SOVIET ENTERPRISES IN CHINA (ORR 15.577)

Created: 10/6/1954

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orr project7 soviet interoriees in china

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS9

6b

SOVIET ECOHOHICHD PEESOHHEL Hi COWTUSIST CHINA

This paper is limited, for the oost part,3b eference nj bo aade to useful reports of andate of information is given when

As requested, tbe paper is organised by Chinose Cocnunist Adudnis-tratlve Districts, and by the cities within these districts. Under each city is listed, when available, information regArdingi Soviet economic installation, Soviet economic advisory missions. Sino-Soviet joint installation, Soviet residential and reaticted areas, clubs andfacilities for Soviet nationals, and Chinese Coarainist controls over Soviet personnel in China. Soviet personalities are listed under the installation or activitylch they are affiliatod or connected. In cases of lengthy reports giving detailed information on the requested subject, the document In question ls cited under tho appropriate city or area.

SOUTHEAST A. Harbin

1. There are00 Russians resident In Harbin who are old residents and who are employed costly on tho railroads. In additionther fineslana, whom the source states cone froawork on the railroad. IjOO Soviet Busslan pilots are ins true tors at tho airfield andther Rnaslans who haveInterests* reside in the town. The source uaa indefinite concerning tbe latter, but indicated they were sent to Barb'ln from Bassia to take anin and keep vatch over the economy of the area.

o) The Soviet advisers are soaewhatthan the local Russian population. Theyseen on tbe streets but not very often. on Uio railroad wear Russian railroad uniforms,elsewhere wear ordinary "western"that the number of advisers on thcxailroad haathat there has been an increase in the mrebor ofothor types of oconcodc activity. Re does not knowtotal author of adviacra in Kaocburia has increased The number seen on tho streets of Harbin didnoticeably but the total was too small to be aunable to say whether there wore

ucsp rO>qj 11

ftar ita, of infection.

Russian advisors in the government administration. Russian troops occasionally go through Harbin on tho railroad and thero areRussian planes at the Harbin airport. Thereussian language newspaper in Harbin. (State Hong Kong1

&BBT

3. ASSOCIATIOH OF SOVIET CmZKBS ay

Inforaant snppllod the names of the following prominent personalities of this association ln Barblnt

GOVOROK (fau) President, lie and his parents held Soviet passports before the Second World War. He has frequent dealings with Uio Soviet Consulate, by whom he is regardedeliable Cosrannlst.

EFRAIMSXIj (fan)n charge of the political studies of the Soviet Youth OnionBTSKOJffiliated to the Associations.

L. SoTietbout ten ofr so office pdraonnol in Harbin are froa the -Soviet Union, including the President NOVTKOYAVAK0V,unber of bookkoopers, accountants and auditors. TORGAVAXO?fnu) about four Ton tha ago. Informant was not able to explain the presence of tbeoe Soviet Russians in any other way than that he assumed that, although Churin'a is noalnallyhinese State enterprise, tlie ultiaato control la exercised by the Soviet Government through the intermediary of the Soviet Trade Representationn Harbin. He bolieves that, apart fro* the running of the above mentioned department stores, the organization is responsible in sone way for arranging the exchange of goods between Earth China and tho USSR. He heard, for instance, that.thq BailarJiranch, which was closedan an agency for the exchange of Mongolian and Chinese products. (Soe State, Hong Kong Da Bp.,dltesp.0 Sept

5. roainnnt official of the Harbin Association of Soviet Citixena is Kikhail Ivanovlch BSLI^KV. Be van working at Hanhen the Soviet forces arrived. All the local white Rassians with the exception of hia were arrested, and he was appointed District Corandor (Komendaut Rajona) to assist the Soviet Military Cccssander.

Another member of the association is Luka CHKRsTTIR. Although he was Chief of the Welfare Section of tbe preAnti-Soviet esdgeryurO Enigrantov) In Harbin* he was strangely enough not arrested when the Soviets arrived in5 and was even employed by the Soviet Konendatura.

In infersunt's opinion both the abovepersons are dangerous Comranlsts.

