Created: 9/8/1954

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CENTRAL IS3LLISSSCZ AGENCY. Office of the Chief, Economic Research Office of Research and Reports Current Support Memorandum

. .. RR


SU3JECT : Atonic Defense in the USSR

Trie use of air-raid shelters is being emphasised in passive air defense preparations of the USSR. That the uae of auch shelters ia considered applicable to atonic warfare is indicatedewly initiated series of articles in the Army newspaper Red Star.Repeatedly mentioning blast effect as tho major-hazard of nuclear warfare, these articles recommend to Soviet troops the use of ground cover, trenches, and prepared shelters as the principle means of reducing casualties. These articles are the first announced instruction in atomic defense to appear in opsn publications in the USSR. Previous air defenso instructions wore limited to treatment of conventional weapons.

Acknowledging the unprecedented power of those now weapons, the Red Star writer. Major General B. Ollaov, revievs the effects of tho bombs used in Japan and in the Pacific tests conducted by the United Statsa. Although the atom and hydrogen sexbs are devastating, the writer states that means of protection have been developed and are workable for both troops and the general public. Coordinated research in atomic defense will continue while developed techniques are being perfected. In analysing the threat of nuclear explosion the danger factors are identified as light, radiation, radio-active conta-^ination andave. Effects of light (and heat We not treated in tho first two articles and radiation offects are minimised, citing the low percentage of casualties from this cause at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radio-active contamination ls mentioned "out haa not yet been discussed. Hovever, in an oarlior series of Red Star articles cn the physics of nuclear forces, it was mentioned that tha use of ordinary gas mask? and Mashing with aoap and water to remove contaminating material woreprotective measures. 2/ (Filter ventilating systems in Russian designed air-raid shelters would presumably be uaed with tha earns effoct as gasn the current articles it ia emphasized aeverol tinea that tho shock wave and its indirect effects (debris from foiling buildings,re the basic causo of casualties. Recommended defense moaourea for troops range from lying down through tha use of defilade, excavations, covered trenchos, and proporod re-enforced shelters. Noting war experience it is stressed that cellar shelters with re-enforced concrete or arched ceilings are protected from the major blast effect which is dissipated on the upper stories. This thinking is consistent -ith known shelter design in the USSR whichellar coiling designed

to withstand complete collapss of tho building, y

tmro ana tne capabilities of the boab. This.information combined with constant propaganda regarding the warlixo intentions of thobloc could not bave failed to arouse In tho public mind tM question of atonic defense. The government of tho USSB presumably had an answer prepared before permitting the question to be raised oven obliquely. It is significant that tho use of cellar shelters for troops in populated areas is strongly urged. This presupposes thoir existence "and lends weight to earlier reports that the CSSP. has embarkedrogram of air raid sholter construction In new dwelling units. Prom tho unfolding pattern of Soviot civil defenoo preparations It may be concluded that tho Soviet plan for atomlcjlefanao will include heavy shelters for central urban areas sec vital Installations,with substantial caller shelters in dwelling units further removed froa the potential area of ground aero.

(Coordinated with


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