EVALUATION OF CIA/RR-G-12, THE EUROPEAN BORDERS OF THE USSR (W/ATTACHMENTS)

Created: 3/18/1955

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Evaluation ofhe European 3orders of tha USSR

This report describes the entire western border of the USSR as an obstacle to penetration to/or escape from the Soviet Union. It is an excellent and adoquate summary of the basicabout this segment of the Iron Curtain that will be of use to several agencies in analysing current information*this subject.

Tbe purpose of tbe report is to discuss the sore or less permanent features of thehistory, physical description and general administration and security measures. The best available naps are also recamended. The author haside variety

of sources, including both printed sources and intelligence documents. It is believed that tbe coverage includes all the significantexcept for strictly current and transitory material.

manuscriptrodigious amount ofdisplays the ability of the compiler to pull togethertypes of informationnified whole.

h. The report should be given fairly high priority. It should be of considerable use to workers in other portions of the Agency and the Intelligence components of tbe armed forces and the Department of State.

$. The collection of Materials and theinvolved inreport concerned with the border areasUSSR were most conplex andevised estijMtetotal time

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Froeleas The descriptions of tho Surcpean boundaries of tbe USSR prepared by tho Territorial Studioe" Branch for tho border studiea (requested byfern separate ssrticcs of the so stadias that could be issued In another fora eLihcat enbstantljil chenro. It is bali-TCd that by jrcupirn these descriptions togetheredal frcs the Beraay rxwoidary ^tudyou) aad iiaterial te be prepared an tho portion of the Finland boundary not covered

any tartar stady,report ooulr. be .snrpilod that voald sarv*cy refcranoo on tho Suropetn bcaacariss of tho USSR.

Scopoi Would cotox tho boundaries ofR viih Ncrtay. Finland. Poland, Crochcsloyafcia, Hungary and Suauria. For each oountry thaw woald bas

Brief discussion of the fiocuEoatsry history of the bwndary (not yet wifcten In ijost Instances)..

totalled description of tho ccccdary and the imrjsdiato bcrucdary area (already dona),

Discission of naps of the bcoiicary ^already dono but ssy need sera revision).

Border security seasures (doao for tie aost part).

for Project: for Information on Soviet borders in this

^^asciss is ecvioas, Reports by other asoncies hate dealt *ith the legal aspects of Soviet border security, CB of border fiuardSj barriers, etc* By oonMnlpg those features with topographic and docanentary diseussiDn this report would attonpt toora cacpletj picturo.

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. No.j2

NOT RELEASABIE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS

GEOGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT

THE EUROPEAN BORDERS OF THE USSR

Border

A. History of the Boundary

3- Linear Description of the

Harking, Administration, and Security .

of the

Border

of the

Description of the

Marking, Administration, and Security . Maps of the

III. Poland-USSR

A. History of the

B- Linear Description of the

Kaliningrad Ob last and Lithuanian Sector

BeloruBSiox Sector

3- Ukrainian

Marking, Administration, and Security .

East Prussia

Sectors South of East Prussia

of tbe

Page

and Hungary-USSR

of the

Description of the

Marking, Administration, and Security .

of the

of the

Description of the

the Trijunction of the Hungarian,Soviet Boundaries to the Moldavian

Boundary Along the Prut and Lower

Marking, Administration, and Security . Maps of the

Appendixes

Appendix A- Gaps in Intelligence

Appendix B. Sources and Evaluation of Sources

Evaluation of

prij

Norway-USSRpage .

Figure 1. Pasvikelv River, separating Norway from Soviet territory

Figure

along Norway-USSR boundary

Marker posts along the land boundary

page 60

The railroad station at Vainikkala, Finland

Reparations goods passing the border at Vainikkala

View from the Imatran Valtionhottelli toward the east and the Finnish-USSR border

Figure lj. Railroad and lake northeast of Imatra

. The Finnish-USSR border in the vicinity of Siapele

Looking toward the Soviet border across an inlet of Lake SinajelenJSrvi

The Soviet town of Vyartsilya near the Karelo-Finoieh border

Isolated farm surrounded by forest in the central portion of the border region

Scene along the Arctic Highway at midnight

ooden markerailroad crossing along the Finnish-USSR boundary

Border patrol on guard along the boundary

Finnish border guard accompaniedog

Poland-USSR, Czechoslovakia and Hungary-USSR, and Rumania-USSR

IQk

Figure 2k. Aerial photograph of part of the Bug River Lowland

k Pass along the Polish-Soviet frontier

Abandoned barbed-wire entanglements in tbe Carpatho-Ukraine area

Frontier between Hungary and the USSR

The settlement of Tyachev on the Soviet-Rumanian frontier

Bluffs along the Prut River in the vicinity of Ripiceni

Figure JO. Tbe Prut River near Ungeny at flood stage

Maps

Following

Norway Frontier Area

Norway-USSR Boundary In tbe Mouth of the Jakcbselv

Finland-USSR Border Region

USSR-Poland: East Prussian-Lithuanian Border

Belorussian-Polish Border

Western Ukrainian Borderland

Moldavian SSR-Rumania Border Area

THE SURCPEJUJ BORDERS OF THE USSR

Introduction

The boundari.es of the Soviet Union are of particular interest to the intelligence ccacunltv because of the Banner In which they are sealed to ordinary international Intercourse. It ls necessary to go hock In history to the Bid-nineteenth century and the boundary between Korea and China toomparable attempt to sealountry from bordering peoples with similar cultures.

In MarchWinston Churchill, speaking at Fulton, Missouri, observed that from "Stettin in tbe Baltic to Trieste in tbc Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Actually, the Soviet regime was suspicious of the outside world from Its inception, near the end of World War I, and had erected an "iron curtain" along its own westernn the interwar The establishment of tight border security west of the Soviet satellites after Worldas therefore merely an extension and elaboration of the already adopted Soviet policy of Impermeable The present boundary cf the USSR is in reality an iron curtain within the Iron Curtain.

Three months after Churchill's Fulton address, John Foster Dullesheory that extended beyond Churchlll'c premise andthe Far East. His thesis was that, for the purpose of achieving Soviet policy, the USSR bad divided the world Into three zones: (l) an Inner Zone, the USSRiddleelt or cordon sanltalre surrounding the Inner Zone;n Outer Zone, representing the rest of the world. The Soviet Inner Zone comprises the Soviet Union as originally establishedogether with adjacent territories subsequently incorporated. The Middle Zone, which cannot be regarded as fixed, consists of countries that have come under Soviet Influence, with an increasing measure of control from Moscow. The central European pert of the Middle Zone includes East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, eastern Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, and) Yugoslavia. In Asia the zone Includes Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, North Korea, the Sinkiang Province of China, and probably the rest of Communist China; it ls difficult, however, to predict the role that the Communist regime of Mao Tse-tung will ultimately play within tbe Soviet sphere. The third or Outer Zone comprises the balance of the world.

The efforts of the Soviet Government toecurlty zone along the entire border of the USSR extend to nations along thefrontier. In both Turkey end Iran, however, fierce resistance to Soviet pressures baa been encountered, and the usual pattern of Soviet penetration and domination has been successfully thwarted. Aa aareas of the Hear and Middle East nave not disappeared behind the Iron Curtain but have remained cne of tbe major arenas of the struggle between Seat and West.

The Soviet technique of creating and maintaining an "iron curtain" serves two purposes, one domestic and the other foreign. From the domestic standpoint, nonintercourse is intended to inaure that "pure" political thinking in the USSR will not become tainted, and at the same tine it helps to prevent the internal discontent that might arise If the people of the Soviet Union were able to compare their standard of living with that prevailing in other countries. The Soviet people are toldroad security belt, or buffer zone,ecessary defense measure against an unfriendly world. From the externalSoviet propaganda is the more effective because actualwithin the USSRatter of conjecture.

Tbe great length of the Soviet frontier, the irregularities of terrain, and the heterogeneous populationew of the ecatplex factors with which tbe Soviet Government is faced in the effort to guard Its borders. The northern and central European frontier areas are largely plains across which passage between the cast and the Vest is comparatively easy. This accounts in part for the strict security measures eaployed by the Soviets and the fact that the European area is heavily guarded. The longeat zone of Soviet Influence lies In central and eastern Asia, reaching from the Pamir Mountains toa distance ofiles. That portion of the boundary with Its vast stretches of mountains and deserts is not as stringently controlled as the Wootcrn Eurcpean borders. This Indicates that the Soviet manpower ia not distributed IndiscrlMaately but according to the type of terrain, the border peoples, the political significance of the border area, and the existence of known trouble spots. It is also quite probable that the employment of variations In the methods of guarding the frontiereliberate practice oo tbe part of Soviet authorities intended to deter penetration or escape.

The present report deals specifically with the Europeanof the USSR, those with Norway, gjn'and, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Rumania, Coly two of these countries are part of the free world, the others being Soviet satellites.

The attitude of the free goverraaents in regard to tbe bordergreatly from that of the Conaamist countries. Although in a

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precorloun geopolitical position,on-satellite neighbor of the USSR, would considerestriction of individual liberty to prevent Finnish civilians from living In close proximity to the border. The Soviet Union, on tbe contrary, iu meticulous in securing the Inviolability of its own side of the boundary, and the Ironcountries conform to the same pattern, employing rigidmeasures within their border areas. In order to furtherthe impenetrability of the frontier, Soviet border guards are carefully picked and highly disciplined. Recruits are also trained in the art of observation and collection of intelligence in thearea. It is obvious that Soviet authorities do not consider the existence of Communist regimesufficient security guarantee.

Portions of tbe Soviet European boundaries were nominally drawn on ethnic principles. onsiderable degree of ethnic homogeneity has been achieved In the satellites by postwar boundary changes and shifts in population. The Soviet Union and the satellite regimes have not used the principle of ethnic homogeneity withineans of reducing international or Internal friction, but simplyonvenient tool to be applied or ignored, depending on which course best suited the purposes of tbe governments. Thus, partial ethnic uniformity was forced upon the new Poland by moving Palms westward from former eastern Poland when that region was taken over by Bclorussia and tbe Ukraine, and by the expulsion of many Germane from the areas eaat of the Oder-Selsam Line. Germans were also expelled from their former hemes in northern East Prussia when the area was taken by the RSFSR, but there does not seem to haveorresponding attempt toolidly Russian population there, for it lc reported that peoples from Soviet Central Asia have been moved into tbe areas on the Soviet side of the new boundary.

Thereharp contrast between Soviet policy regarding peoples and Soviet policy regarding comerce along the boundaries. The western boundaries are sealed to the movement of people, but economic policyaximum movement of goods among the satellites and the USSR.