6. In other words, Soviet nationals of 'his category (vhlto Russians who had taken out Soviot citizenship) will no longer be permitted to leave Harbin. Each Soviet citiatn is listed with the Soviet consulate in Harbin and ln othor Chinese cities* Pre-

tha Soviet Consulate would agree to ronore froa

thehe nansa of those planning to leave. The Consulate has an agrecarte with the Chinese Coonenist police that no Soviet citizen Is to bo given an exit permit unless heote froa tbo Consulate that his name has been taken off the list.

of tbe Soviet consular staff In Harbin were not

pe rait ted to talk with White Russians on the street. Consular staff members were usually recalled to tho USSR after one year's duty.

W Dairen

1. H1TSDCD3TBDJ (The Sino-Soviot Sbipbutldinc Co.)

It is believed that effective control is held by the Soviets and tbat this ia likely to remain the case as long as proeuctlon la heavily in favor of the USSR. Tbe formal administrative organisation is said to be In the font of Joint control by Soviets and Chinese. J, aboatfO engineers andwere Soviets,f the oOO-wan administrative force were Russians (the ratio of Soviets to White Russians is unknown)

(See forthcoming ORR study The Engineering Industries of Dairen")

Tbe presentarChief Engineer of SCvTITSTOOSTROJ ls PETR RaRXRATlOTCH GAVRIIGvjine he acted as Director daring thebsencej be has spent five years in the united States and dresses more like an Americanussian. (State, Bong Kong,or farther details)

2* Travelling was strictly controlled and everybody,ovietocal foreignerhinese, was reqolred toravel visa prior to travelling outside bis town*erson desiring to travel first appliedisa at the local public security bureau, and had to submit his personal history statement together with his application. It usually took tare weeks until it was approved. Only on special cases, such as in an emergency case. It took two to three days. Open receiving the visa he had to cheek eat at the local police station and havo bis visa stamped. When purchasing tickets at tbe station, no documents were necessary. Bat, when entering the station the documents were checkedepresentative of tbe Public Security Doreae and after boarding the train they were cheekedimes by the train official. hecks wore made when leaving the station at the destination but the traveller had to check inublic Security Bureau office near the station. When the stay vas expected to be tore thanours tbe traveller had to report to the Public Security Bureau Hq within 2li hours. oest stayed overnight at someone's house, his stay had to be reported to the local police authorities by tbe host. In

Mna

2. (cout.)

nott cases local foroijnors Ignored this regulation.

?- Source knew sareral Wlilte Booaltna who bad to evacuate their bones for Soriat perconnel. They were living in the foraer housing areasha Dciren Pover Xanogoaent Co# the 'tlno-SovietCo. and the Kwanteng Fishery Co, which were located in tho Ran-shan district. Aboutouses In this area, which were foracrlr occupied by Chinosehite Sussians of tho above firms, were vacatedoviet civilian honeing area. Tho evacuees wore1 provided living quarters boforo being acved out but Source heard his friends conplalning because thoy bad to leave their beats and novo into inferior houses.

U. Thoivilians lootly lived in houses in scattered areas which were provided by the govsrmentbout ono hundred families livedoviet civilian hwisinfi area which vas located in tho Ban-ehen district. There wore tone and two-storied part brick and part stucco houses, each of which was occupied by tara families. Tbe area was encloseda high brick wall and the entrances were guarded by China so policemen, lo Chinese were allowed to enter this area aniens they were aocoapaniedoviet orpecial pass to work in the area. Source entered this area on several occasions on business bat was never stopped by the police en guard because ho was takenoviet civilian. Ee entered tha club bunding In the araa on several occasions toovie. The people living in this area coraaited to their working places on buses and by official sedans.

nd fe all from AIR otolith. USS, TRhttKa,. Sec saae for Mire details)

1. SOVIETSCTEXJpWTfnX) l)

A branch of" SoW sporthich deals wi'th the distribution of Soviet filM to Chinese clneons, is eUl fonctioalng In Kakden. It is staffedoviet sanagor, two feaale Soviet secretaries, and three Unite Russians. Informant could cot describe its location*

dvisers

Soviet personnel areo attached to tbe following places in Sukdoai o July

a) The fareor Japanese arsenal at Sakhayan to the east of Kukden.Cjis aim .una hwe). Daring tbe Japanese

occooatlon0 workers ucre employed here, where there are snproxlaatolyarge bclljings cresttsad to be -lunltions factories.

