AMUR SHIPYARD NO. 199 IN KOMSOMOLSK, KHABAROVSKIY KRAY (RR 43)

Created: 9/22/1954

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT

AMUR SHIPYARDN KOMSOMOLSK, KHABAROVSKIY KRAY

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED

43

1 LICENCETNOT HP KESES8CH Ma reports,

g

COHTENTS

Summary and Conclusions

T. Name and

IT.

III.

IV.

V. Buildings and

VI.

VII.

VIII, Sources of Powt. and

DC. Capabilities and Vulnerabilities

Appendixes

Appendix A.

Appendix B. Caps in

Appendix C. Sources and Evaluation of Sources

Tables

Page

Program for Concurrent Confltruetlon of

Naval Vessels In Amur Shipyard No. j$

Annual Naval Vessel Capacity of Amur

Shipyard No. 13

3- Theoretical Program for Concurrent Construction of

Self-Propelled Cargo Ships ln Amur Shipyard . ifc

Estimated Annual Merchant Vessel Capacity ofNo. ft

5. Man-Hours Required to Construct Naval Vessels

in the jq

6. Bstlmated Number of Direct Employees Required fc

Theoretical Naval Construction. 19

Illustrations

nc

Figure 1. Amur Shipyard,

Pl*ure 2. uilding Dock and Launching Basin

-vi_

CIA/RR

(ORR6 A)

AMUR SHIPYARD,MOLSK. KHABAROVSPY KRAY*

Summary and Conclusions

Amur Shipyard, in Komscmolsk, Khabarovskiy Kray, Is the most important shipbuilding yard in the eastern coastal region of the USSR.

The design aod arrangement of facilities indicate greater emphasis on construction than on repair. Naval vessels. Including submarines, ranging in size from small coastal craft up to and including cruisers, can be built. Final outfitting of oceangoing vessels is usually accomplished at Vladivostok or some other coastal shipyard.

tr

Based onour labor shift, the shipyard is capable of annuallytandard displacement tonsf navalwhich is equivalentcean patrol submarines,andubmarine chasers. Should the shipyard be devoted exclusively to the production of merchantrosB reglstei tonsould be produced annually. This tonnage is equivalent

* The estimates and conclusions contained in this report represent the best judgment of the responsible analyst asU. ** Standard displacementurface vessel is the displacement (in tons0 pounds) of the vessel, complete, fully manned, engincd, and equipped ready for sea. Including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores, and implements of every description that ure intended to be carried In war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board. displacementubmarine is the surface displacement and is similar to the standard displacementurface vessel but without lube oil, fresh water^ or ballast water of any kind on Gross register tonnageeasure wherein the entire internal cubic capacity of the vessel is expressed in register tons (ICO cubic feet to the ton). Certain spaces are not included in the measurement, such as peak tanks and other tanks of water ballast, open forecastle, bridge and poop, hatchway excess, certain light and air spaces, anchor gear, steering gear, vheelhousc, galley, cabins for passengers, and other minor spaces specified by law.

edium-size cargo vessels. These estimates are basedrobable construction program utilizing all facilities rather than construction of the maximum size vessel in each building dock.

Repair is mainly of river vessels, both naval and merchant, during the winter months vhen the Amur River is frozen, and represents aminor part of the shipyard's work.

Capital and technological Improvemente since World War II have combined to probably double the plant's productive capability. Despite its distance from the coast and the short navigation period in the Amur River, the Improvements made after World War II indicate the intention of maintaining this shipyard as the principal shipbuilding center in the Par East.

The shipyard is veil developed and coordinated. Any economic weakness derives from its physical location and concomitant weather conditions. Propulsion and heavy machinery can be obtained only from Western USSR, whichauliles over the Trans-Siberian railroad. The freezing of the Amur Riveronths of the year tends to restrict production.

The present number of employees is not known. otal shipyard force (direct andf lU,iiC0 employees would be required to produceET of naval construction;otalforce (direct-arid indirect) ofmployees would be required to producekOO GRT of self-propelled merchant cargo ship construction. roduction program be institutedorce of0 employees, lt is believed thatorce could be made available.

I. Niirtc and Location.

Amur Shipyards situated on the northwest bank of the Amur River, southeast of and adjoining the city of Komscciolsk,

* Direct employees are personnel whose labor is directly chargeablepecific ship; indirect employees are personnel engaged in management, clerical work, maintenance, and the like.

