locations.

With the decline of Arktikstroy, Spetsstroy hasthe most important Clavsevmorput' constructiondid the majorand at the present time is

addition to other objects for Glavsevmorput'

at the largflr Arctic locations.

Spetsstroy is connected with the military, although (he exact nature of the connection is unknown.

One interesting recent development is the appearance of the former chief of thc Shmidta Spetsstroy Office at Petro-pavlovsk, Kamchatka. His function has not yet been determined, but indications are that he will undertake construction of an This is the first appearance of Glavsevmorput1 personnel on the Kamchatka Peninsula, and it Is most unusual.

Arctic construction activities in the Chukotsk area, other than those for Glavsevmorput', include the construction ofby the Central Directorate of Capital Airfield Construction, probably forh Air Army, unidentified construction by the Chief Directorate of Special Construction of the Ministry of Defense at Ugol" naya.eneral expansion of communication facilities.

See the map, which follows p. 8


Railroad construction activities included surveysakutsk-Magadan railroad and possible construction workorkuta-Igarka railroad. Work on both of these projectshas been abandoned.


The Directorate of Polar Aviation (UPA) is the air arm of Glavsevmorput'. It is the air transportation organisation which serves the territory extending from Arkhangelsk tolong the Stalin Route, ar. the route along the Northern coast is known. The Directorate also provides such specialized services as ice reconnaissance in support of shipping.

UPA is organized into three air groups; the Moscow Air Group, which controls the area between Arkhangelsk and Chelyuskin; the Igarka Air Group, for thc south central area from thc Tag River to the Lena River; and the Chukotsk Air Group, which controls the area east of the Lena River. UPA has approximatelyirfields andircraft subordinate to it.


Directorate of Polar Stations and Scientific Institu-

tionss responsible for the operation ofermanent and seasonal polar stations. It is these stations which provide the essential backgroundnecessary for the success of shipping seasons and expeditions.

Most of the stations arcew miles of thc shipping lanes, and arc organized into the following three regionalthe Eastern, headquarters at Pevek; thc Central,at Tiksi; and the Western, headquarters at Dikson.

A variety of work is done at these stations. All perform thc basic functions ofeteorological and ice log. In addition lo this, many of them study the upper atmosphere, and some do work in magnetism and actinomctry. There is anthat work related to sunspot observations is done al Dikson.

The Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station is doing work at thc present time at Buxhla Tikhaya, on Franz Josef Land.

E. Dal'stroy.

Dal'stroy, the Chief Directorate of Far Northernwas subordinate to thc Ministry of Internal Affairs until Transferred to the Ministry of Metallurgy at that time, it remained within that Ministry untilhen thc Ministry of Metallurgy was reorganizedinistry of Ferrous Metallurgyinistry of Nonferrous Metallurgy. Dal'stroy then was transferred to the Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy. Some recent informationispute carried on since January between Kruglov, Minister of Internal Affairs, and Tevoysyan, former Minister of Metallurgy, over control of Dal'stroy indicates that Dal'stroy will remain within the Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy.

The primary function of Dal'stroy is the exploitation of the mineral resources of northeast Siberia. Its area extends roughly eastegrees and north ofegrees, excluding thc Kamchatka Peninsula. Headquarters of Dal'stroy is at Magadan.

Subordinate to Dal'stroy arc eight regional mining directorates, each of which is responsible for thc mines in its area. Headquarters of these directorates are located at Yagodnyy, Susman, Nizhniy Seymchan. Ust'-Omchuk. Ust'-Nera, Omsukchan, Pevek, and Ege Khaya. Gold, tin, and tungsten are thc principal ores mined by these regional directorates. There arc facilities for oreat ihc headquarters of the directorates.

In addition to these mining organizations there is the First Directorate, which is administered hy Dal'stroy but is engaged in the production of uranium and possibly other radioactive ores for the First Chief Directorate and Second Chief Directorate, attached to the Council of Ministers, the organizations responsible for the Soviet atomic energy program. This directorate, organized in

perates throughout the Dal'stroy area; Pevek and Ust'-Omchuk

arc the locations of its major activity.