Hokden

2. (cent.)

b) - of too Railway Adsdnistration (locationlthough tha railway waa officially handed error to the Chinesethe beginning3 inforaant has sinco seen Soviet personnel ln "Jukden wearing Soviet railway uniforms.

e) Oburln's Department Stores in Chung-Sh an-Cu (Russianhe sain street of Mukden. Both the director and the chief accountant are Scrriete froa the USSR. The store sells both Chinese and Soviet goods, tho latter being mainly such things as textiles, typewriters and bicycles,

Soviet personnel froa all the above-mentioned places frequentlyrebase-Churln's (as in Harbin).

3. AS^OCIATTOHmZKT13

ThTa "ubiquitous iaviet-sponsored organisation also exists in Hokden, and aoat Whito Russians are members. Attendance of political lectures and studyhich take piteeeek and deal chiefly with the Soviet Constitution, Soviet History and Oeograpfay and the History of the Conwuniat Party, la apparently not so strictly enforced as, for exacqit.i. Innforaant stated that he himself never attended, and tint only neabars of the Union ef Soviet Tenth (up toearsc) rere compelled to do so under pain of dissdssal froa their jobs. did, however, attend the annual electionand others held on tho occasion of Soviet anniversaries, at which the Soviot Consul, KTSBOVas always present.

For the past, year or so tho Union of Soviet Tooth appears to have been "ralganaWd with Chinese CcoKunlat Tonth OrgwiisatloDS, as joint Meetings are heldeek: andyaungTShito "usalans and Chinese freely Intersdngle.

Protident of too Association of Soviet Citizens is PAVEL OIQORIEVICH KOSTmrrsKTJ, who has been in the officej6. The eecretary is KTrOLAJ PAVLOVICH nPJSOV.

Ballar

Personnel ln HATXAK

with the exception of approximatelySSR advisory andpersonnel attached to the BAIUR Local Railway Administration, other Soviet personnel were rarely seen by the inforaant In BAIUR.

Citizens' Association

A CitizenAssociation for resident local Russians exists in Hailar, and at the tine of the informant's departure was under the Presidency of KB. ALKXEI fTTSOrTCl! rVABOFF.

A- Peiping (Peking)o

... - . J" 3ource vorkedoviet advisory croun in rWn>-Ibe CentralKcancedc Wttee. Source sLJoTtuit ^aL^osIcarbon copy of everything she typed and if .he had known that SiTter^aanted such Information she would have brought "eSlVS She destroyed everything in her filee before ahe left Poking.

WO onsisted ofdvisor*9 to

"fedMrPUn6ctour -ere.

a-rted to the coaadttee. The advisors were all civilian specialist*

fro. Koscow. peciallsts ware assignedes Sn^

J", uld not recall the name of the chairman of the co.-itte.lut .he *us certain that the name would MM beck to her when

name

of the advisory group are listed be low

eggies HADJJCry fro. Ho.cow. QUef Advisor

alao Pl^ng aJJd-Trad. advisor. TZ^ZZtoljce^nLd by wife, nrnber of children unknown. Arrived in Peking ia AnrU^S^ left3 for Hoseowonth sick leave.

_ _ JZTWnT0IXD EgQ^qvrfCH PAKOW froa Hoscov. known. Serving as chief advisor during HAXtAIOPT'a absence.

rxnSIKnTcS tUSUm fro. Ho.cow. Approxiaataly to SllfV wife, ipaiber-of-cbildren unknovu. asaSuS to chief advisor. Saavy industry and trade advisor.