Khabarovskly Kray, in Economic Region XII.* The plane coordinates are latitudelongitude

KoraooBolnlc ts located on the left bank, going downstream, ofRiverautical miles above its In thea minimum depth of l6 feet is maintained by dredging. the Amur Is not affected by tides, bub floodln September,ise of abouteet in the The mouth of the Amur River is closed by ice from aboutof November to about the end of Hay, resulting ln aofays. Between the last week of Octobermiddle of March the average dally temperature isays being below2/ ow ofhas

Komsomolak isingle-track railage) extending northeastward fromtationiles west of Khabarovsk on the Trans-Siberian railway. econd single-track line, completed after World War IL also connects Koasoaolsk to the Trans-Siberian railroad at Izvestkovaya, via, Chekunda and Duki. kj ingle-track line extends eastward free Plvan, opposite Komsceaolsk on the right bank of the Amur River, to Sovetskuyu Gavan. The Amur River is drosscdlescl-operated railroad car ferry connectingok with Pivan. 5/ It is possibleail line now connectsomsomolok with Nlkoluyevsk, following generally Iho Amur River valley. 6/

The buildings in the shipyard are widelyards apart in some cases. The total area of the shipyard, which may Include some living quarters, coverscres.

II. History.

Komsomolak was chosen as the locationew industrial development shortly after the Kanchurlan incident, when lt became evident that Japan night be able to cut the Trans-Siberian railroad. There was need for the rapid industrialization of an area in tho

* The term region ln this report refers to the economic regionsand numbered on CIA1 (First, USSR: Economic Regions.

** Footnote references in arable numerals are to sources listed In Appendix C.

Maritime Provinces that would stake them Independent of Western USSR Industry. 7/

The building; of the Amur shipyard began Production got underwayt which time the first phase of construction was completedeported costillion rubles. 8/

Little improvement was made to the shipyard during World War II. Following the war the shipyard was expanded and improved by replacing wooden with masonry structures, erecting new ehops and coveredways, and Improving facilities and

7 the Soviet0 square meters of duelling space to be built for the workers in the shipyard. These quarters were to be equipped with electricity, hot water, and These quarters consist of barracks, apartments, andhouses and will probably houseeople.

Despite the lack of specific data on shipbuilding facilities, the Amur shipyard is believed toell balanced and coordinated building yard, comparable to the older shipyards in Western USSR.

III. Organization.

t8 the shipyard was reported to be under the direct control of the Ministry of Shipbuilding (MSP-Minister6tvo sudostroitel'noy In the reorganization of3 tbe Ministry of Shipbuilding was absorbed into tbe Ministry of Transport und Heavy Machine Building. In the reorganization of, the Ministry of Shipbuilding re-emerged and is again probably in direct control of the shipyard.

IV. Importance.

The Soviet Navy, required by the exigencies of geography toeparate fleet for each coastal region, has developed basing, shipbullding}and repairing facilities for each fleet. The Amur shipyard is tbe principal shipbuilding yard for the Soviet Pacific Fleet, and the largest shipbuilding center in far eastern USSR. While there are other Important building yards in the far eastern USSR, none have been developedomparable degree of

V. Buildings and Facilities,

Many postwar reports state that new buildings and shipbuilding ways wereome of tbis new construction could be located and its use determined, but the majority of such reports were of little value other than to indicate shipyard expansion. It is believed that the shipyard contains machine shops and hulland assembly shops ln addition to those shown on the chart showing the layout of the shipyard (see

For tbe most part the buildings are of permanent construction, having masonry walls, metal and composition roofs, steel supported roof structures and steel overhead crane supports.

The shipyard is protected on the land sideencemeters high, which has been variously reported as being madebarbed wire, electrified wire, and wood topped with All entrances are guarded by armed guards, and entrancepass only.

Intrayard transportation is chiefly by railroad. Trackage is generally Soviet standard gage, so that freight cars may be shunted directly into shops and shipbuilding ways without transshipment of The equipment Is listed as reported, even though it may be considered inadequate to perform the operations indicated by the designated use of the buildings.

Transformer Station

The transformer stationransformers ratedilowatts per hour. Power comes Trom

Saw.