Measures employed by the Soviet Bloc countries to seal their frontiers consistombination of physical barriers, border gunrdo and patrols, border-zone restrictions, and constant surveillance of internal movements of the population. Tbe existence of thissystem of border controls is insychological deterrent to escape. Soviet citizens attempting to defect along the central European borders are faced with tbe additional problem of crossing satellite territory In order to find refuge in the West. Continued Soviet sensitivity and extreme security consciousness indicate that restrictive measures, rather than being relaxed, will be more rigidly enforced In the future.

In this study each boundary segment is discussed under four main headings: history; linear descriptions; boundary marking,and security; and available maps.

The section on history gives in each case the background of the present boundary without attempting toull discussion of disputes and territorial transfers. The documents forming the legal basis of the present boundary are cited. Under linear description, each boundary sector, together with its immediate vicinity, istopographically In as much detail as the available sources permit- Because of the scarcity of source materials, the descriptions of the boundaries of the Soviet Bloc countries are not as complete as those of the frontiers with Norway and Finland. The surveys andof each boundary, types of boundary markers used, provisions for regulating Intercourse across the line, barbed-wire entanglements, vntchtovera and other security structures, and personnel engaged in boundary administration and security are discussed. Examples of security structures and measures typical of tbe boundary area in general are presented. It is not possible, however, to give aand detailed picture of boundary security measures aad personnel, not only because these factors are subject to almost constant change, but also because complete Information on them is seldom available. Tbe maps that accompany tbe report are mostly at email scales and rather generalized, but citations of more detailed maps are given.

I. Norway-USSR 3order

A. History of the Boundary

The boundary between Norway and tbe USSR has retained itsalignment with only si nor changes6 (see accompanying. In that year, in an effort to prevent difficulties In the Foelleds Distrlcter (districts held In coonon by Sweden, Norway, andhe King of Sweden and Norway and the Emperor of AU the Rues las agreedemarcation of the Line of sovereignty in the boundary area. The agreement was included in the "Convention of Limits Between Russia andigned at St. Petersburg. 2/ This division of tbe area by Norway and Russia precluded Finnish access to the Arctic Ocean. Tbe problem thuswas to exert great influence and to cause several changes lo Norway's neighbors along the boundary.

The line established6 was the boundary between Norway and Russia0 and between Norway and Finland0. This boundary waa described generally as following the Pasvikelvand Jakobselvivers, with several long, straight, connecting land sectors. The6 marking of the line consisted of onlyarkers or stone calms, most of them set at the aaln breakpoints. Krokfjell (Muotkavaara) Mountain waa established3 as the meeting point of the territories of the USSR, Norway, and Finland by representatives of Russia proper and tbe Grand Duchy of Finland, but the marker was not erectedafter6 Norwegian-Russian survey of tbe boundary.

After Finlandeighbor of Norwaybe two countries opened talks concerning the boundary la the FinnaBrk-Petsamo ^PechengaJ area. An agreement was reached onhat superseded6 agreement concerning tbe boundary between Flnnmark

in Arabic numerals are to the list of sources In Appendix B.

**Place-name forms in this section are those that appear on theorwegian-USSR demarcation map and in the boundary survey protocol; the Russian form, when known, follows in brackets, and alternate names are given in parentheses. In aost of the languages used in this report, the endings of geographic names carry the generic meaning; for example, in Norwegian "elv" means river and "fjell" means mountain. The English term is added in many cases, either in parentheses or capitalized, for easier understanding.

Province (fylke) of Norway andDistrict (herred)lthough it made no basic changes in thelause calling forof the line in the territorial sea north of thethe Jakobselv. During the negotiations, however, thetwo modifications of6 line, both to no avail. wished to apply the thalweg principle to the PasvikelvOstrov Chevessuolo (island) and Ostrov Niva-saarl;proposed that the line leave the Pasvikelv in an easterlyin the vicinity of Ozero Kuets-yarvi (lake) and continueJakobselv, instead of following the riveroint north(formerly the Boris Glebnd then takingcourse to the Jakobselv. The second proposalrejected in the negotiations precedingot only established the boundary farther north but alsofor the cession by Norway to Russiamall areaRussian Church of Boris Gleb on the west bank of* Finnish-Norwegian negotiations, the Finnshange on the ground that Norway could offer nocompensation.

orway and Finlandurvey of the hf So that there would be no doubt as to the course of the line in the Boris Gleboundary road was built and additional markers were erected. The Pasvikelv sector of the boundary was to follow the line In the river that had been established previously by the Norwegians and Russians. Special signs were placed on river islands to designate the country to which they belonged.

A supplementary protocol to clarify the position of the boundary in the mouth of the Jakobselv was signed on1 (see accompanying. This protocol establishedoints through which the line was to be drawn and also provided that vessels of both countries could freely lie and anchorither side of the boundary. The line provided for In the protocol1 was finally markederies ofight markers placed on the land Inanner that the sight lines intersected at theoints along the boundary line.

*Theis the present Russian version ofhe name given to the town by the lapps who settled the area. Inhussian Orthodox church was built at the site of the present town of Kolttakengyas and dedicated to two 8th-century Russian princes, Boris and Gleb.

In, representatives of Norway and the Soviet Union met and established the Joint Soviet-Norwegian Commission for the Harking of the International Boundary Between the USSR and Norway. Its basic task was to establish the International boundary lawith the old Norwegian-Russian line. The discussions of the Joint Commission had the following results: (l) tho line in the mouth of the Jakobselv was to follow the thalweg as determined at low tide, in accordance with the recommendation of thehe USSR was to give up demandshange at Grensefoss (Graensefoss) Falls where Norway controls both banks of the Pasvikelv (marker No.orway would transfer the three small islands in the Pasvikelv to the USSR.

Only preliminary discussions were held on the problem of the territorial sea north of the mouth of the Jakobselv. Since the viewpoints and claims of the two countries to territorial waters differed radically, the Norwegiansautical miles and thehe Joint Commission decided to keep this question open for future diplomatic negotiations-

At the conclusion of the narking of the Soviet-Finnish boundaryt was agreed tohree-nation boundary marker at Krokfjell. orwegian representative was present to approve the position of the marker,ri-state protocol was signed on After the YanlBkoskl-Niskakoski area was ceded to the Soviet Union by Finlandew demarcation of the northernmost sector of the Finnish-Soviet boundary, just south of Krokf jell, was undertaken. In the summerorwegianinopected the marker, andecemberew tri-state protocol regarding the marker on KrokfJell, replacing theprotocol, was signed.

During the summer oftwo mixed Norwegian-Soviet(under the Joint Commission) marked the boundary. was supervised by the USSR, the other by Norway. subcoaoission marked the first section offrom the Junction at Krokf Jell northwardilesnorth of Holmfossen. The Norwegian-supervisedthe second section,'N5 milesbuoy stake north of the mouth of the Jakobselv.

ing the markers along its section

surveytrip atilometerile) wide along each side of the boundary was made at the scaleolygon system was laid on which the rectangular coordinates of the boundary markers were computed.

Each subcoaoission vas responsible for placing, painting, and number-

Onith the dual drafting and reviewing of the boundary documents, the boundary agreement, together with the maps andas signed in Moscow., 7/ The Norwegian Storting ratified the agreement unaniaxwsly, and the Instruments of ratification were exchanged onn Moscow. 8/ Before ratifying the agreement, the Norwegian Storting questioned the cession to the USSR of the three small islands in the Pasvikelv. The issue was dismissed, however, because the islands were regarded aa being of no strategic or economic value, and It was agreed that under the terms of6 convention the islands fell on the Soviet side of the line. The course of the boundary an marked in the mouth of the Jakobselv proved satisfactory to the Norwegians, since it permitted their fishing vessels to enter and leave the river without crossing the The demarcation maps show the boundary along the channel of the river at low tide, which was the line held by the Norwegians during the dispute with the Finns over the issue following5 investigation of the boundary.

B. Linear Degcrlptlqn of the Boundary**

Only about one-fifth ofile-long Norwegian-USSR boundary is on land. The course of the remainder of the line is determined mainly by the deepest channels of the Pasvikelv (Figure l) and Jakobselv and their associated lakes.

The westernmost point of the border is at KrokfJell Mountain, where the boundaries of Norway, Finland, and the USSR meet (see Prom Krokf Jell tbe boundaryoutheasterly directioneries of short, straight-line sectors through somewhat hilly, partly marshy terrain to the Pasvikelv, which it crosses to marker No.earain breakpoint in the boundary. At that marker the entire river lies within Norway. From markerhe lineortheasterly direction, at first Torhen down the steep slope of the Gelsomio Promontory and over to the Pasvikelv. It continues along the mountain Jake Grenaevatn (Grensevann) to markereaving Alttasaarl (island) on the Soviet side. The Norwegian post stands on the east side of

descriptive protocol Includes: able of coordinates and elevations of the boundary Barkers and the points in the geodetic network along the boundaryist of tbe boundary markers.

**In the following description of the Norwegian boundary, place names are those that appear on the official demarcation map (see footnote,ussian forms are given in brackets and alternate names in parentheses.

Grenseneset Point5 feet) from tbe boundary. Tbe Soviet post is on the northwestern point ofetersfeet)teep slopeeet) from the boundary.*

From marker No.be boundary follows Grensevatn In adirection to marker So. Ik, leaving an isletoundary post on the Soviet side and Balglsholmen (island) on the Norwegian side. The boundary then extendsorth-northeasterly direction along the lake, with BJ^rkholmen on the northern side. From this point tbe boundary continues in the same direction from Grensevatn (markerut into the Pasvikelv (marker, and then follows the channel of tbe Pasvikelv forilometersiles) to mrkerituatedmall wooded island on the Norwegian side. The boundary continueseneral north-northeasterly direction to markerocated on the northernmost isletroup of three on the Soviet side; the Norwegian post stands on the east slopeillock, north of the mouth of GJeddebekken Creek. From marker No.he boundary extends along the channel chieflyortheasterly direction, passing wooded isles and rocks on the Norwegian side, to marker At this point the boundaryorth-northeasterly course through Tangefoss, then turns toward the northeast past five small islandswo on the Norwegian and three on tbe Soviet sidetSO marker

The boundary passes from marker No.long the channel of the Paavikelv, firstortheasterly direction past three isles on the Soviet side, and thenorth-northeasterly direction to sarkerituatedooded island on the Soviet side. Maintaining thr .iame course, the boundary goesroup of reefs or sandbanks on the Norwegian side to markert which point it extendsurved line toward the north-northwest,oviet reef, and then toward the north-northeast,orwegian reef, to marker No. Jk. From there the boundary follows the channel to the northeast past two islands (Norwegian) to marker No.hen makes an arc, turning north to marker The Norwegian post stands on the left rlverbank, directly opposite the mouth of the8 feet) from the border; the Soviet post Is on the right rlverbank, on the south side of the mouth of the8 feet) from the border. The boundary

most cases, only one of the two boundary posts on opposite sides of the border along the Pasvikelv and Jakobselv is mentioned here.

then passes along the channelorth-northwesterly direction to marker Ho.efore carving toward the north-northeast to marker On the Norwegian side the post iseet) southwestailroad track.