AlgAnlgg SKatikmHTfg froa Itoaww

.ECHSTAWIaTJTITca KRCTKVrrCHi free. KK,,. Between

Wccoap^nlea by wife. Statistics advisor.

lfc^rJ.drpSfmtCJ year, old,

P^rsonneTfdvIaorf , Ubor roUUoL, saUrJ and

account A Forty years old,

ESS^Tand stones forln-

var*,i evnry Wednesday afternoon at liOO hours. Each aeeUcg lasted four to five hours. At these nestings tho Chined

I^f*-freviously during the production

Kr^-, adTisors would study the reports and try to eliminate

the final results. The Scviet spaclficatians (oroduction figures) verT always based upon various Soviet factories or plants. The

because thefwlre alwayfSnosrSe

f^producti^ oast.. However, the qaoU was rarely -et^uselae

STltentvery small. Even the Russian

i 5* ccospaniad by Chinese

would -aje en the spot inspection tour. to^tTiuSTaclorles throughout China. These tour, would last fro. one to three weeks.

f*lant was equipped with Soviet nachinery. Soviet instructors were dispatched to Uach the Chinese how tTuse^hT

ireeta*oHdvtlors.

Source stated that there were thousands of such lustrnctc^rou^out

*artherthat these ^ructors were experienced personnel but not necessarily with

technidana with onlveralty

. The Majority of the advisors Mentioned

Pekingxted tcfurktri

wasears. Upon cospUtion of their term, they are replaced bT

^ aflrretS?fdterm.

U ternshrure fro. AIR,AISS,ft,an ft, S.

4 th 8* fT'QW Tal-yuan aod his asaiatant ia LU aieng-to'ao. Thors srs ten Soviot adTiaors In ths Ministry ofTho toUI strength of th.ry iaarsons. ^AW*TO>

9. all SoTlet ciUasns are autoamtioally naabem of tho Pokine Asaoclatlon of Soriet Citiians, whoee club Is situateduilding ^dioiirtn* tho Soviet fcabassy. Until about two yoara ago Soviet offioia^nT-nSe Wiailertain amount of social intercourse, but tho two groups are now kept strictly separate rfhite Raeaiana under tho age ofre euppooed to attend regularly the lectures and study groupo organised by tho Association! forverhere io no conpulsion. Soviet fllas are showneek. On the occasion of Soviet anniversaries or political celebrations attendance at the club Is conpulsory for all "hit* Russians. The Association is coapletely controlled by tho Soviet Babasey) the Presidentertain IZHEVSKIJ (fnu) the Secretary Vladiadr Ivanovioh MAKAKV, who wasustono official in Canton and has not lived long in Peking.

10. Poking la full of Soviet advisers and technicians who can often be seen in the streets in civilian clothes, they are attached to .Tory Chines0 srlnlotry. Itaid that soae of tho Soviet personnel are flying instructorsargo airfield on Uio northern outskirts of tho city.

are under th. adaojtistrative supervision of tho Soviet Azhasaador in Peking, Paval P. Tudln. OperaUonally the technical advisers probably coseounsellor In tho Soviet tatoassy, I. T. Archipov, who la reported to be in charge of th. ooonowlc assistance! progran.

B. Shanoi Province

0 "iaaion, formed by Pokachiski

nd Malararrived in Piping to negotiate toraslnc-Sovlat agreesant for exploitation of iron sod ooal ln Shansi Province. Basic agreement has boon reached on tho following pointer

Theof tho ccapany wast Iron aad Coal MlnlnR * "

All technicians oust bo Soviets.

c. 'Ihe tern for mutual exploitation of theso tines was ten years.

?* KI^ty Per0ent of annual production of thaurned oTor to tho Sovlot ^rernucnt in exchanfio for

C. Tlonto In

ovlaladvisors In Tientsin. Thov axe not permitted to associate with tho local Wan residents of tho Sty. ^

about in nrm w. I" Horth 5lna ,roa' axolu5lv" of Hanohurla, there ore

in

b. Theof tbo Soviet -onjulate has recently been

*ite mission esployeee hare now all been dismissed.

nformant did netoviet passDort he uaa not

esociationi the listed membership of tho

Tiontein Soviot Citlseo's Association includesCO persons. The

thatably repressed

T? berehlp, since the overwhelming ja-orlty were not pro-Sorl at of pro-Cosassnist. These persons are I

k.er SACJKOVSni Head of the Soviet Citiaen's AssfiOiation,ith hi. ancle Alexander, and who is duo to ctmo to Hon* Kong in a'

b. Andrei I. SKREBQilJIKOFFi Rusher two ban In the Soviet Citisen'e Association in Tientsin.

o. HicoUi SELESHEPF.

d. Nloolai Andrevich SCHERBAKCFF.