Logs are rafted into the area and floated to the shore near the saw mill. The logs are then dragged along skids to the saw mill bv winch and

* ollows p. * The numbers and letters in parentheses correspond to those found on Fig. 1. Certain numbers have been omitted from this discussion, because nothing la known about the buildings they identify other than their probable use.

5 -

ForRe and Machine

The forge and machine shopividedays. Thetories high and contain offices and machine shops. bay is clerestory-lighted by skylights. The center bayforge shop and is equippedteamil firedfurnaces, stamping machines, overhead travelingequipment.

Machine

This machine shoparge gear cutting machine and large lathes probably capable of machining propeller shafting. This shop also machines propeller eastings and manufactures ffwUI

Machine

This machine shop is reported to manufacture bolts and rivets. Itumber of small lathes, boring machines, grinders, punch presses, polishing machines, small ehapers and drill

This foundry ia equipped with blast furnaces, oil-fired tilting type furnaces, andlectric furnaceson capacity each. Ita moulding and casting section,asting dressing section. Both ferrous and nonferrous castings are produced. This foundry ia reported to be capable of casting propellers up toeet ln22/

Machine, and kl).

These machine shops are equipped with large and medium size lathes, shearing machines, shapers, boring machines, drill presses, milling machines, reheating furnaces, overhead traveling cranes, and other equipment. These shops are reported to produce camshafts, water pipe bushings, piston sleeves andonnecting pins, railroad car wheels and axles, connecting rod bearings, ball bearing casings, spiral gears, pins,and various size bolts.

SiE garg^T

Hull Fabrication Shop (kZ).

Thia shop Is the principal hull fabrication and assembly shop. It is equipped with heavy plate shears, planers, plate bending rolls, oxy-acetylene cutting torches, punch presses, brakes, electric weldingboring machines, reheating furnaces, bending slab, forge, and pneumatic hammers, and other equipment. The building is dividedays. The two northern shop bays are clerestory and lighted by The southern bay, whichtories high, is divided into small shops and offices on the first floor and probablyold loft on the second/

t

Pump

This building is reported to house the pumps for filling and emptying the launching

Launchinga and 6lb).

The bottom of the shallower section of thea) is abouteet below the ground level)and the bottom of the deeperb) ic abouteet below the ground level- The sides and bottom of both sections are surfaced vith The shallower(6la) is normally dryland its bottom slopes slightly downward from the building docks to tbe deeperhich is normally floodedepth of abouteet. The water level of the deeperb) is not permitted to rise above this low level, except during controlled operations of launching or docking of vessels.

The purpose of this) is primarily to launch vessels built in the building docks fk, B, and zj. Upon the completionessel In any one of the building docks the following launching procedure is followed: (l) the watertight gate to the building dock iche watertight) between the launching basin and the inlet Ishe) and tlie building dock arc flooded, byepth sufficient to float the vessel,he vessel then is moved out of the building dockosition over the deeperhe launching basin then is drained, the) removed, and tbe vessel moved out of the launching basin Into the inlet.

The vessels are docked by reversing the launching procedure. The number of vessels that can be floated, ln the shallower section of the

launching basin limits the number of vessels launched or docked at any one time.

Watertight

This gate Is estimated loeet long byeetuay and

These facilities are used very little for fitting out nev Several mobile cranes operate on the quay andhe depth of water alongside ls abouteet.

Covered Building Docks*

ave been'in service sinceas constructed after World War II, and is believed to be operational. All are of masonry and steelross section of buildings shown in* re similar. These buildings are heated so that work can proceed during Wie winter months uninterrupted by unfavorable

There are estimated tootalatertight concrete building docks. ocks inndnre estimated to0 feet long byeet wide byeet deep.nrc estimated toeet long byeet wide byeet deep. The entrance to each dockuilding is estimated to beeet high byeet wide;uilding.lD^ feet high byeet wide; andeet high byeet wide.

Each dock Is formedidesatertight concrete wall. The fourth side or entrance is formedatertight gate. Each dock may be flooded singly, or all docks may be floodeds the docks are of the graving type, the assembly area is level with tbe top of the dock walls. Railroad tracks that connect with the various shops and the main lines enter each assembly area. Material is aoved from railroad cars and assembly area to the building docks by means of gantry cranes. The lifting capacity of each of these cranes is reported to be about

* Seeor methodology used to determine size and number of docks.