The boundary continueseneral north-northeasterly direction to marker No. hO, bending along the river to Hestefoss, then along the falls to marker No. Ul. From marker No. Ul the boundary turns with the channel forilometersassing numerous isles (Sklltholecn on the USSR side and Bjernholmen and Sauhclmen on the Norwegiano marker No. U6 on tbe right riverbank (Soviet side)eet) southwestwelling house on the Bbyhenjsrvi /tteykhea'yarvijajatalo ^MayataloJ road. The AMS seriesraded road crossing the border north of Majatalo (Pechcnga;onnecting Norwegianith tbe Arctic Highway on the Soviet side. From marker No. U6 thegoeseneral northeasterly direction to markera number of Isles and islands, and then turns toward thebetween TJernholmen and Rittasaari to marker North of Kisteholmen, at marker, the boundary takes an east-northeasterly course along Lake FJaervatnassing an island (jakolan-LnmoBsaari) on the Soviet sideandbank on the Norwegian side, to marker The boundary continues along FJaervatn forilometersiles)t which point it turns along the lake toward the north,orwegian reef, and then follows the channel in the Pasvikelv toward tbe northeast tomarker.

*Locatlonal Indices given in parentheses refer to sheets of AMSt and are keyed to the map sheets as follows: ame of sheet (given in first referenceheet number, found in upper right-handndex number of north-south grid line nearest west of place or featureU) index number of east-west grid line nearest south of place. Numbers that are underscored appear In larger type on the map.

The boundary bends with the channel In the Pasvikelv pastreefs and Isles before turning into Lake Vaggatem (Vaggetemjavrre) to marker Tbe Norwegian post stands or. the western shore of the.eet) northwestarrow-gaugetrack. Tho Soviet post standsromontory on the eastern shore of the lake,eet) north-northwent of the mouth of an unnamed creek. From marker No.he boundary goesenerally northerly direction, passing numerous isles, to marker. The Norwegian post stands on the western shore of the

eet) southeast of Neshelmeet) from the border. From here the boundary bends along the lake In an arc forilometersiles) to markereaving Gravholmen on the Norwegian side and Skolte-bolmen /Ontrov Chevessuolo/ on the Soviet side. Free this point to marker No.he boundary extendseneral northerly directionzaber of isles Vaerholnen, Lavfaolmen, and Bjprnholmenon the Norwegian side and Krokholmen and Brannholxen on the Soviet side. In this sector the Skogly Farmstead is located on the Norwegian side southwest of marker No. 71 From marker No.he boundary passes along Lake Vaggatem in on east-northeasterly direction to marker No. oO, at which point it continues along the Pasvikelv, then through the Vaggatexstryket (rapids) and an old riverbed (the Stein Rapids) to marker In this stretch of the border, an Isle, Brennholmen, is situated on tbe Soviet side.

The boundary passes Tram marker No.long the old riverbed toward the northeast, firstry section, theneep pool, andorwegian isle to markerhe Soviet post stands on the northwest side of Nivasoari,eet) from the border. From here the boundary follows an east-northeasterly course to markerurnsoutheasterly direction along the channel of the Pasvikelv, and then passes through the Vakkerstrrket Rapids to marker From this point the boundary curves In an east-northeasterly direction out over Kattolampolo (lake) to markereaving the isle of Grasholmen on the Norwegian sldo. in the same direction forilometersiles) the boundary extends to markerith Sauholmen situated on the Norwegian side, then turns along the channel of the Pasvikelvortheast-southeast arc to marker The Norwegian post stands on tbe left side of the river, on theparteet) south-southeast of the endarrow-gauge railroad track,6eet) from the border. Prom marker No.he boundary passes toward the east and northeast through Kobbfoss to markerhen arches toward the south-southeast along Lake Langvatn (Bossojavrre) to marker Ho. ICO. From here the boundary continues south-southeastward to marker, where itend in an east-southeasterly direction to marker. The boundary curves slightly along the lake In an east-ncrtheasterly direction from markero, leaving Aittasaari on the Soviet side and Hareholmen on the Norwegian side. ortheasterly direction for approximatelykilometershe boundary extends to marker In this sector KSurinkisaarl is on the Soviet side and Langneo (peninsula) and Frigard and Lyng Farmsteads ore on the Norwegian side.

From morkerhe boundary passes along the lake In an arc toward the north-northeast, with Nlskasaarl on the Soviet side, to boundary marker- The Norwegian post stands on the left shore of the Pasvikelv on the pointmall1eet) from the border. Continuingorth-northeasterly direction, the boundary extends from Langvatn out over the Pasvikelv, following the channel through the Skogfoss (Eakokoskl)o narker, leaving an isle and reefs on the Xorveglan side and five isles and reefs on the Soviet side- The Norwegian post stands on the left shcre of the rapids,U6 feet) south of the northern endarrow-gauge railroad track,6eet) from the border. The boundary passes from markerlong Skogvatnine curving first northeast then north-northwest, with sandbanks on the Norwegian side, to markerhe Norwegian post stands on the western shore of the lake,eet) south of the nearest house on16 feet) from the border. The Soviet post stands on tho eastern shore of the lake, on the southwestern Bide of Harraes Point,eet) from the border. Proa markerheextends along the lake close to the western end of Earrnes, then toward the north-northwest past Grasholmenmaller islet south of it on the Soviet side, to marker No. Here It passesarrow Btralttrong current at the LiUestrfmanen, describing an arc towurd the northeast, to marker No. inding but generally east-northeasterly course along the lake, with two small isles and Crovholaen on the Soviet side, the boundary extends to marker, leaving Fuglebukta (boy) and Grasholmen on the Norwegian side. The Norwegian post stands on the northwestern shore of the lake,6 feet) west-northwest of the south endarrow-gauge railroad track25 feet) from the border. The Soviet post stands on the southeastern shore of the lake, at the northwestern end of XoskennlB-Kanniemi Cape, l69 feet) from the shcreeet) from the border.

From markerhe boundary passes first along the channel toward the southeast and then along Mclkcfose (Maitokoski)eneral northeasterly direction foriles) to marker. In this sector, Norwegian posttandsI* feet) northeastwelling house at Kikkelstad. Bur-nunsaari Island (markers on the Soviet side of the border.

From markerhe boundaryeneral southeasterly direction to marker No- lUO, then extends along the channel of the Pasvikelv in an arc toward the south ond southeast to markerituated on title Skogjiy (on the Norwegian side). The posts on both sides of the border are located tn marshy terrain. Soviet post No.

I

stands on the right riverbank, or. the eastern point of aat the left side of the mouth of the3 feet) from the border. The boundary extends from marker No. lM eastward along the channel, then via Svanvatn (Salmijarvi) in an east-northeasterly direction to marker No.he Norwegian post stands on the northwestern shore of the lake, on BjpVknes Point, terminus of the road from5 feet) from the border. From marker No. ikk the boundaryorth-northeasterly direction forilometersiles) to marker. In this sector jistre Skrj&tnes, Tangen, Myreng, and Frames Farms are on the Norwegian side- Markers located on the northwestern shore of Bjjtrnsund,eet) northeast of the southernmost dwelling house on Utnes. Norwegian posttands on the northwestern shore of the sound, on LangnesetersWt feet) from the border. In this same area, Soviet posttands on the southeastern shore of Lakeeet) west of the fork on the Petsjengaovaniemi road (Arctic Highway).

From markerhe boundary follows the soundorth-northeasterly directionew kilometers to marker, leaving an islet south of Fururao on the Norwegian side. From markerhe boundary turns in an arc toward the northeast and north-northwest along the BJbrn6und to marker- From here the boundary extends along the channel of the Trongsundeneral northerly direction to markera distance ofilometersiles). Norwegian posttands on the western shore of the sound, on the east sideromontory,eet) northeast of the Trongsundncset Farm. The boundary runs from markerlong the channel of the Trongsund, then across Bjbrnvatn (Kontiojarvi)eneral northerly direction to marker. The Norwegian post standsromontory on the western shore of the lake,eet) northeast of the road between Kirkenes and Svanvik. From markerhe boundary passes along the lakeurved lineorth-northeasterly direction and then to markerairn set up on the southern point of Store Orenseholaen6 and restored The boundary then proceedsorder road toward the north-northeast via Store Grenseholmen to marker, where It continuesortheasterly direction along the channel of the Pasvikelv between Litleholmen on the Norwegian side and anisle on the Soviet side, to marker- The Norwegian post stands on the left river bank on the Kirkenes-Holmfoss road,estroyedeet) from the border. The Soviet post standsromontory, on the right riverbanketers

eet) west of the Holmfoss-Ahmalahtl roadeters

eet) from the border.

Proa markerhe boundary bends along tbe middle of the river In an east-southeasterly direction, then turns in adirection past two small islands (one on each side of the border) to marker. The Norwegianends on the south point of Floytarnescteterseet) from the border. Rardao Farm is located to the northwest of markerontinuingorth-northeasterly direction, the boundary extends along Kllstervatn to marker, leaving Skolteholmen on the Norwegian side. From here the boundary winds along the lake, first toward the northeast then toward the north and northwest, to marker. The Norwegian post is situated on the top of wooded Ellenholmen5 feet) from the border. From sarkerhe boundary winds along the lakeorth-northeasterly direction to marker, then turnsorth-northwesterly direction to marker. In this sector, Norwegian post No.tands on the western shore of the lake, on the southern part of Fjellfrossneseteterseet) from the border, and the Soviet post standateep mountain slope on tbc eastern shore of tbeeet) vest of the Storskog-Ahmalahti road. From marker, the boundary passes along the lake, firstorth-northwesterly direction and then bending toward the north-northeast, to marker, where it curves againeneral northwesterly direction, which it maintains forilea) to the northern end of the lake (markern thiso Palossari ^Cstrov Iso Palosari7 Is on the Soviet side.

From markerhe boundary continues along the Pasvikelvorth-northwesterly direction toward Harefossen, then along the middle of the falls to marker. The Soviet post stands on the right bank of the falls,ountain ridge to the north,eters (lou feet) westarrow-gauge railroad. From markerhe boundary follows the middle of the river rapids (below Harefossen)orthwesterly course to marker, then turnsortheasterly direction to marker No.- The Soviet post standsooded gravel hill on the right rlverbank,eet) west of tbe Skoltefossen-Ahmalahti road. From this point the boundary trends generally northward, first along the middle of the rapids in the Pasvikelv, then along Foesevatn, past two islands on the Soviet side and one on the Norwegian side, to Boddlholmen (marker The boundary then extends along the middle of the lakeeneral north-north westerly direction to markert Skoltefossen, where it leaves the Pasvikelvreakpoint).