Da Taingtao

Association of Soviet Citisens o

a. The ISO or so local Russian emigres in Tsingtao, who have Soviet passports, are oonpelled to belong to the Association of Soviet Cltisens. Informant conslderacore of than to be militant Coavsanlstehe Association's Chxb wao raeantly transferred to the Soviet sehoel (where abouthildren now attend classes) in Shankan Road* It is rumored that it will shortly be moved again, this time to the former Masonic Club.

b* President of the Associationertain KHTAZHEHSKIJ (fnu) and the Secretary BAKXSHEVho mashinese subject. Soviet films are shown at the clubeek, and political lectures given on an averageear.

2. (Date/infoh) SSR Citiieos AasooiaUon exists in TSIKCTAO and la under the Presidencyussian by the Name of SEAJIRSKT. Ko farther Information on ths Association or Its members le available as the Informant, not being of Russian nationality, could only state that it appeared that this Association mas under the control of, aid received its directives and instructions with regard to its taingtao functions, froa, the USSR Consulsto-Ooneral at Tientsin*

-SCfSKT

m. BAST CSTBA

A. Shanghai

oviets vers living on anaload, formerly Avenue Joffre In the French Concession, Shanghai.

2- o Apart from the Soviet flyingmany Soviet technicians and advisers are attached to all airfields. Thoy wear civilian clothes and, live in one of the best parts of Shanghai along the Hung ao Road, east of the Hungolfllnks. They are seldos seen in tho city, except when asking purchases of food and other supplies. They are always in grours or three ot more and always accots-pa-iiedhinese uniformed juard. They are forbidden to use thegre club or to associate withigrec (See State, Bonj longo.

3. until aboutears ago there were several thousand Soviet technicians, advisers and various types of officials in Shanghai. Inforaant estimates the present nuuber to benly. Most are attached to the Railways and Port Administration, where they have is?roved the seneral or -atind operation considerably. (State, Hong Kong Desp So.

There areoviet Russians In Shanghai, livingcre area in Kong-jao. The ana is enclosed with barbed id re and has guardposts. The Soviets do not associate with the local people. They venture out usuallv accompanied by an official guide and translator. 1

5* Source said that there werelivingarea bounded on the Rortb by the Socchow Creek and Inby Lincoln Soad, in the west by Rubicon Seed andeast by Warren Road and theMil. There

arge sirn it the Southeast corner of the area stating that entrance to the area was prohibited. (Air, FTJF, oOOJith

6. The director of the Shanghai Railway Administration in LIU, and TO) tho political chief. Soviet technical advisers arei h'i-lo-hsueh-fcnd Hua-fong-li-yeh-fuho was transferred from tbe Angangch'itation on tbe Manchuria railway-

-mm"

IU. BAST CHTJU

A. (Cent.)

following are billetting areas for SovietShanghai!

a* In the area of Rnngjao Road referred to in earlier reports as the Forbidden City (gridhere is an unknown nuaber of Soviet Russian personnel who are believed byo work at the Hungjao Airfield.

imilar Soviet billetting area onoff referencedhort distance south of The billets consist of Chinese type houseo. tbe area and nuaber of personnel aworsaodated are unknown

former Jsrdlne, Rotheson re-idonee, locatedHungjao Road,w usedesidence bypersonnel.

to)

liaogran and Bungjao was where many Soviets lived,olicemanoldier were stationed at these places to prevent unauthorized persons entering. Rumors concerning the number of Soviets stationed in and around Shanghai varied between four and adz thousand. These people went shopping ln town in groups of two or three and they were never allowed to speak to the Russian ianigrants. We could speak to thM if we wished, but it was apparent they were afraid to speak to us.

b) One could alwayt spotviota because thoy were always followed by Chinese guards in bine andblack uniforms. Soviet officers always wore civilian clothes when they chopped.