** ollows p. 8.

oontain small shops, administrative, and engineering offices. jU/

Floating Cranes.

ton floating crane serves both the port and the ohipyurd.

VI. Production.

Accurate data on the production of ships or the production of producer and consumer goods by the numerous associated shops are not. available. Tbe largest vessels known to be produced to date were the Kirov class heavy cruisers, Kalinin and Kaganovlch, built during the early part of World War II. Other oceangoing naval vessels produced during World War II and In tbe years following. Include Artillerist class submarine chasers. Bird class coastal destroyers, and Otllchnyy and Skoryy class

Submarines were reported to nave becu assembled ln the shipyard from prefabricated sections built ln Western USSB and shipped eaat over the Trans-Siberian railroad. 3j/

Because of the small entrance to tbe building docks, the lowclearance of the gantry cranes in the buildings housing the docks, the relatively Inadequate fitting out quays and piers, and theof the Amur River, vessels of destroyer size end larger are probably fitted out at Tbe amount of work done at Vladivostokelatively small because all deckhouses, armament, and all propulsion machinery are Installed at the Amur shipyard, jg/

River patrol vessels, assail oil tankers and barges have beenin the shipyard since World Wor II. Uof

ailroad car ferries were built. These cor ferries were put into operation in. the Amur River between Komsomolsk and/ River vessels and cur fcrrleo are completely fitted out and operational when delivered by the shipyard.

Repair of vessels is believed to be largely confined to river patrol and merchant river vessels. Reports indicate little use of the building docks for repair of vessels. Immediately before the Amur River freezes, vessels to be repaired are docked on the concrete floor of the launchinga). Repairs to both hull and machinery are carried out during the winter months. <ij- /

Shlpyard shops, in addition to supporting vessel construction and repair, manufacture both producer and consumer goods. Among the items produced are spare parts for agricultural machinery, spare parts for tractors, pontoons, railroad car wheels and axles, machinery, spare parts for machinery, furniture, plated metal beds, electric hot plates and irons, and plated table

VII. Labor.

Reports as to the number employed in the.shipyard9 rangeowmployees kk/igh0 employees working three During this period the shipyard was engaged in ship production and capitalreakdown of the number engaged ln each activity cannot be made, and reports of the labor situationater date9 are not available.

In the Immediate postwar years prisoners of war were used as building construction workers and laborers. Few, if any, were used in production work, kjj Seme shops and the 'secret dock' <b) were reported working three labor shifts, while other shops usually worked only one labor/

It is estimatedotal of lk,kQQ employees,would be required to produceDT of naval construction listed inne eight-hour shift basis. It is believed that the administrative and other nonproductive (indirect) employees constitutef this total. This percentage compares favorably with US practice. Therefore, it is estimated0 employees,f the total, are productive (direct) labor. Should such aprogram be undertaken, this labor force could probably be made available.

To produceOO CRT of merchant vessels listed lnouldotalmployees, ofmployees would be productive (direct) labor.

It is assumed that the productivity of the free Soviet shipyard worker is comparable to that of the US worker. actor of relative efficiency was not used. However, if forced labor ts used in production chops and in shipbuilding, it Is doubtful that the estimated production rates could be met with the estimated total number of employees.

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There are three- technical schools in Komsomolskone each for architecture, industry, and shipbuilding.he shipbuilding school was under tbe direction of/

VIII. Sources of Power and Material.

Data Indicating the amount of raw, semifinishedjOr finishedreceived by the shipyard are not available.

The port of Kansomolsk is of little Probably the principal import over the Amur River is lumber, which is received mainly in the form of log The bulk of freight moved into the shipyard is by

Most of the foundry pig iron, steel for forgings, steel plates^and shapes are probably obtained from the Amur Steel Plant

Propulsion and other heavy machinery is probably shipped from plants ln Leningrad and Sverdlovsk; other components come from Moscow and Hikolayev. It ia probable that some lighter components may be obtained from nearby plants in Semenovka, Khabarovsk and Vludi-ovstok. 5U/

Electric power and steam heat are obtained from the large power and heating) adjoining the shipyard on the west. Tbe total rated capacity of the several electric power plants in Kotoso-molsk is about The estimated consumption of theisillion kwh per year,oincident peak load0 kw, basedpercent load factor. The power plants In Komsomolsk are not known to be tied in with any major grid

TX. Capabilities and Vulnerabilities.