In the Pasvikelv, the boundary follows the deep channel and, for the atcst part, it also follows the Diddle of the lakes- Except for Skoiteholmcn /Ostrov Chevoosuolo/lvasaarl ^Ostrovthe islands in the river and lakes are allocated to the country on whose aide of the channel they lie. ew islands or sundbanks arc crossed by the boundary, the only one ofsize being Storestrov Sturen which narkersre located.

After leaving the Pasvikelv, the boundary proceedstraight line to the west forilometersiles) to markera breakpoint). In this sector the boundaryarren mountain,inter rood, and lake Georgsvatn (Jokonjarvi). From markerbe boundary turnsorth-northwesterly direction, first down the barren slope of Georgvasstoppen, and then over rolling terrain west of Eskiojarvl to marker- The boundary continues in the same directionarren, rounded mountain to marker, situated on top of Grensefjellhere it turns in an east-northeasterly direction to marker, locatedarren mountain on the northwestern slope of Karhunpka'. From here the boundary follows an east-northeasterly course to Darker No.hich stands at the west side of the Kirkenes-Rblttakengyuii (Boris Gleb) road, then crosses the Paavikelv to markern tho right bank of the river. This sector of the boundary encircles the town of Kolttakengvas and leaves an area of morequare miles on the vest bank of the Pasvikelv under Soviet control. The Soviet Union also has complete control of the river foriles.

From markerhe boundary continuestraight line in an east-northeasterly direction across increasingly roughto markern BussefJell Mountainhere it turns to the southeast. The boundary extends in that direction forile) to marker, located on the western shore of the northwestern inlet of Lake Pikevatnrom there it crosses the lake to marker, situated on the west side of the Storskog-Ahmulnhti rood, then continuesoutheasterly directionarren mountain slope to Darkerairn erected at an earlier date and restoredn the top of Vardehaug (hill). From markerhe boundary turns slightly to the south-southeast and continues down the mountain slope in dense forest and marshland to marker, which stands on the western shore of Langvatn. The boundary maintains the same course forilometersiles) to marker. In thin sector, markers located on the top of StorslittfJell and No. 2U5 is on the northwestern slope of Vardefjell. The boundary

ooutheasterly course across rising terrain to marker, locatedmall mountaineet) southeast of the southernmost end of Fiskevatn, thenteep mountain slope androok between Hacborgvatn and Jooseplnja'rvet to marker- outheasterly direction, the boundary extendsorder lane, acrossittle brook, thenery steep slope Hdghaugen (markersrom which point it continues over slightly risingarren mountain,arsh with sparse plant growth to marker.

Tho boundary continues froai marker- In the same direction over rising terrain forilometersiles) to marker. In this area the border crosses Serdlvatn (Siertljarvl) and the slopes of Siertltunturi and AborvassfJell. From here the boundary passesoutheanterly direction to Grenaevatnarker, crosses the lake, and continues to marker, which stands on the northeastern slope of Pieni Vobtastunturi. The boundaryoutheasterly course to marker, then turnslightly more southerly direction to markerust southwest of Hundvatn. Boundary markera calm erected5 and restoreds located on the southwestern slope of Hundvasshaugan. In this entire sectorfrom markerothe border crosses fairly rugged land, barren mountains, moors, marshes, and numerous small lakes and ponds. From markerahe boundary extends in an easterly direction to Barker,8 feet) northeast of the eastern end of Kus3jarvi. From markerhe boundary turns slightly, taking an east-southeasterly direction to marker, locatedooded moraine ridge eastmall depression,l feet) north from Tardcnmyran- From here the boundary continues in the samealong rocky, open terrain to marker*eters2 feet) north of the summit of Lasertunturi, at which point it turnslightly more southerly direction, but continues generally east-southeast forilometersiles) to marker, where it joins the Jakobselv. As in the Pasvikelv, the boundary follows the deep channel and, in general, the middle of the lakes through which It passes. Islands areto the country on whose side of the channel they lie.

The boundary contlnueo from markereneral east-southeasterly direction to the point of directional change in the Jakobselv where it meets the river's channel. From this point tbe boundary runs along the channel, first turning north and then veering sharply toward the east to marker. It then follows the rivereneral east-southeasterly direction, past an Isle on tho

Norwegian side, to boundary marker. From here the boundary swings along the channel In an arc to marker- ock Isle on the Soviet side the boundary extendsoutheasterly direction to marker. The boundary winds along with the channel, In generaloutheasterly direction,oint where the river widens, flowingmall wooded Isle, to markeron the Soviet side). At that morkcr the boundary turns to the northeast, past two isles on the Norwegian side and one on the Soviet side, to marker, then extends in the same general direction forilometersiles) to marker. Norwegian posttands on the steep left rlverbank,eterseet) northeast of the mouthrook55 feet) from the border. The Soviet post stands near the right bank, on marshland skirtediver bendrook flows out of the83 feet) from the border. The boundary continues from markerlong the channel in andirection to marker, then turns in adirection, past an isle on the Soviet side, toward Jakob-selwatn (Vuaremijarvi) to marker-

From markerhe boundary goes along tbe lakeeneral northeasterly direction to its outlet (markerhe boundary then continues along the channel of the Jakobselvortheasterly direction along the rocky riverbed, with an islehe Soviet side, and then On toward the north between seven islets (four on the Norwegian side and three on the USSR side) to marker. Maintaining the same general northeasterly direction, the boundary extends for aboutilometer to marker, situated on the Pechonga-Tarnet road. The Norwegian post stands on the lert rlverbank on the west side of the road from Taraet,artially destroyed bridge. The Soviet post stands on the right bank, also west of the road to Pechengo and near the same bridge. From marker* the boundaryorth-northeasterly then northeasterly course to marker, at which point it turns northward to Langvatn (marker The boundary follows the lakeortherly direction to marker. The Soviet poet stands on the eastern shore of the lake, on the wooded slopeill,6 feet) south of the outlet of the Sulajcki5eet) from the border. The boundary continues northward along the lake to marker, from which It swings to theand then north again to marker. The Norwegian post stands on the western shore of the3 feet) northeast of the mouth of the Korpelva,5 meterseet) from the border. From here the boundary proceeds northward along the lake to its outlet into the Jakobselv and then northwest along the channel to marker, whence It follows the winding channel northward to marker, situated on on islet on the Soviet side.

The boundary continues from marker, at first along the channel in the Jakobselv and then out into Lake Bundvatn, before extending tovard tbe north and northeast along the lake and again along the channel of the river to marker- Prom here the boundary continues northward to marker, where the Norwegian post stands on the left riverbank on the northern pointooded promontory. The Soviet post is located on the right bank, at the northern endarsh strip where the river flows into lake Trollvatn. From markerhe boundary goesorthwesterly direction along the lake, then follows the channel in the Jakobselv to marker, at which point it turnsortheasterly direction to, leaving an isle on the Norwegian side and three on the Soviet side. From markerhe boundary extends in the same direction, past two Norwegian isles and one Soviet isle, to marker. Itortherly course along Lake KJosen, then turnsortheasterly direction to marker- From here the boundary extends tovard the northeast along some rapids and theneneral northerly direction to marker> at which point it follows the bends ol' the channel forilometersiles) to marker. In this sector the boundary passes numerous isles alongide section of the river.

From markerhe boundaryeneral northwesterly courseumber of islets to marker; the Sandvasselv enters the Jakobselv on the Norwegian side of the border between markers. The boundary then continuesorth-northwesterly direction to marker, with several wooded Islands on both sides of the border. The Norwegian post stands on the left riverbank,eet) northutnd the Soviet post stands on the lower right bank, at the northern tip of two small rock islands. Frcm markerhe boundary continues along the channel, swinging to the west and then the northharp curve, to marker, whence it continues along the channelorth-northwesterly direction, past three isles on the Soviet side and two on the Norwegian side, to marker- The boundary then turnsortheasterly direction to marker, where itouble bend tovard the southeast, the northwest, and back to the east-southeast to marker. It then swings along the channel in another horseshoe curve around Iangletneset, passes two isles on the Norwegian side, and turns to the north-northeast to marker* From there the boundary travelseneraldirection (first northeast, then northwest) to marker, from which point it swings along the channel in three sharp turns, chiefly west-northwest, leaving five lsle3 on the Soviet side, to marker.

The boundary continues to markerlong the channelorthwesterly direction, turning west-northwest and passing two islets on the Soviet side, to marker, where it turnsorth-northeasterly direction to marker. Passing along the channel of the river, which bends around twotorsteinneoet on the Norwegian side and an unnamed peninsula on the Soviet sidehe boundary extendsenerally northwest direction to marker, then winds toward the northwest, west, and north over seme rapids to marker- Continuingeneral northwesterly direction to marker/ the boundary turns toward the northeastmall brush-covered isle on the Soviet side to marker- The Norwegian post stands on the low, rocky left7 feet) south-southeast of the BJornstad Farm andeterseet) from the border. Curvingend in the channel toward the east and southeast past the mouth of the Tverrelva River to marker, theextendseneral northerly direction (first east and then west) to marker. In this sector the Norwegian post stands on the left bank,arge2 feet) westoad running between Lillecanden and BJornstad. The boundary turns from marker, firatortheasterly direction, thensharply toward the east and then the northwest, to marker, locatedow, wooded promontory on the Norwegianeet) northeast of the Heimdal Farm andeters (ll8.ll feet) from the border. The Soviet post stands on the right riverbonk, at the edgeteep wooded53 feet) from the border.

Continuing to wind along with the channeleneral north-north westerly direction, the boundary extendsilometersiles) to marker. In this area, Norwegian murkers situated6chool at Eggemoen, and markers located lUOeet) from the Heggdalsmo Farm. The Soviet post stands on tbe right riverbonk,ow, rocky sandbar5 feet) from the foot of the northwestern slope of Pikkutunturi Mountain. The boundary then twists and turns in sweeping curves along the channel, chiefly to the northwest, to marker, then turnseneral westerly direction to marker. In this sector Norwegian posttands on the left bank of the Jakobselv,teep mountain slope deucendlng frometerseet) west of the Lillesanden-BJornstad rood, and posts locatedteep dip descending from6 feet) east of that road. From markerhe boundaryeneral northwesterly course to marker, then turns toward the north to marker. The Norwegian poet stands on the left riverbonk on the northeast corner of Finngammneseteters

eet) from tho border. Proa Barter5 the boundary geeb along the deep channel tovard the oorth-northvest,arge sandbank that divides at Storbekken, to Barker- From here the boundary extends in the sane direction for lessiloneter to marker, with the Norwegian peat on the left bank at the northeast end of Storsanden, and the Soviet post near the toprag on the righteet) northwestairn that was erected6 and bears the old-

At low tide, numerous sandbanks are exposed in the wide section of the Jakobselv south of its mouth. The boundary In this area follows the channel of the river at low tide, which places it close to the Soviet side of the estuary (see The boundary continues near the Soviet bank through the narrows to marker, the last marker at the mouth of the river. Between markershe boundary Is markederies of sight lines from boundary markers and by special sight markers. Prom markerhe boundary goes north-northwesttraight line88orth2nd again north-northwesteterseet) to the final marker,.