All other Dai's troy activitiesonstruction, industrial, transportenter around thc requirements of these nine mining directorates.

Transport facilities within Dal'stroyoad system running from Magadan north to the mining centers in thc interior; thc Yana River and Kolyma-lndiglrka River Steamship Agencies, operating on thc inland waterways;mall air fleet. Ocean shipping is carried out for the most part between Vanino or Nakhodka ande vo, the port for Magadan.

III. Soviet Study of the Arctic.

At the time of thc organization of Glavsevmorput'n extensive program of Arctic studies was undertaken as an essential accompaniment to the work of construction and Hydrography, hydrology, and meteorology were thefields of study related to the sea route, followed bymagnetism, gravity, actinometry, and the study of permafrost, the ionosphere, and thc propagation of radio waves. The hydrological and meteorological observations and the study of thc sea ice led to the development of the very important science of ice forecasting. iscussionew of thc more important fields of study follows.

A . Hydrography and Hydrology.

Hydrography is thc branch of science most closelywith thc safety of shipping, and. as such, is of extreme importance lo Glavsevmorput'. Hydrographic work generally is performed by parties sailing in small ships belonging to the Hydrographic Directorate of Glavsevmorput'. During thethey chart offshore waters and erect navigational aids. Occasionally ships winter along the route to study winter Land-based parties chart the Arctic Rivers.

Hydrology is complementary to hydrography, and during each shipping seaaon numerous hydrologic parlies arc operating.

The basic achievements of this work have been theof the general direction of the route and its main variants,


and the determination of the character of those parts of it which are most difficult to navigate.

B. Meteorology.

As stated earlier, meteorological records are maintained by all polar stations. Their work is supplemented by the regular USSR weather reporting service, which maintains many inland Arctic meteorological stations. In addition, automatic radio meteorological stations have been used since the war.

The data collected by the Polar stations is used not only for forecasting, but also for making detailed climaticumber of such studies, issued by the Arctic Scientific Research Institute {AN11J, are available.

C- Ice and Ice Forecasting.

The behavior of the sea ice is of particular concern to Glavsevmorput', and continuing studies are made of it. Based on these Btudics, the science of ice forecasting has been developed. Thereypes of forecaststhend the long-term. Long-term forecasts are made fourear; theyorecast inefined forecast inaytoasis for the detailed planning of shipping during the navigation season, and an August forecast to predict the end of the season.

Short-term forecasts are designed to assist shipping byew days in advance and in some detail the state of the iceiven area.

D. Terrestrial Magnetism.

In high latitudes the magnetic compass tends to become unreliableesult of the proximity of the magnetic pole and the frequency of magnetic storms. Glavsevmorput1 has recognized thc necessity for studying this problem and has establishedfunctioning magnetic observatories at certain polar stations. The results obtained thus faren quite useful for navigation,but much work remains to be done.

- II

K. Permafrost.

Permafrost, or permanently frozen ground, ia anproblem in Arctic operations. The Institute of Permafrost Studies, Academy of Sciences, USSR, is concerned with theof areas composed of frozen soils and subsoils, and the investigation of these areas for development and expansion. To achieve this purpose, the Institute has established permament permafrost stations at several locations in the Arctic. These are staffed with geologists, biologists, zoologists, and other technical personnel.

Among other places, stations are located at Anadyr', Igarka. Tiksi, Vorkuta, and Yakutsk.

Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station.

The Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station has been connected with the Bukhta Tikhaya Polar Station for at least the past two years. In addition to this, the Chief of the Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station has made several trips to the Arctic, including one in2 to Shmldta. Thc exact nature of the work of thc Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station personnel in the Arctic is undetermined.

to the Arctic.

Prior to the creation of Glavsevmorput'mall teams occasionally were put onto icebreakers and sent loinaccessible places. These expeditions, however, were erratic, and, generally,ery small scale. The creation of Glavsevmorput' changed all this, and3 onwards, these expeditionsoutine character.