A. Capabilities.

The development of the shipyard Indicates greater emphasis on shipbuilding than on 6hlp repair. Minor repairs can be made todocked on the floor of the launching basin and at tbe quay and pier at locationndn the shipyard chart. Large vesselsmajor repairs can be docked In the building docks only after the dismantling of masts, antennae, and possibly some deck

-0 fl

Naval vessels up to and including Kirov class cruisers nave been built. Submarine assembly has been reported. Postwar capital Improvement to shops and shipbuilding docks (probably the enlargement of some existing docks) and tbe building of additional shipbuilding docks have probably more than doubled the productive capability of the shipyard since World War II.

The shops have been developed to support adequatelyIncluding submarine production, of types and sizes up to the limitations set by the size of the building docks. Ship production ls estimated on tbe basis that the following work ls done within the shipyard: (l) all hull steel is fabricated andhe production and machining of all light and heavy castings and forgings, including propeller shafting, and propellers up to nndthose of destroyerll machinery and naval ordnance is Hssembled und Installed. The lack of significant Improvement of fitting out facilities icdicatec that all work on oceangoing vessels, not possible within the covered building docks, continues to be done in some coastal shipyard, probably Vladivostok. The shipyard haa ample room for further expansion.

Basedealistic appraisal of the support required by the Soviet Far Eastern Fleet, Tableheoretical program for the concurrent construction of naval vessels in Amur Shipyardhat will utilize all known facilities. Itrobable

program rather than one using the maxlcum size vsssel each building

dock could accommodate.

Bused on tho construction lir.ted in Tablehe Amur Shipyard is cupable ofIWX> SDT annually. (See

In the, event that the shipyard should be devoted to theof merchant vessels, the theoretical construction program of self-propelled oceangoing cargo ships,shown inould be built simultaneously. This program would occupy aU known facilities. Itrobable ratheraximum tonnage construction program.

* ollows on* ollows on p. ollows on p. Ik.

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Table 1

Theoretical Program for Concurrent Construction of NavalAmur Shipyard

Total

Length Tonnage

Location *f of Vessels (Feet) ISDTJ

B

C d/

Total

Cruisers Submarines Subchasers

Skoryy

y

w

Artillerist

Pig.hich follows p. 6.

destroyer in each ofocks in building A.

building docke are probably too small for theton cruiser is used for estimating purposes.

C has twoubmarinesubchasersbuilt simultaneously in each dock.

Table

Estimated Annual Naval Vessel Capacity of Amur Shipyard/

oi' Vessels

k

Total

Class

Tonnage fSDTJ

0

Based on the theoretical construction program shown In Table 1. See Appendix A, Methodology.

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Table 3

Theoretical Program for Concurrent Construction of Self-propelled Cargo Ships in Amur Shipyard Bo. 1QQ

Location */

Q-'eet)

Tonnage (GRT)

B

C

Cargo Loggers Cargo

?

6 b/ 2

0

Fig.hich follows p. 6. "

cargo shipoggers canbuilt in each dock in building B.

Based on the construction listed tn Tablehe possible

Table 4

Estimated Annual Merchant Vessel Capacity of Amur Shipyard/

Totalof Vessels '

km

a. Based on the construction program shown in Table 3. See Appendix A, Methodology.

- It-

Output in both naval and merchant tonnage may possibly be increased by increasing the number of hours of the one shift the repetitious productioningle design, improving technological

^Prentice training. Assuming no bottleneck in the

0fnoateriQl' 0UtPut be increased by working additional thBtqualified en^Jneerin.

B. Vulnerabilities.

Plant Probably developedell coordinated

however, gives rise to economic hazards. Desnite the industrialization of the Eastern USSR, main heavy machinery Ts obtainable only from Western USSR,^ Not onlyhysical hazard involved, but transportation, priLSoiv

tbyis difficult to

The Amur shipyard, like the shipbuilding industry in Renera)

* ftbricatlS

therefore the chief economic problem lies inteadv flow of raw materials and components produced by other industries/

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AFFEI.TjTa a

METHODOLOGY

This report was compiled chiefly from postwar intelligence. Little use was made of prewar production data other than to gain knowledge of the range and class of vessels built.