C. Boundary Marking, Administration, and Security

The land boundary between Norway and the USSR is narked by pairs of wooden posts or by single stone cairns Each marker la visible from the next, and in no caae are the markers moreilometer apart. Double markers or. land are placedistanceeet) on either aide of the line, and the line Itself la indicatedmall wooden post or by the centernch) circle carved in rock. leared strip along the entire land boundary4 feet) in width, which, in the case of the double markers, includes2 feet) between the postseet) behind each post. Markers,, at the main(changes of direction) in the boundary (seere old atone cairno, which were restored

Where the boundary follows the Pasvikelv and the Jakobselv, it Is narked by double posts, one on either side of the river or lake, or oneank (Figurend one on an island. North of tbe mouth of the Jakobselv is the northernmost marker ofarker. -Thisuoy stake anchoredepth of7 feet).

Moat of the boundary postseet) high and 22 centimeters nches) square- The Norwegian poets are

-

i'

painted yellow with black tips, and tbe Soviet pouto are painted in alternating red and green stripes with red tips.

A very detailed agreement dealing with border activities and providing mcan6 Tor the settlement of conflicts and incidents was signed on The agreement went into effect onO, after exchange or Instruments of ratification in Moscow, ll/

The agreement provides regulations for the following: (l) the Inspection and maintenance of markersleared strip (vista) along thehe use of boundary streams and lakes,shipping, log floating, andand use along the land boundary. Including hunting, agriculture, andhe avoidance of incidents;he solution of disputes and the enforcement of the provisions of the agreement. tates

specifically that the boundary extends under the ground and into the air. re of particular interest, since theirin guaranteeing to residents of the border areas the right to pursue their means of livelihood will determine whether the course

of the boundary will be subject to dispute in the future.

The provisions for the movement of vessels and for fishing apply to both the Pasvikelv and Jakobselv, but tbe regulations on timber floating apply only to the Pasvikelv, probably because the Jakobselv area is almost barren. Vessels may use the main channel, even if they must cross the line to do so, in tbe narrow sections of the Pasvikelv between markersndnd at markernd along the entire Jakobselv boundary. This permits Soviet travel through the part of the Pasvikelv that lies wholly within Norway. Limitations at marker, on the other hand, prohibit Norwegian transport through the Soviet Kolttakengyas area, thus preventing Norwegian use of the riveroute to and from the sea. Above this area, the river would notain waterway even If it were open, since only shallow Lapp boats can navigate above the Soviet-held portion and portages are necessary at the falls and rapids. In the larger lakes the only vessels allowed to cross the boundary are those used in log floating, which may do so under certain conditions.

Fishing is allowed up to the boundary, but fishing zones are not defined by marker numbers. Presumably fishing by nationals of the USSR is not permitted in the part of the Pasvikelv between boundary markershich belongs to Norway, or by Norwegians in the Kolttakengyas region, which belongs to the USSR. Both travel along and fishing In the rivers at night are prohibited

except on the larger lakes, where vessels must stay at2 feet) fron the Line and be adequately lighted. All vessels aust be marked clearly, and landing on the bank of the other country ls allowed only In case of distress.

Limitations on the floating of timber are nottrict. logs may be floated freely through the two sectors of the Pasvikelv that lie entirely on either the Norwegian or Soviet side of the line. Thisistinct advantage to the Norwegians, since it gives them access to the mouth of tbe Pasvikelv, which lies in their territory. Soviet regulation has disturbed the water level In some areas toegree, however, that log floating by Norwegians has beeo restricted. Until special agreements have been reached on control of the water level of the Pasvikelv, the Norwegians will probably avoid the risk of having timber lie dry in the riverbed. The boundary administrators are to decidepril of each year when tlafcer may be floated in the area. Foremen and crews are allowed to cross the river and work on the opposite bank by daylight to set up installations essential to the floating activities. Atays' notice ofoundary crossing must be given to authorities of the other country, and the workers must have special certificates from their boundary commissioner. Timber floated down the river is not subject to customs or other duties.

Agriculture, lumbering, and mining are to be carried on without violating or damaging territory or property of tho other country or crossing the boundary for any reason. Wild animals and birds are not to be shot or pursued across the boundary. The other party must be notified of dangerous forest fires across the boundary, or of trees that have fallen across the line, which will then be cut and returned. Mineral deposits may not be explored or exploitedanner that might cause damage oa the other side of the boundary.hese activities are prohibitedoot) strip along the boundary unless the two parties agree to an exception and make adequate provisions to "Insure the preservation of the boundary line."

Conflicts and incidents resulting from nonconformance with the regulations or from such issues as injury of persons living on the other side of the boundary, unapproved crossings and coainunieatioos, animals straying across the boundary, photographing of parts of the other country, and damaging of =arker6 are to be handled by the boundary commissioners. Serious issues say be negotiated through diplomatic channels, but provision is made for returning such Issues to local authorities for discussion.

Theregime agreement provided for the concluding of special agreements regarding the construction of any installations on the boundary rivers that might affect the flow or level of water. Before the regime agreement was drawn up, some Norwegian farmland in the valley had been flooded during the summer and suffered from drought in the fall because the USSR had damned the river andthe water level, probably in connection with the Yaniskoski powerplant upstream beyond the southern end of the Finnish-USSR boundary. The problem of waterflow seems likely to becomesignificant since the Yaniskoski dam has been completed. Another dam is under construction at the Hsjakoski (Ragjeguoikka) (falls) and possibly still another on the Pasvikelv near Kolttakengyas.

The great number of boundary restrictionsystem f almost constant patrol, particularly in the settled Pasvikelv Valley. The Norwegians,esult of the Decemberagreement, planned to expand their frontier police force and, in response to Soviet protests against Norwegian boundary crossings, toermanent police force in the frontier areas where settlement is comparatively dense. According to recent press reports, the Norwegian Government, in connection with the next national budget, will recommend that the present border patrol be almost doubled in strength. If the reported proposals are put intoorce of approximatelyen will patrolile-long Norwegian-Soviet frontier. The recommendations will also include the construction of houses and watchtowers to facilitate the work of the border guards.

The USSR has placed wooden watchtowers at points along the Pasvikelv portion of the boundary averaging one-half kilometer

U0 feet) apart andards behind the Although

the border is watched closely by Soviet guards. It is apparently possible to cross undetected during the summer. The Soviets can

ery effective pursuit" if on illegal crossingut the Soviet side of the border does not appear to be

as heavily guarded here as farther south.

D. Maps of the Boundary

The exact location of the present Norway-USSR boundary is shown best on theemarcation map0n list of citations at end of this section). Ranking second is the Norwegian topographic map series, which shows the Norwegian version of the line. No large-scale Soviet maps produced since the USSR acquirede available. Two sheets1 Soviet maphow the boundary, but this is neither an official presentation of the line (the Pechenga area wasart of Finland) nor of much value in tracing the actual detailed course of

the boundary, since the scale is too small. Consequently theSoviet area is covered only by some very old Finnish map series.

Haps at scales smallero not show adequately such detailed features as islands and sandbanks in the boundary rivers, which have been the main subjects of dispute. Sheetechenga, of thehows theline at that scale as "approximate.'1 For the Jakobselv area even the scales much too small, and sufficient detail is given only on7 demarcation map (l) and the0. Usefulness of the Finnish maps is limited because of the earlyf the surveys on which they are based; changes in the thalweg and islands of the river6 since tbe surveys were made have altered the position of the boundary considerably. Furthermore, the map does not show the boundary symbol in the astuary of the Jakobselv and the waters to the north, and the available sheets cover the boundary only as far south as approximately

Finnish coverage of the boundary area at scaless spotty, the former covering approximately the same area as0 series and the latter covering only the southernmost part of the boundary. Although the scale is too small to showdetail, Finnish map coverage of the boundary io provided byeneral map of. The most recent date of this seriesupplementary sheet has been issued that shows later boundary revision, including the delineation of the new Finnish-Soviet boundary in the Yaniskoski-Niskakoski area.

German maps and the British GSGS maps of the border area are based on the Norwegian and Finnish series, with the boundary line apparently taken from theeries.

The boundary demarcation map (l) is more useful than the descriptive protocol because it shows the exact position of the line; the protocol merely supplements the information shownhe map. The demarcation map locates the boundary line and its 4l5 markers and carries topographic detail for0 feet) wide on both sides of the line, including the areas along the banks and shores of boundary rivers and of all but the largest boundary lakes. The markers are located on the map with an error of not moreillimeter, and topographic detail within the boundary strip is plotted with almost equal precision.

1. Karta posudarstcvennoy grantisy aeshdu Soyuzem Sovet-skikh Sotsiallstichesklkhorvepiey (Map of the State Boundary 3etween the USSR andmeshannaya Soyuza

orvegii Koadssiya po denarkatsll gpsudarstvcnnoy granitsi mezhduorvegiey (Mixed USSR and Norwegianon forDemarcation of the State Boundary between the USSR and8 ozalid sheets, each In both Norwegian and Russian,CIA Mop Library Call-

2. ^General Staff of the Red Army Topographic; General Staff of the Red Army; Sheets Ozero laarl andrmy Map Service Library CallheetsCC and D.

3- ; Army Map ServiceMS Library Call No..

4. Topograflnen Kartta (TopographicFinnish/ MaanmittaushaUituji (General Surveyheets Vuoreal, Pasarltunturl, Klvltunturi, Vuorenijarvi, Haajarvl, Kuvcrnborinkoskik Vohtasttfrvl.alap.Jarvi, Sjilaijttrvi, Menikka, and1 reprints; AKS Ubrary Can (These sheets may be consolidated with the new Finnish series, Pcruakartta, which has replaced theKartta.)

