RIVER SHIPBUILDING IN THE SOVIET UNION (CSM 180)

Created: 9/13/1954

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LLI0ZKCS AGZKCT Office of tha Chief, Economic Research Office of fteaearch aad Reporta

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Ti River Shipbuilding In the Soviet Union

The craft of shipbuilding is one of tha tost ancient, as nil as one of the Mat diverse, in the Soviet Union. Sech rivor, because of its'individual peculiarities, has lent ltaelf to the development of specific types of shipsuitable for the particular river. To tha present time this variety

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of construction has confused and confounded not only the operators, but the plannera as well, for this variety has not permitted the industry tos product for maximal production.

h the riven of the Soviet Union will carryoercent of the entire cargo of the nation. This oargo ia transportedet of rlvera totaling soneilometers, of which not more thaaercent, orllometore, are considored suitablo for self-propelled1 the eat If at ed total cargo hauled on the rivers of the Soviet Union will amount tollllon tone.

-he rather large fleet needed to has! this amount of cargo la tha product, in tha main, of the Soviet river ahipbuilding industry. It is estimated that there are, or. the banke of the rivers of tha Soviet Union,and ship repair yards. Of this nuriber not nore thanre engaged is actual shipbuilding activities; tho rest are engaged in kooping operating vessels

)/ . rshunkovskiyt. Berealnskiy, Vautrenniyo Todayiye Puti (Tha Internal Waterwaye), p. 8.

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easonably rood state of repair. Tho majority of those building yards belong to the Ministry of the Riverhich Klnistry is also directly concernod with the transporting of cargo on the inland water ways of the Soviet Union.

Regarding tho over-all importance of tho industry, it should be borne in mind that what is,ivor yard can be,ard under the Jurisdiction of tho Ministry of Shipbuilding, which Ministry concerns itself almost wholly with the construction of naval vessels. An example of this shift IB Jurisdiction is the Xomsomolsk Shipyard, which, when initially plannedas toarge merchant ship building yard. Today tho Komsomols* Shipyard is building submarines and destroyers. Another example of the traaa-formation ofiver yardajor naval building complex Is that which haa taken plaoe in the Gorkiy area, where extensive naTal shipbuilding is nowa. In spite of these shifts, tha building yards on the rivers of the Soviet Union are presently able to keep up with tho rlvar shipping demands placed upon thorn for nev construction.

It Is estlmatod that now construction during tho current Five Year ?lan by

Soviet river yards for tho Ministry of tho River Fleet will bei 2/

Self-Propolled***

So.

capacity, metric tons

estimates conplled for CftRn progress. Flguron

rounded.

Onoscow broadcast reported formation of two separata ministries, the Ministry of the Maritime Fleet and the Ministry of the Rlver*rieet. This' Is the altuation which existed prior tohe data of tha last major re-organiaation in the water transportation field. It will be soma time before specific breakdowns of each ministryapparent. (ST Times,U,

thnb craft

Basedcattered half year reports indie at lag approximately plan fulfillment

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Production of thle order appears to satisfy tha needs of the river fleet for toga and barges, somear cent of which are of wooden oonatruction. At maximal wartime conversion, it la estimated that these river yards could produce annuaUy0 landing craft of the *CT type.

Over and above the tabulated construction and not included, isfor the ocean-going fleet, and such building as nay be undertaken under the auspices of the Ministry of the Light and Pood Industry and tha Ministry of the Timber and Paper Industry. Bach of theaa ministries controls ita ovn river yards and engagos-in the oonatruction of special vessels for its particular needs. Yet another aource of shipbuilding ia that undertaken for the small rivers which are under the control of various oblast adnlnistrations.

The ahlpyards ara, in general, divided into throe main typosi y

The shipbuilding saved* an enterprise which includes shops capable of faahioning raw steel into bull shapes, manufacturing parts, unite and hull sections. Ideally such an enterprise vill also include specialised shops for carrying out installation work bo wall as shops for finishing the' conotmctioh of tho veonol after it has been launched. Also inoluded will be yard vaya, docks, and ohore Installations, finally, the enterprise la'this category generally willachine building seotlonoundry, forge, and nachiaa assembly shop. In addition there mayawmill and earpentor ahop' for finiahlng raw timber and nanufacturing wooden Itemo.

The ahipbuildlng yarf, an enterprise whichhop In whichel ia shaped, an assembly-welding ahop, in which seetional assembly nay takeuilding wayhip lnatallatlon ahop, and aengaged in'completing construction. An enterprise of this type usually does notachine building section; if it doea, ita production isnited nature.

The efcip isaenblynterprise of much more restricted scope than the shipbuilding verf, engaged only in the asaanbly of ahlps from prefabricated sections, parte, and units delivered from external aources. Thia type of enterprise doea engage,in all the Installation work neceeeary for building'the ehip, conducts moored and endarvay trials, and actually oarries out delivery to the owner, just

as do the other typos of enterprises.

2/ . Mamontov, Organlaateiya Proisvodstva Stapolnovo Tsekha (Organi-aation of Production of the BuildlagveyUi.

In 'J5 practice both savod and verf would be classod asBay are here used in transliterated form for definition purposes.

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What Is ths futuro of ths river shipbuilding industry? There is evidence that Soviot planners are not happy with results obtained thus far. One writer points outhe shipbuilding Industry has had to, and still oust, search for newer, more modern, methods of organising the building of 'hips so as to decrease the building cycle and reduce production/ The very coaplsxity of the shipbuilding Industry naJces effective control over it somewhat sketchy. Shipbuilders working in distant compartments and divisions of ships under construction makes supervision of theirifficult task. Complicating tho picture ;is the lack of needed materials at the proper time, with attendant waste of time and disrupted production schedules. Such tardy deliveries (and tho Soviot press does not hid* tho facts) range froa ateel, to such small parts as nuts and bolts. .Disrupted schedules lead toplans, for onca the rivers have frosen, work stops for the wintertho yard is one of tho few fitted for winter work.

Thus, tho complexities and delays ln tho Soviet' shipbuilding syatort and consequent Soviot press criticism make it difficult toruly accurate picture of construction capability. Best evidence Is thatplans are being mat. It Is tho ship repair worker, rather than (hi ship builder, who is the target of critical articles found in the Soviet press and periodicals. This is, perhaps, the beat indication that Scvist river shipbuilders are approaching the goals set for them.

Coordinated with! '

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Original document.

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