The designation of building and shop use and the description of facilities are digests of the reports, mainly by prisoners of war, contained in the consolidated plant folder in the industrial Register.

The determination of the number and size of docks was difficult because the reported size rangedeet long andoeet wide. The reported number of buildings housing the docks rangednd the number of docks rangedo 7.

The reported length and width of the docks showed no consistent length-width ratio. It is assumed that Soviet engineers would design facilities, particularly graving docks, to suit the construction of principal types of merchant and naval vessels. With the exception of capital warships, the beam-length ratio of merchant vessels is greater than the beam-length ratio of cruisers and smaller warshlpa. Assuming the maximum beam of medium sized oceangoing merchant vessels to be one-tenth the length pluBeet| andeet on each side for stuging, the width of the docks is estimated at one-tenth the length pluseet.

In computing the width and length of each dock the maximum reported dimension, with respect to the beam-length ratio, was used. In the case of the docks in building A, the reported maximum dimension was theoot width. Using the formula, the length of each dock would0 feet. The cruisers Kalinin and Kaganovlch were built in building B. The length of these vessels iseet. Using tho reported dimensioneet in length as the maximum dimension, the width of the dock is estimated ateet.

The excavation for the docks inas reported to beeet long. This length Gaspares favorably with the estimated length of the docks In building A. Therefore, it was concluded thatocks similar to those in building A.

-efre-RiEal--

The height of the entrance toocks was estimated on the oasis of the reported state or completion of the cruiser Knganovlch vhen last observed ln one of the building docks. The conning tower, main battery, deck houses, and all main propulsion machinery vere in place at that time. Assuming that the stocks vere Installed before launching, the required clear height of entrance would beeet. omparable state of completion for destroyers builtocks, the estimated required clear height of entrance would be abouteet. s reported to be higher thanr B. Assuming that destroyers constructedocks would be completed within the dock, an estimated required clear height of entrance would beeet. The width of entrance is estimated to beoot less than the width of the dock.

In computing the annual naval vessel capacity shown ln Tablene following estimates and assumptions were made: (l) tbe necessary material, labor, and power would benlyour labor shift would beessels can be launched only duringonth period from May through October. It is apparent that the principal building period la during the winter months, with launchings scheduled during tbe summer months. It is believed that schedules would ba set up so that tho destroyers aod submarines wouldear, cruisersears, and subchasers possiblyonths,nunchtngs each year. The time required to complete vessels in Vladivostok, or some other capital shipyard, ls not included In the estimated completion time, and ls considered not to affect the rate of construction at the Amur shipyard.

The estimates and assumptions made in calculating merchant tonnage were similar to those made for the calculation of naval tonnage:

tho necessary material, labor, and power would be available;

onlyour labor shift would beuildingould be set uphat the cargo ships would be completedear, and the loggers possiblyonths,aunchings each year. The cargo ships could not be completed within the building docks. The time required to complete the vessels ln Vladivostok or bow other coastal shipyard has also been disregarded In this estimate.

In calculating tho number of direct employees, the figures ln Tablehowing the number of man-hours required to construct certain typeii of naval vessels ln the US were used.

nollows on

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idTeTT

Table 5

Man-Hours Required to Construct Naval Vessels in tbe US

Tonnage

Subchaser

Cruiser (Light) Destroyer

240

The working year (man-year) in the USSRorking hours, thatays minusays for regular days off, holidays, absenteeism, and vacations,aysours per dayan-hours. On this basis, and using the man-hours per SDT from Tableirect labor to yield the0 SDT of naval construction is shown in Table 6.

Table 6

Number of Vessels

1.

Class Submarines Artillerist ClassTon Light Cruiser Skoryy Class Destroyers

0

In Table 2.

APPENDIX B

f INTELLIGENCE

Aa capabilitien are primarily baaed on facilities, probably the major gap in intelligence is lack of specific information on the expansion of facilities Specific Information ls desired on size and number of building docks, information as to the internal arrangement of the launching basin and the capability of thefacilities.

Information is needed on current production of both producer and consumer goods; availability and efficiency of manpower; sources of raw, semifinished, and finished material; destination of products; technological proceaees; capital investnent^and budgets.

OURCES AMD EVALUATION OF SOURCES

1. Evaluation of Sources.

The compilation of data and the preparation of estimates and conclusions were derived from research in the files of the Industrial Regleter, the CIA Library, the Graphics Register, and from discussions held with analysts from other IAC agencies. Significant information dated laters not available.