9. a) There are certain parts of the town, surrounded by barbed wire, which it is forbidden to enter, including aof buildings in the Hungjao quarter housing save thousanda of Soviet experts.

b) All foreign res!dents, including Soviet, mastpecial permit to traveladius ofea. of

Shanghai. To ob'ain this permit, residents anoly first to theepartaefit of Local Government, located atnear Harden Bridge in Shanghai,ecommendation, W'licr tz then taken toreign Police Section, Carter Road, Shanghai, which issues the permit. Pernits are granted only when th* authorities hare an interest in the 'ournev being Tade. Details of tbe permit are not known.

UT. EAST. (Cnnt.)

IO* In Septewer and2 Chinese CorvBsnlst controls for aliens in Shanghai included the following aeasursei

nationals who entered or left 3ianghaiduties were to register only with the Alienthe East China military and Administrative Cosraitteeforeign Affairs Section of the Shanghai tilitary The Public Security buroan did not. register

or inspect Soriet nati:uala, who were free to -eve about and were -iot watched. White -ussiar.s, however, wore required toith theocurity Bureau and were watched in their activities, which were United in wry ways.

2 new regulations governing alienswore proaulgaied by the Zast China MilitaryCcimittet through the nianghaiBureau.

sb're rerulatioect apply toforeign visitors on official business orwho had been granted this privilege by theForeign Affairs.

12. a) Although JiASCAI is administered by the'^overn-entof the

opinion that various n'SP organisations ind advisory personnel In the cityertain amount of influence on thea of the local authorities. SSSR Advisory Personnel

personnelK31AI appear to beof air force Instructors and other aircraftto TJV3JA0 airfield, and quartered in theas "Too Little Kremlin" located on the miBOJAO Koad.

personnel working in official SorietJTARGHAI are normally quartered in their actual work preadaes.

Although the consanist Government continually enphasiaea the fact that CSSR personnel in CHTKA are to be regarded as "bigstates that USSR personnel arc kept under strict surveillance both by their cam and the Chinese Corasunist .lovernaent Authorities.

Although USSB personnel are permitted to travel around the city freely, they must alwaya move ln pairs or in

a jrcvp, keep strictly to themselves ind are Invariably accocap-anled ba Chinese detectire Who discourages any attempts by anyone to engage those personnel iu conversation.

personnel are only allowed tufi of theirir re-.I'xnc* vnen in possession oftheir destination,or the Journeytine of return. ao deviation from tlio routethe pass io permitted.

HJ. EAST CHIXA A. (Cont.)

II. g) USSR trade Representation in SHANGHAI (Torgpredstvo)

This organisation located on the comer of Avenue DOtFMER and Avenue JOfTSK in the ex-French Concession Is strictly guarded,ersons visiting the premises must sign the entry book indicating their name, tiae of arrival, reasons for visit and the person to be interviewed.

12. USSRl In S'-IAV.y'AJ J)

considerable numbers of

re present in SK7KUIT and billeted in various areas.

(ii) LI Tin? cuarterslbr USSR personnel are surrounded by high bamboo fences with vetchonncd by armed CCA soldiers, andpersonnel observed walking thrcugh the streets are invariable accompanied by -Chinese armed guards.

(ill) Inthe above sjeasures

have been adopted not so much for tbs protection of I'SSH advisory staffs froa Chineseloisents, but ^orerecautienary measure designed fee prevent the defection oi those personnel win, having no relatives in the GSSR may wish to escape froa the COmounist Regine.

(It)alleges that so strict Is

'his now-fraternisation policy iaposed onersonnel that oven In cases where Opsr personnel purchasing goods in shops are approached by RussUn sneaking porsoos they LwedUtely leave the shop without completing the transaction.

(v) Three billeting eroas for USSR personnel in SHANGHAI are known to the Informant! -

An area known an the "Little Kremlin" toresidents Is theDSSR civil and military residential area.

The area consists of resldentlalsSPTKE VATHIE-and isilometre so-oare in slse.