There were, however, four expeditions which deserve special mention. The first of theseeries of three "high latitude" expeditions by the icebreaker Sadko. Thc first two took place56 in thc area between Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zcmlya, and Ihc third7 in the northern part of the Laptev Sea and north of the New Siberian Islands. From the Sadkoonsiderable amount of knowledge relative to the behavior of the sea and ice in the waters north of thelanes was obtained.


[nformation necessary lo Northern Sea Route shipping on meteorology and the character of the ice pack in the Central Polar Basin was almost totally lacking in thes. Thc three remaining expeditions provided data on these subjects.

The first of these was the North Pole Drifting Expedition led. Papanin. Inen were flown to the North Pole,amp, and drifted during theonthsoint opposite Scoreabysund. Greenland. ull program of observations was carried out, and an invaluable contribution was made to thc study of meteorology and ice drift in the central Arctic.

Another expedition was that of the Sedov. 7 this ship was trapped in thc ice and drifted across the Central Polar Basin for theears. Again, valuable information wason the drift of ice.

The last expeditioneries of flights innder the leadership of I. I. Cherevichny, to the region of the Pole of Inaccessibility. * Landings were made on the ice at three places in the general area ofN -E. and the parly remained for several days at each location. Observations were made inmeteorology, terrestrial magnetism, and the drift of sea ice.

During the Second World War, expeditions continued lo be sent into the Arctic, but little information is available on them, and they probably wereery small scale.

5 one flight was made from Chelyuskin to Chokurdakh via the Pole, eries of flights was made north ofnd between Spitv.burgen and Greenland.

he Sovietsecree which placed all Arctic information on the State Secret list.

* The Pole of Inaccssibility is the geographic center of theorth ofN. and betweenE andW, the Zone of Relative Inaccessibility. The Zone received this name because it liesine connectingiles north of the farthest penetration by "hip, and. hence, is relatively inaccessible except by aircraft.



Inery important flight to the Pole was made hy Buynitskiy, who waa Chief of the Arctic Scientific Research Institute of Glavsevmorput'. In his report to the Chief ofuynitskiy outlined his route from pevek to Kosistyy via the Pole of Inaccessibility and thc North Pole, and stated that "the first exploration was made of an enormous area of thc Polar Basin never previously visited. "*

Thc information on thc state of the ice-covering of the Central Arctic collected on this flight was sufficiently important toew conception of the science of ice fields. " In particular,ompletely unexpected and powerful movement of ice over an enormous expanse around thend a'.hi it of blocks of pack ice" were noted.

Thc flight also provided data on aerial navigation,radio navigation, and the work of aviation instruments in the high latitudes, especially the behavior of the magnetic compass. The "national aircraft IL-lZwas thorough tested." The "supposed second magneticn the area of the Pole of Inaccessibility, was referred to twice.

Thc most significant portion of the report, however,statement that the flight "opened up wide prospects forthorough study of the Arctic, with the object ofthc Northern Sea Route." provides the

continuity between the expeditions of's ands and those of today.

For thc next few years there waa very little indication, other than an occasional flight over thc Central Polar Basin, that work in the high latitudes was being carried out. and that Buymtakiy's report was being implemented.

Onpril of this year, Izvestiya carried an accounteport made by the Arctic Scientific Research Institute to thc Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of thc USSR, on Soviet research and discoveries in the Central Arctic during thc postwar

* lt is interesting to note that the route of this flight passed through major areas which had not been explored priorec the map. which follows p.bove



period. According to this article, expeditions have been operating8 on the ice pack in, among other areas, previously un-visited areas of thc Central Polar Basin. Work in the several fields of Arctic study was carried out. It is interesting to note that "it has been established that there is no second magnetic Pole in the Arctic." Thishange in thinking since7 flight, when the site of thc "supposed second magnetic Pole"

was mentioned.