The documents from the Industrial Register were mainly raw Intelligence consisting chiefly of prisoner-of-war reports. ew or these sources were skilled mechanics. The reliability of single reports could be evaluated only on the basis of their contribution to the studyhole. The composite of selected reports may beating of possibly true.

The documents from the CIA Library were additional prisoner-of-war reports, publications of IAC agencies, reports by naval attaches,ew InteUigence reports and digests prepared by foreign governments. The prisoner-of-war reports should be rated the same as those reviewedhe Industrial Register, possibly true. The remaining documents from the CIA Library have beenigh evaluation, as they represent tbe considered opinion of experienced observers and analysts.

2, Sources.

Evaluations, following the classification entry and designated fcval., have the following significance:

Source of Information

- Documentary

ompletely reliable

sually reliable

airly reliable

ot usually reliable

ot reliable

annot be Judged

- Confirmed by other sources

- Probably true

- Possiblyoubtful

- Probably false

- Cannot be Judged

"Documentary" refers to original documents of foreign governnents nod organizations; copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or Information extracted from such documentstaff officer, all of which will carry the field evaluation "Documentary" insteadumerical grade.

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing oa the cited document; those designated "RR" are by the author of thla report. No "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

CIA, NISupplement I, 0. Eval. RR 2.

Ibid.

Navy,. S. .

CIA,, Trans-Siberian Railroad and Connecting Lines,

First. <T. Doc.

CIA,p. cit.

CIA,7it.

BP 2.

Navy, ONI, Serial U. Eval. RR 2.

CIA, OWE Document Section,cott Report. S.

Eval. RR- Air, Treasure U. Eval. RR 3.

Moskovskly Kcmsoeolets2 U. Bval. RR 3-

Navy, CNFC. S. .

13- CIA, IR Ho.p to Secret and Lover.

Eval. RR Ibid.

17- Array S. Eval. RR 2.

Army AISS Wringer C. Eval. RR 2.

Ibid.

Army AISS Wringer c. Eval. RR 2.

Map 3. AISS Wringerit.

Army FEAFp. cit.

AISS Wringerop. cit.

- 24

i x

Amy AISS Wringerg. git. Amy S. Eval. BR 2.

Amy AISS Wringer, og. cit. Amy AISS Wringer Ho.g. cit.

Army AISS Wringerg. cit. Army AISS Wringerg. cit.

2k. Navy6 S. . Amy AISS Wringerg. cit. Amy AISS Wringercit.

cit.

op. cit.

C. Eval. RR 3.

Eval. RRval. RR 3.

Ibid.

Army AISS Wringerg. cit. Army AISS Wringerg. Navy p. cit.

Amy AISS Wringermy AISS Wringer'ray AISS Wringerg. cit.

Amy AISS Wringer C. Eval. RRrmy,, S. Army,, l6 S.

CIAg. cit.

CIA IR7 2E*

Ibid.

Ibid.

33- g. cit.

34. CIA IR7t.

35- CIAlt.

CIA IRU-

creacrcliciiklye bazyoovetafcoflO noyuza v

baoecyne tlkhogo3 goou, (Naval and Comcercla1 Bases of tbe Soviet Union In the Pacific Ocean U. Eval. RRIA, Fife IR S. Eval. RRavy,7 S. .

IR, op. cit.

g. cit.

C. .

1 S. Eval. RR 3-

4 S. Eval. RR 3.

0 S. Eval. RR 3-

2 S. Eval. RR 3-

C. .

Wringerg. cit.

-

Army, 1 S. Bval. RR 2.

AISS Wringercit.

Army, , S. Eval. RR 2.

IRit.

Army,, C. Eval. RR 3-

CIA SDS S. Eval. RR 3-

CIA TR Ho.it.

Army,1 S. Eval. RR 3.

Army, S. Eval.avy,0 S. Eval.rmy,, on. cit.

Kraspy Flot, U. Eval. RR 2.

Navy,lt-

Army AISS Wringerg. cit.

Ibid.

2- U. Eval. RR 2.

Air, S. Evul. RR 2.

Federal Power Commission, Electric Power Requirements in the

USSR. Part III. S. Eval. RR 3.

-

Original document.

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