The whole area whichrroyndednmboo fence anc< is closely guarded by armed CCA trooDs is alleged 'o 'leer.uipned with, all -odern

It ir aliened by tbe tr-fvrae-tt that the Chinese

t)

domestic staff employed in this area have been hand picked by tbe Chinese Communist Authorities, remain as virtual prisoners within this area and are not permitted tc have any contact with the local population. This in the informant's opinion is to prevent any information whatsoeverto USSR personnel and their duties beecoins comon knowledge throughout the city of SHANGHAI.

Both OSSR advisory and airforce personnel are alleged to be quartered in this area.

The other two areas are located in tbe suburbs of XPSOOA aad XTAROVAR, bat no farther details are available.

(vi) Although unable to give any estimate ofstrength of USSR personnel in

considers that their iwnbers are growing continuously.

13- IZT ADVISERS, ETC. o

personnel vho wore working in or near Shanghai orto the city on shopping expeditions from other townsChina. They were all anxious to buy fur coata,apparently inteaded to sell on return toast profit! one of them told . .heable to beymall house at homo withals. They were particularly fond of silver obtain from- these wore of Canadian origin.

not able to engage his Sovietlow; cenversation and all of then were rcost reticentthe nature ef their duties In China. It washia that theycd false iuv?. Soeetlaes 't&ey'craveumberacehen he wasbills. They were usuallyiHan cloths, although

in winter they would scraetimeslock the shop

d?or and pall down the blinds, after which they would remove their overcoasts to reveal Soviet nlforas underneath. The unlf *med w$ appeared to be chiefly air force and artillery officers, -he civilian? were oftenngineers.

1.ofhreeen and

CEKTBAL AHD SOOTH CHTBA

oviets who hadat the guest hcose In Shaneen, Eby train for Swatow via Shihlung On

tbe ssjqo day seven Soviets left Canton by air for an unknown destination.

) ussian (Soviet) advisors arrived in Canton duringon tho. These personnel work in branches of finance, econosry, education, and public security. (Seeh AISS, h,

TheTungsten Corporation,ed and operated Jointly by Chinese and aoviet interests, isoviot monopoly, as are also other aiadlar corporations in tho whole South-Central Administrative Area (Chung-nan Cfa'u). The key people In the General Office in Canton as well as uj> engineers andunior engineers, are all Soviets. Bach of these engineerscnthly salary ofhile

a Chinese miner usually gets BO* HE currency and oneours work perOctC.)

1. Asarty of nine Russians dressed in civilian attire was staying at the Sino-Sovietaiwatow. They were believed to be transport and storage experts, three of whoa were interested in Swatow warehouses.

To SIKKIASO

1. General

There ere too Sino-Soriet Joint Stock Companies looted in Slnkiangi tbe Slno-SoTiet Joint stock Petroleum Company and tbe Slno-Soviet Joint Stock Bon-Ferrous and Rare Metals Company. eebnicalwas establiobed under the sponsorship of these two joint stock companies.

1. SlKO-SCVTET JOIsT STOCK PETROLEUM compart

Tbe USSR has supplied the machinery and the experts andfor this operation. Inb the first automatic cracking plant was complated In Sinkiang by this Slao-Sovlet Joint Stock Coepajiy.

OneO-FU-SSU-CHI (Possible TLASrjviSKlIasoriet production engineer wltb tbe organisation. (FED)

2. IET JOIST STOCKAKU RARE HBTALS COKPABT

The DSSR has also supplied the eqoipaamt and teohrdclans for this operation. h,esting celebrating the 3rd anniversary of this organisation's founding, one TKLUTBIE, Soriet General Manager of the coapany, was one of the chief speakers. (See State, Bong Kong, SCKPSupplement)

71. TIBET

A. General

uring, the first meek inroup ofoviet nationals arrived at latungibet, and established residence there. The leaders of the groanrofessor PBQTOPOTolonel A. T. BIKOUI.

) From March throughb Soviet geologists conducted explorations along the shores of Dangra lam Tsond when their work was completed took samples of tbe earth with them. nit of Chinese soldiers gnsaded ths Soviet group during tbe explorations and continued to guard tbe sites of tbs explorations after the work was finished.

b) Between January andU two parties of Soviet geologists, cne baaed at latung) and -he other at Phari Be-v;

orked In the Chumbi Falley area.

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