5- Suooen Ylelakartta (General Map of;

/Finnish/ Maanmittsushallltue;MS Library Call

Figureir view into the Soviet Union from the Norwegian side of the border. Theprobablythe nickel proc-cessing plant at Nikel', USSR.

l i

l Id- Sl*t. BOuftMiyin* USS";

sea

, IfSlV.fcO

IIMWtnl

II. Finland-USSR Border

A. History of tbc Boundary

ussia, vith which Finland had been united9emi-independent Grand Duchy,olicy of Russification with the purpose of restricting the constitutional and civil liberties of Finland. After the Russian Revolutionowever, Finland was proclaimed an Independent state,eace treatythe new Finnish Republic and the Soviet Union was signed in Dorpat (Tartu) on la By the terms of that treaty, the USSR recognized Finland "within the boundaries of the Grand Duchy of Finland, as an independent and self-oubsistent nation." According tof the treaty, the PetBamo ^echengaj region was to be ceded tohich thus gained an outlet on the Arctic Ocean. f the treaty stipulated that the Governments of Finland and the USSR were topecial comalaBioo, consisting of two members from each country, to delimit and demarcate the frontiers. eneral protocol covering the course of the boundary from the Gulf of Finland to Vaitolahti on the Arctic Ocean was signed in Moscow on It was stated that by this action tbe boundary delimitation begun5 and ccompleted on the groundad been "definitely The Treaty of Dorpat also provided for the withdrawal of Finnish troops from the communes of Repola and Porajorvl and the reincorporation of these communes into the Soviet Union.

In9 Finland and Sweden signed an agreement for the Joint fortification of the Aland Islands. This proposal aroused Soviet protests, although other Interested nations gave theirBy the fall9ctober) the Soviet tfalon. In order to strengthen the security of Leningrad,pecific set of demands to the Finnish Government. These were (l) the cessionumber of strategic islands In the Gulf ofheof territory in the southeast (the Karelianhe cession of some land in the extreme north, on the Rybachihe demilitarization of the Soviet-Finnish frontier;jO-year lease on the port of Hangti (Hanko) and adjacent land, for the establishmentoviet naval base. In return, the USSR offered to givequare miles of Soviet territory on the east-central frontier (Karelia).

Finland was prepared to yield to most of the Soviet demands, but firmly refused, as incompatible with her neutrality, to lease or sell the port of This refusal resulted in the termination of At the end of November the Soviet Union launched the "Winter War" ofby Invading Finland's eastern frontiers.

y

ays of fighting, superiority in manpower and materials enabled the USSR to defeat the Finns, whoreaty of peace in Moscow on

The terms of the treaty were far mere exacting than the original demands of the Soviet Union- Finland was forced to cede aboutercent of its territory, including (l) the entire Karelian Isthmus,

to the north and west of Lakeumber of islands in the Gulf ofizable triangle of land to the northeast, in the Salla region;art of the Rybachit the same time the Soviet Unionyear lease on HangS Peninsula (and some adjacent land and water) for conversionoviet naval base. f the Treaty of Moscow confirmed the transfer of the Petsamo District to Finland (Treaty ofnd provided for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the area to permit free transit of persons, goods, and air traffic. The treaty also provided for the creationixed Boundary Commission for the purpose ofore detailed delineation of the boundary line - The* protocol delimiting the new frontier between Finland and the USSR was signed by the representatives of the two nations onjJ

*The Treaty of Peace was signed by Finland and all the Allied and Associated Powers except the United States, which had notwar on Finland.

When the Germans invaded the USSR onhey were joined by the Finns. This military venture turned out disastrously for Finland- Hostilities ended, and oneptember an armistice was signed in Moscow between Finland on one hand and the USSR and the United Kingdom on the other (the latter acting on behalf of the Allied Powers at war with Germany andnder the terms of the armistice, the Soviet-Finnish borders0 were restored, and Finland agreed to return the Petsamo area to the USSR. According to the wording of the armistice, this territory had been "voluntarily ceded to Finland by the Soviet State in accordance with the Peace Treaties of0 andhe relinquishment of Petsamo was later confirmed by the Treaty of Peace ofhich, after ratification, went into effect on In addition, Finland granted tbeyear lease on the Porkkala Peninsulaaval base. In7 Treaty of Peace the Soviet Union confirmed the renunciation of its right to the lease of the Peninsula of Hango*.

Tbe nev boundary between Finland and tbe USSR was surveyed and markedixed Soviet-Finnish Commission in the summer5 (see accompanying The demarcation documents were signed onnd confirmed by an exchange of notes on The terminus of the nev boundary was the cairn on Krokf Jell Mountain, which became tbe triJunction of the frontiers of Norway, Finland, and the Soviet Union.

Under the terms of the German Assets Agreement7 between Finland and the USSR (ratifiedprilthe Yaniskoski-NiskokcBki area in northern Finland was ceded to the Soviet Union. The Finns agreed, as part of their reparations, to reconstruct the dams and hydroelectric station at Yaniskoski which served as the main source of power for the Petsamo nickel mines.esult of this cession ofew demarcation of the northernmost boundary (just south of KrokfJell) was undertaken in the summerev boundary protocol wne signedecember20/

Oninnish-Soviet agreement for the settlement of border disputes and Incidents was signed at Mobcow. The protocol applied not only to the frontier between Finland and the USSR but also to the border between Finland and Porkkala-Udd. The document was concerned mainly with border markings, boundary-crossingand customs formalities affecting hunting, forestry, and Six months later,notherbetween the Governments of Finland and the USSR was signed concerning measures necessary toroper regime on the border between tbe two countries. Onprilan "in force" order implemented this agreement.

B. Linear Description of the Boundary*

The border between Finland and the USSR starts in the south on the east side of Virolahtt Bay off the Gulf of Finland and runs in

*Thle boundary description covers areas of different widths for different sectors of the boundary; for0 boundary, the urea isilometerile) wide; for the old-domainoundary, it is3 mile) wide. Along0 boundary, the markers are numbered, from south to north,oman numeral Indicating the sector and an Arabic numeral tbe markerfor example.; for narkcro along the old-dcemin boundary, an Arabic numeral is used alone, as; and for those alonganiskoski-Niskakoski boundary, the designationetter,

a northeasterly direction, bisecting Karelia, to Lake Vlrmajarvi in Ilomntsi, the easteroaost point in Finland-* From the laite thefollovs an irregular courae, generally south-north In direction, seldomivide or water course, to the Patsjokl (Paat3-Jokt) River. At the Patajoki it turns eastward for aboutilometers (approximatelyiles) und ends at Krokf jell Mountain, the tri-state junction point. The length of the border isilometersf vhich all butiles) is over land.

For purposes of this study the Finnish-Soviet boundary has been divided into the following eight sectors:

1. The Southeast sector, from the shore of the Gulf of Finland (Rautalanlahtioundary marker, to lake Iamalanjarvl, boundary marker Ho.istancef3 kilometersiles) are over water (lake and river)5 kilometers (aboutiles) over land.

Lake Ijmnalsn Jarvi, marker Ho. Il/l, to Lake KangasMo.engthilometers5 miles),

of2 kilometers (aboutiles) are over water (lake and river)6 kilometers (aboutiles) are over land.

Lake KangasJarvi, marker No. IIl/l, to LakeNo.engthf4 kilometers (aboutiles) are overand river)ilometers (aboutiles) are over land.

4. From markero markern the old statebetween the USSR and Finland (the central sector of theength ofilometersiles),

5- From markerrv/l) to the Kuolajarvi-Kellosclka road (the Sellaarkeristanceilometers (aboutf2iles) are over water (lake and river)ilometers (aboutiles) over land.

*tn Finnish, "lahti" means bay;ake;ountain or hill; andiver. In the translation of the protoeola, aa in this report, the English term ia In many cases added to the name. Place names in the Finnish section follow the soellings on theKS,astern; alternate names are given in parentheses and Russiann brackets.

rom the Kuoiejarvl-Kelloaelka rood (boundary marker) to Mount Puitsitunturi in the Sal la commune (boundary markeroughlyiles).

7- The old-domain boundary (upper sector) from Puitsitunturi (marker) to Korvatunturi Mountain (markerilometers (aboutiles).

he northernmost sector from Korvatunturi Mountain to Krok-fJell Mountain, the trijunctico of the frontiers of Finland, Norway, and the USSR,ilometers (aboutiles).

Sector No.ulflwnd to Lake IrxalanJarvi:

*Locattonal Indices in the section on the Finnish border refer to sheets of AMS5 For explanation of the key, see footnote, p. 8. The Indices do not apply to ozalid sheets of these series, however.

**Many of the "roads" referred to in this description are shown as tracks or trails (paths) on theeries.

Pi*Tm boundary marker, situated on the northern shore of Rautalanlohti Bay (Vyborg;he boundary extendseneral northeasterly directiontraight line to boundary marker, locatedorest or6 feet) west of Signaalivuori ^ignal'naya7 Mountain, leaving Slmola Farmsteadl) on the Soviet side. The boundary turns to an east-northeasterly course and continuestraight line to boundary markerl, located in the middle of Koskelanjoki River. In this sector the border passes through an area of sparse mixed woodland, crossing lake Kiiskijarvi between markers- It theneneral northerly course along the middle of Koskelanjoki River to markerocated on ar island at the confluence of Oiskelanjokl Riverameless stream, leaving the villages of Koskela and Reinikkala ^eynlkkalajn the USSR side and the village of Kurkela on the Finnish side. At marker4 the boundary turns to the northeast and runs along the middleameless stream to boundary marker0 feet) northeastridge across the stream on the Reinikkala-Vaallmaarom here the boundary goesortheasterly directiontraight

line forilometersiles) to markerocated on the Viipuri-Hamina highway: In this area of sparse coniferous and deciduous trees the border intersects two paths (at markers8nd passes through some swampland* south of markerontinuingortheasterly coursetraight line for8 kilometersiles) to markerixed woodland area and some brush or shrubrossing numerous roads or tracks. It crosses the Urpalanjoki River at marker2 and intersects the Nappl-Murlkala (Muurikkala) country road at marker In this sector the villages of Ma'kela' ^yakelya/aisnleai, aod Nappi are situated on the Soviet side of the border and Laisniemi Farmstead is on the Finnish side.

distinction between swamp and marsh areas is difficult to ascertain in each specific case. The two terms are often usedin this boundary description.

are many discrepancies with regard to lakes between theeries and the Mixed Boundary Commission maps (see Haps of the Boundary,-

From marker0 the boundarytraight lineortheasterly direction to markereterseet) northeast of the eastern shore of Laken the Finnish side. The village of Salajarviarvys on the USSR side. The boundary then turnsoutheasterly direction to marker3 feet) southeast of the point of divergence of the SalaJarvi-Nurmela-Vakevfila* roads From marker3 the boundary againortheasterly course to marker No.then turnsorthwesterly direction to marker6eneral northeasterly direction. Maintaining the same course forilometersiles) bo marker No.situated on the right shore of Santajoki Riverhe boundary traverses an area of mixed woods and swamps, crossing Lake Hallilampl between markersol and the SKkkijarvi-Pulsa highway at marker Ho.as wellew dirt, field, and forest roods. From the Santajoki the boundary continuesortheasterly directiontraight line to marker No.ocatedeterseet) southeast of the pointameless brook flows into Lake Luotosenjarvi on the Finnish side. The border then extends

umber of other lakesValkjKrvl (southeasternukallusjarvi (Pukalusjorvi) ^Ozero Pukatus-Yarvl7nd LappJKrvi (Lapjfirvi)to markerocated on the northvestern shore of the last-named lake, leaving Vanhatleperl ^onkfaatimperij Farmstead0 the Soviet side.