The report concluded by staling "The presidium of tbe Academy of Sciences approved the plan of further research work in the Central Arctic and made it incumbent upon severalof the USSR Academy of Sciences to extend their research in the Arctic. This year the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of the Ministry of the Merchant Marine and River Fleet is going to undertake new research work in the Central Arctic. Research stations of the Arctic Institute will be set out on drifting ice. They will carry out research accordingideurther systematic research into thc high latitude regions of the Arctic Ocean is very important for weather forecasts and for statements on ice condition along thi* Northern Sea Route. "


This airlift.

resulted in thc establishment ol twowuh personnel in the Central Polar Basini which, o* ISwere located on ice islandsand at

N - In

addition to these stations, iV.err. are indications that at icm lour automatic radio meteorological stations are located in the general area north of Severnaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island.

While the exact purpose of this activity has not yet been is probable that itolar research expedition similar to those of the past, althoughuch larger scale. At Dikson. Ostrov Domashniy, and Ostrovhere areery high-ranking polar researchho dci" ribnd themselves as members of thc "High Latitude Expedition of Drift Stations. " Theseersonalities included V. F. Burkhanov. Chief of Glavsevmorput', V. V. Frolov, Chief of ANII, E.olstikov, Chief of UPSINU, and important members of expeditions ofs ands.

It is probable that these individuals and others arework in astronomy, meteorology, hydrography andterrestrial magnetism, biology, zoology, and navigation. There alsouggestion that the Yakutsk Cosmic Ray Station may be connected with the expedition

H. Implications of Current Expeditions.

The implications ol Ihe current activity in Ihe Central Polar Basin are several. First, it should result in an immediate improvement in the Soviet meteorological reporting, not only for the Arctic, but also for the USSRhole and for the Pacific.

Second, the activity certainly will be of interest to the Long Range Air Force anil the PVO Irom both the operational andviewpoints.

1 ne Nmi il< Pole Station it rclcrrcd toPolyusnown as Severnyy Polyus


** Sredniy is the take-off point of thc plane which reconnoitered the US Meteorological Stationce island For information on these personalities, see Appendix C-



Third, it will be necessary to understand thc effect of Arctic conditions, particularly with reference to terrestrial magnetism, upon inertially and magnetically guided missiles before they can be fired over or from the polar regions.

Fourth, it should be possible,esult of this research, toore efficiently operating organisation of shipping upon the Northern Sea Route which will result, in thc words of thereporting7 flight, in the final mastering of the Route. Thus, in coming years, there probably willore efficient and highly organized operation of even greater numbers of vessels along thc Soviet northern coast.










Josef Land






Siberian Islands










Sredniy, Ostrov




















4 at






4 at


- 20



Arktjkstroy: Dal'stroy:






Scientific Research Institute, Glavsevmorput'.

Arctic Construction Trust. Glavsevmorput'.

Chief Directorate of Far Northern Construe, lion. Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy.

Chief Directoralc of thc Northern Sea Route, Ministry of the Merchant and River Fleets.

Department of Capital Construction, Glavsevmorput'.

Air Defense Organization.

Directorate of Special Construction. Glavsevmorput'.

Directorate of Polar Aviation,

Directorate of Polar Stations and Scientific Institutions, Glavsevmorput'.





papanin, Ivan Dmitrcvich.

Chief of Glavsevmorput'..

Leader of7 North Pole Drifting Expedition.

Rear Admiral.

Doctor of Geographical Science.

Hero of the Soviet Union.

Member USSR Academy of Sciences

Shmidt, Dr. Otto Vulyevich.

Thc dean of Soviet Arctic science and exploration.

Member of Gosplan..

First Chief of Glavsevmorput',.

Chief Editor. Bol'shaya Sovetskaya6

to the present. Hero of the Soviet Union.

Member of the Academy of Sciences, American Geographic Society. Explorers Club of New York.

- Zl -

Ushakpv. Georgiy Alckacevich. Polar explorer ofb

Leader of the first Soviet colony on Wrangel. Leader of the Sadko expedition.

Former Chief of the Chief Directorate of the Hydro-meteorological Service,octor of Geographic Sciences.

Zubov, Nikolay Nikolaevich.

Polar explorer ofsb.

Leader of the first) to circumnavigate Franz Josef Land.

Chief of the Sadko expedition's scientific program.