Afterurn at marker6 the boundary continues in an cost-northeasterly direction across Lake Lasilompi, completing anhaped bend at marker Bo. From here the boundaryhaped turn andortheasterly course to Tervajoki River (marker, intersecting the Satsa'la'-Hyttlla* road (track) at marker North of this point (markerc) the boundary crosses the HasKla'-Villala road. In this sector the border passesredominantly swampy area. Following the same general course, the boundary crosses the Ukkojorvi River between markers4 andthen continuesortheasterly directionew more kilometers to markerituated ot the confluence of two unnamed streams southwest of Kalko (Kalkko) /KaytkoJ village (BP. From marker9 the boundary turns to the north-northeast andtraight lineegion of mixed woods,umber of dirt roads and crossing Lake TelkJKrvi, to markerocated in the middle of the Hounljoki River. At this point the boundary turnseneral southeooterly direction along the middle of the Hounljoki ond goeso marker6 feet) southwest of Rajasalml village (on the Soviet side). It then turns againortheasterly direction and goestraight line to markerOO. At marker9 the boundary crosses theoot-gauge Vlipurl-Kbuvoia railroad. The railroad station ot Vainikkola on the Finnish side ls used regularly for traffic across the border (Figuresnd ll). Continuing in the same direction through an area of sparse woods and swanps, the boundarytraight line until it crosses the Yksnaanjokl River between markers, where it bends to the southeast, tho northeast, ond then north. (This curve appears aslight bend oneries.) North of the river the border resumes acourse, intersects the Ioutala-llaapajfirvi dirt road or track, and continuestraight line to the Vilpuri-Iappeenranto highway (NPhich it crosses between. At the latter marker, it turns slightly to the southeast, then at markerssumes ancourse, which it follows to marker-

From markerhe boundary bends to the north then the northeast to marker, theneneral northeasterly

course to marker No., situated on the left bank of the Saimaa Canal /Ranal Saynaan Ranava/4eet) from the shore. Free: here the boundary goesoutheasterly direction to marker, where It turns toward the east. Intersecting the Kokkila (Kbklnkyla)-Viipurl road at marker. Taking an east-southeasterly course, the boundary extends to marker Ho-located on the left shore of the Saimaa Canal where It enters Lake Nuljamaajarvl /Otero Nuiyana-Yarvl7. Markersre located on small Islandswith the boundary line running to the north of the Soviet islands of Herraaaari and Vuohlsaarl. At markerhe boundary goes overlandortheasterly direction to the northwestern shoremall lake, Lalhnlacpi (markernd then in adirection to the north shore of Lake Pankaja'rvieaving both lakes on the USSR sido. The Pohjola Farm Is located on the Finnish side to the north of this area.

From Lake Pankaja'rvi (marker) the boundaryeneral north-northeasterly course forilometersiles) to marker- In this sector are some swampy terrain, stands of both coniferous and deciduous trees, and patches of brush. Boundary markerTO is located on the Kontu-Askolaeterseet) west of the fork of the Kontu-Ha'veri ^Jyaverl7-Askola roads,roup of homesteads south of Kontu (on the Soviet side). Continuingortheasterly direction free marker, the bordertbe Vllpurl-Joutseno road at markernd crosses Lake Suokumanjarvi (SuokumaanJarvi) between markers, leaving some of thenttilya/ Homesteads on the Soviet side (Mlkkell;nd some on the Finnish side. From markerhe boundaryortherly course to, situated on the southwestern shore of the small lake, Valkcslampi, beforeortheasterly direction to marker. In this arcs of woodland and brush, the border crosses the Viipuri-Imatra nlghwayt markernd two small rivers or brooks, the MclikonJoki and Bolmanjokl. Farmsteads In the vicinity of Kuunranpohja /Knriaanpokh'yaJ are on the USSR side. orest lane (clearing or firebreak) intersects the border between markers-

From markerhe boundary curves slightly then goesorth-northeasterly direction farilometersiles) to markerL6 (oneries this section of the bordertraight line runninghe boundary crosses the Vuoksi River between markers, the latter located on the left shore of the Vuoksi River,

eet) northeast of the shorelineeterseet) west of the westernmost houseountry estate. oyitkelya7 Village (South) is on the Soviet sidend Ra'ikkoia' Village (North) on the Finnish side. Numerous tracks and ditches cross the border in this sector, ss veil as the Viipurl-Meltola highway (shownirt road oneries)' ContinuingortheaBterly direction, the boundary intersects the Antrea-Ioatra railroad at markernd the Jaaflki (Jaaske)-Imatra highway at marker- Both the railroad and road are shown oneries, hut the northern terminus of the railroad is placed to the east of Imatra (Figures- In this sector what appear to he telephone and telegraph lines parallel the forest lanes that cross the border south of marker. From this point the boundarytraight lineortheasterly direction to marker, then turns north-northeast to,0 meterseet) northeast of the fork formed by the Jaaski-Hlrslaapi /Khlrslampi7 road (NP:ountry road going west. ortheasterly course to marker, situated5 feet) north of the Jaa'skl-Hlrslaropl road and kQO meterseet) southwest of an isolated homestead on an elevation in Finnish territory, the boundary turns in an easterly direction to marker,5eat barn on the Jaaski-Hrralampi road. In this sector the boundary appears as an inverted bowl on theap series.

From marker* the boundaryortheasterly course to marker, located on the southern tip of the Karhusuo peat bog, then continues in the same general direction (with some angular turns) to markerU2. The boundary from markerhroughU2 closely parallels the Jaaskl-Hirslampi read, which is on the USSR side. ortion of this road appears onap series, which shows the boundary in this areahallow bowl-shaped bend. From markerheortheasterly directiontraight line to markerocated4 feet) east of an isolated homestead on the Finnish side, leaving taitila Village on the Soviet Bideaytila Village is shown slightly to the south of this approximate location oneries).

The boundary goestraight line from raarkerU7 througho marker No. Il/l, which is6 feet) north of the northern tip of the triangle formed by the roads in Hirslampi Villageeet) west of the Hirslanmi-Niskala (NiskapletllS) road: In this sector the borderegion of swamps and mixedcrosses numerous field roads, intersects two small unnamed

Lakes (between markersnd crosses the eouth-easternmost inlet of Lake Immalanjarvl.

Sector No.ake lianalanj&rvi to Lake Kangasjarvi:

From marker No.he boundary continuesortheasterly directiontraight line to marker No.outh of Lassila Villagen the western shore ofeet) from"the shoreline5 feet) southmall bridge. From here the boundary continues in the same course, intersecting the Hilisevanjoki River (between markers Nos.ndo marker No. Il/ll,8 feet) southwest of the Katikanlahti-Purnujarvi (Pumujarvi Estate). In thismall lake, Leppalampi, is on the USSR side, and the area is one of swamps (withixed forests, and country roads or paths. What appear to be powerlines cross the boundary betweenNos.ndnd slightly north of No. II/5-

From marker No. Il/ll, the boundary continuesortheasterly direction, except in the area of Suurisaari Island on Lake Hiidenjarvihere the boundaryhaped bend around the south end of the islandeterseet) from the shore, leaving the whole island on the Finnish side. The exact position of the boundary in this area is given by three posts with pointers to boundary marker, located on the western shoremall lake, Karsalampi. The border skirts the northern edge of this lake, leaving it on tbe Soviet side. From marker No. Il/l9 the boundaryinding but generally northeasterly course along the middle of an unnamed brook, which flows from thetip of Lake Karsalampi, to marker, situated at the confluence of that brook with another brook flowing through Rolha Village. The boundary then extendstraight line to marker No.ocatedteep sand hillock south of Vilkko (Paavola) Village,5 feet) from the brook. From this point the boundaryoutheasterly direction to marker No.henortheasterly course to the Xanklla-Miettila" road (marker No. It then parallels the Kara Joki Riveruruy-Yoki River is shown oneries) before veeringorth-northwesterly direction to marker No.ocatedoods at the eastern endield belonging to Vilkko Village7 feet)ay barn. The sector from marker3 to No.ppearsronounced bend oneries.

From marker No-he boundaryurn to acourse, which it follows to marker No.ituated at thelimit of Variseet) south of the Ilmee

dirt roadnd5 reetTow barn. Turning slightly to the north, the boundary goesilometersiles) to marker No.ocatedrook flowing from the northwestern partmall lake, Savolaitfenmaealampl, on the USSR side. Between markers56 the boundary crosses Lake PitkSJarvi ^Ozero Pitkya-Yarvi7. From marker Ho.he boundary wind*eneral northeasterly direction along the middle of an unnamed brook downstream to marker No. II/ll, and then .goestraight line In the same direction to the ArJtilansalo-AnkilH country road or track (marker Ko. In this sector tbe border crosses the Ilmee-Laikonkanka and tbe Pajari /Pay&riJ-XnkiIX (Haaprlnta-Jokela) reeds at markersndespectively (no roadthe latter two villages appears on then part of this region the boundary traverses an area of swampland. Continuingortheasterly direction to marker No.ocated on the northeast shore of KokkoIanjoki (Kitolanjokl) /Kokkolan-ioki7eet) from the shoreline, the boundarywhat appears tointer road south of the river.

From marker9 the boundary continuestraight northeasterly course to marker, situated7 feet) from the Koitsansalo-Koitsanlahtl flag-station road. Between markers Nos.ndhe boundary crosses the KoitBanoalo-Simpele railroad, shown to the south of Slmpele oneries. Maintaining the same direction to marker No.hich5 feet) southwest of the Lammlnkula /Lanainkyulyo/-flag station on the Poutala-Koitsanlahti all-weather roadhe boundary passes through an area of sporBc mixed woodland.

From the Poutala-Koitsanlahti read, the boundary turnsorth-northwesterly direction andtraight lineeflection point located on Kukkarolahti (Kukkavalompl) Inlet of Lake Simpelenjarvl between markers Nos.ndhere it makesight-angle turn to tbe east. (Figures) The turning point of the boundary, which forms the apex of the triangle shown onheet iaeterseet) north of marker. The pannage of the boundary line along the Kukkarolahti Inlet is further indicatedostointer set up on the west shore of the inlet in line with the deflection point of the boundary and with boundary markers Nos.nds well asloating marker (anchored float) set up at the deflection point. From marker No.he boundary goesortheasterly direction by way of Lake Pitkajarvi, then follows the middle of an unnamed brook flowing from

northeastern tip of the lake to marker, located In the middle of an unnamed brook at its confluencerook issuing from Klimasuo Swamp.