Chief of the State Oceanographic Institute, Chief Directorate

of the Hydrometcorological Service, . Vice Admiral.

Doctor of Geographic Sciences.

Member of the Moscow Branch, All Union Geographic Society.

Akkuratov. Valentin Ivanovich.

Polar navigator.

Probably Chief of the Navigation Service of UPA. Navigator on the following flights:

1 Cherevichny expedition to the "Pole

of5 North Pole Flight.6 flights North of Franz Josef Land

and between Greenland and Spitzbergen.

Author of: Aerial Navigation in Highnd At High Latitudes: Notes Concerning the Flights,



Burkhanov, Vastliy Fedotovich.

Chief of Glavsevmorput'.3 to the present. Deputy Chief of Glavsevmorput', . Career naval officer8 Rear Admiral.

Cherevichny, Ivan Wanovich. Arctic pilot.

Leader of1 Expedition to the "Pole of Inaccessibility Author of "Aerial Reconnaissance in High Latitudes along

the Northern Seaoviet Arctic, o.


Fedorov. Evgeniy KonStantinovich. Astronomer and magnetic ian.

Member of7 North Pole Drilling Expedition. Chief, Red Ar my Hydroineteorological Service

during World War II. Director of the Chief Geophysical laboratory, in Leningrad,

uthor of several technical publications. Lieutenant General.

Member of the Academy of Sciences.



'rolov, Vyachcslav Vattil'evich.

Chief of the Arctic Scientific Research Institute, Glavsevmorput" since at

Author of "Work of the Weather Station on Diksonovieto..


Gakkel. Yakov Yakovlevich. Ocepher.

Member of the Chelyuskin Expedition,eader of the Akademik Shokal'skiy hydrologic expedition,

Author of numerous technical publications.. Arctic meteorologist.

Author of several technical publications. Maauruk, I. P. Arctic pilot.

One of the pilots who flew the North Pole Drifting Expedition

to the Poleecond in. of the Northern Siberia-Chukotsk airline

which corrected the USA and the USSR via Alaska during

World War II.

Chiet of the Directorate of Polar Aviation, Glavsevmorput', between at0

ji; lie ioi Aviation Hero of the Soviet Union.



;atrekin, Mikhail E. Astronomer and magnetician

Member of the Chcrevichny Expedition to the "Pole of Inaceei

bility"uthor of numerous technical publications.



Chief of the Directorate of Polar Stations and Scientific Institutions. Glavsevmorput' since at

Leader of thc drifting station located.

An official of the Shmidta weather station..

Author of WeatherService on Cape Shmidt. Moscow, Glavsevmorput',

Master of Science in Geography.

Treahnikov, A. F. Meteorologist.

Leader of the drifting station located near thc North Pole. Al the Arctic Scientific Research Institute since at least

aster of Science in Geography. Hero of Socialist Labor.



Vodop'y.-inov, Mikhail Vaail'evich.

One of the most famous of the Arctic pilots. Made many important Arctic flights durings. including the following:

Pilot of the first plane to reach Franz Josef Land,

Chief pilot of the North Pole Drifting Expedition,

Author of several popular and technical publications about

Arctic flying. Hero of thc Soviet Union.

- IB -

jar gflgwgr



This bibliography of background material, upon which the major portion of the talk was based, is provided for the general interest of the reader. It is not to be considered exhaustive. Many references have been omitted,

pccmc Hems menrionea in meavauaDlc upon request.

Particular attention is called lo two unclassified sources: Armstrong and Vize. Armstrong's The Northern Sea Route is the best English language account of the development and usefulness of the Northern Sea Route, while Vise's Morya Sovetskoy Arktiki is an excellent detailed popular scientific survey of Arctic explorations, especially in the seas bordering the USSR.

T.E. Armstrong, The Northern Sea Route. Scott Polar Research Institute Special Publication Numberambridge University Press, Cambridge. U-

Ekspeditsiya Na Samoleteayon "Polyusaauchnye Rezul'taty (Expedition in the Airplaneo the Region of the Pole o: Inaccessibility, Scientificoscow-Leningrad. U.

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