At marker Ho.he bcundary Intersects thetantsiya Syuvyaoro7-Parikkala railroadefore continuingortheasterly direction to marker No.ituated on the south shore of the larger of the Sarvilammet Lakeseet) from the shoreline (shownhallow bowl-shaped bend oneries). The Syvaoro-Parikkala road and the Siimesoja River are crossed by the boundary at markers Bos.espectively. Prom Darkerhe border extends forilometersiles)wampy area, intersecting two field roads, and continuestraight line to marker No.eters (abouteet) northeast of the Slllanlahtl ^SlllanlakhtlJ-TivlH road. From here the boundary turns slightly to the east andortheasterly course by way of marker No.eflection point located on Lake8 feet) southeastoetointer set upromontoryInto Lake TyrJanJKrvi from the west, opposite PKlvKtsaari Island. From the deflection point the boundary proceedslightly more northern direction across the middlemall crag projecting above the water 1UO9 feet) southeast of the southern shore of Suusoarl Island, to the center of boundary marker No.4 feet) from the USSR post set up on the eastern shore of lake Tyrjanjarvi1 feet) from the Finnish post set up on the promontory on the southeastern shore of Suursaari Island. Continuingorth-northeasterly direction through tbe lake to markerituated on the eastern shore of Suuri Naattiniemi ^ol'shoy Naattiniemi7 Cape, the boundary goes overlandine forest to marker No.light turn toward the east at marker No. mall lake, Hulsuan-lanpi, la located to the east of marker No.n Soviet The Tiv'S-Saarenkyla' road on the Finnish side parallels the border in this area.

The boundary crosses Lake Yla'-TyrJanjKrvienerallydirection to marker No.ocated in the middle of the Koskutjokl River as it enters the lake; it then follows the middle of the river upstream to markerituated in the6 feet)ridge on the Parikka (ParlkarUtylii)-Houkakyla' roadIO:) Continuingortheasterly direction, the boundary passesixed forest area to marker, located on the western shore of the northwestern inlet of Lake Knrkelanjarvi ^Ozero Kurkelan-Iarvi71eet) northwestpring. At this point the boundary

turtle In an easterly direction through lake Kurkelanjarvl to apoint in the lake, then goeaortherly direction to marker No.n the north shore of the lake, forming an angle that appearshaped bend onerieB. Northeast of Lake Kurkelanjarvl the boundary follows an unnamed brook and crosses three small lakes3olkulanlacpl, Munalampi, and Kaatiolaaplo markerocatedape projecting from the northwest and separating Nlrkonlahti Inlet from Lake Korpi'arvi ^Otero Korpi-Yarvi7. In this sectcr ofilometershe border passesegion of deciduous forest, some stands ofogged-over area (at markernd some swampland and la crossed by forest roads. It continuesortheasterly direction by way of Lake Kbrpijarvl, leaving Suursaari Island on the Finnish side, to marker No.n the western ahore of Suojarvi. In this area the border crosses two minor roads. Continuing in the some direction, the boundary crosses Lake Suojarvi between markersl9 andnd passes through the Suurtsuo Swamp to mwker No-ituated on Kuivanlemi Cape on the south share of Lakezero Tyukhya-Yarvlj (Sortavala;: Thecontinueseneral northeasterly direction,light bend in the middletrait between Suitsansaari Island and Salmennieml Cape, thentraight line through lake Pyhajarvi to boundary marker No.t the north shore. It continues overlandtraight line to marker No.hen turns to the north to marker No.ocated on the ahoreape abutting Into Lake VaitJarvi, paBBing through marshland andand coniferous forests?haped turn, the boundary crosses Lake ValtJarvi In an easterly direction, then at marker No.urns northeast to marker No. Il/lUO,eet) southwest of the NarsaakfilK-Kumurl road. In this sector the border crosses the Bajajoki River at marker No.. Tho boundarytraight lineortheasterly direction to tho edge of Buohosuo Swamp, continuing toeet) west of the Lahdenkyla'-Ristiselka" road, then, making turns at markers Nos. II/1I3, to marker No.n the southwestern shore of Lake Kangasjarvi /Otero Kangas-Yarvi7Ll: Although these segments of the boundary are straight lines, the section appearsup-shaped bend oneries.

Sector :to. Jarvi to Lake Virmajarvl:

From marker No.'IIl/l, the boundary goes along the western part of Lake KaogauJarvi, then bendsortheasterly direction along the middle of the Klteenjoki River upstream to boundary marker No. IIl/ll. In this sector, at marker No.he boundary crosses

-fir2.

a wooden bridge across the river on the Kangankyla-Sayneenkyla rood. From marker No. IIl/ll to No.ocated on aneterseet) northeast of the intersection of the Matkaselka-Kitee and Havukkamski-BJbrnintalohe border passes through predominantly swampy land and nixed forests, leaving Turtlala Hooe-stead (vyartsilya;. corner) on the Finnish side. The boundary continuesortheasterly direction to markern the southwestern shore of Lake Rameenjarvl /Oteroeterseet) northeast of Kosonen Homestead. In this area of mixed woods and swamps, the boundarynail lake, Matkalampl (marker No.nd is intersected by the Katihtalammenpuro Brook (No. Maintaining the same course from lake Rameenjarvl the boundary crosses the Po'lkjorvl-Peijonniemi road northwest of the Hakullnen Homestead (Barker No.nd continues through swampland to marker No. t which point it crosses the VoVtsilS /Vyartsilya7-Kaurila rood and railroad. From marker No.he boundary bends along the middle of the Janisjoki River, east of Thuruland continues upstream to the confluence of the Juvanjokr and Janisjokleaving the Vkrtieilaa" /Vyartsilya/ Homestead on the USSR side ond UusikylKfi Homestead on the Finnish side. East of Lake Saaperi Jhrvi, the boundary line turns east at marker No.nd posses through lake RySsib'jorvl ot marker No.rue northeasterly course ot marker No.eterseet) west of the exitield road onto the Vartsila-Saarlvoara rood. From this point the border extendstraight line to marker No.ocatedood9 feet) weot of the intersection of tbe boundary by the VsrtsilK-KenroalinkylS road, leaving Miikkulamplmall lake) on the USSR side and Kalliola Homestead on the Finnishettlement of the latter name also appears on the USSR side, east of marker No.he border then passesroup of lakeo, including Jounbenus-jarvl, Kaustaja'rvi, and Knkkolampi, to marker No. The VKrt-slla'-Saarivaara road parallels this entire sector en the Soviet side to mtrker No. IIl/llO, where it crosses the line in following the shore of Lake Kukkolsspl. The boundary continuesortheasterly direction to marker No.ocatedoodedeters (nearlyile) southeastridge across the SKrkilampl-puro Brook, which is on the VartsllH-Onnenvirra road (Finnish side). Afterlight bend at this point, the boundary extendstraight line across the southwestern inlet of lake Kaha'Jarvi (Kanajarvl) to marker No.nd then on to No.76 feet) northeast of the intersection of the boundary by^the TflUpakka-Ho.llola

outhwest shore* KorpijSrvi /Orero Korpi-Yarvj?- In this sector the boundary runs through lakes,and sparse woods. The boundary turns eastward at marker No.

nd then northeast at, passes through the western

part of Lake KbrpiJKrvi to marker No.hen follows the middle of the Tsiikonjoki River upstreameneral northwesterly direction to boundary marker No. Hl/lU6. From this point the borderortheasterly direction to marker No-ocated on the KorpiselkS-SuSlK road. Slightly to the south of this area the Korpiselka" (Korpisel'kya)-Onnenvirra road is Intersected.

From marker No.he boundary goesegion of lakes, brooks, swampland, and sparse woodstraightdirection to marker No-here it crosses the Karali-Sayinola (Hutalahti) road- It then continues to marker No.ocatedeet) southwest of the intersection of the boundary and the southwestern shore of Lake ViiksinselkS Jpzero Viksin Sel'kyaJ. From this point the boundary turns slightly to the east, then sharplyortherly direction across the lake to marker No.here it takes an easterly course to the edgeorest (boundary marker No.0eet) east of the intersection of the boundary by the eastern shore of Lake MelaselkS /Ozero Melasel'kyay7. From Lake Helaselka" the boundary runseneral northeasterly directiontraight line, passing through Lake Lutonlampl (Nietalahti) from marker No.nd continuing to No.ocated on an1 feet) southeast of Lamanaho (larmDenakho) Homestead. In this sector the border intersects the Peurujoki and Piisteenjoki Rivers, andrail north of each. Oneuruioki Farms shown to the east (the Soviet side) of this sector.

The boundary continuesortheasterly directiontraight line from boundary marker No.o marker No.ocated on the left bank of Koitajoki River northeast of Vihurinsuon-torppa Homestead which is on the Finnish side. In this area the border traverses mainly swamp, bog, and sparse woods. From No.he boundary twists and bends along the middle of theRiver to its outlet into lake Piijarvi (No. Thefollows an unnamed stream that connects Lake Piijarvi with Lake Konnukka (Kustikaisenlahti) to the northeast, whence it continues northeastward through that lake and the swampy and forested areas beyond to marker Ho., southwest of Ilajan-Ruukinpohjait intersects the Huotarinvaara (Kuolismaah)-Mbhko road at marker- From marker No.he boundaryhaped bend between Lakes Ilajanjarvi on the Finnish side and LuQvenJarvi /Eouven-

YarviJ aa the Soviet sidend then continues from marker No.traight northeasterly line to marker No.ocated in the forest7 feet) northwest of the mouth of Papinpuro Brook. What appears torackirt road between NiemiJarvi and Longonvaara crosses the

boundary at marker No.onongonvara Farm is shown on the USSR aide). From here the border extendsortheasterly direction to marker No.ituated on aformed by the Koitajoki River and Luokkipudas Inlet. It then continuestraight line northeastward to marker No.ocated on an unnamed island in the northwestern part of lake^Ozero Tel'ma-Iarvi7. In this sector the boundary crossee Kalatonlampi Pond and Pissipuro Brook. Pareileling the border on the Finnish side between markers Nos-ndorest lane. On the Soviet side two such clearings occur near the boundary, but not parallel to it, north of Pissipuro Brook. At some places on the Finnish side also there may be more than one clearing.

Sector Ho.ake Virmajarvi to Marker No.

From boundary marker No.he boundary goes along the old Soviet-Finnish lineorthwesterly direction to marker. (The central sector of the old-domain border is between boundary markers Nos.nd At markerhe boundary continues through Lake Virmajarvi and follows the twists of an unnamed river that flows generally northwest, entering Lake Klvijarvi at marker. The border then passeswampy area of sparse woods, crossing the Asumajoki Fiver north of marker. The boundary continues in the same northwesterly direction to marker, at which point it veers sharply to the west. At the Vaskijoki River (marker) it turns againortheasterly course (Lendery; (OnaBka River is shown here on the Sovietrcm markerhe borderorthwesterly course to Lake Alinen Aittojarvi /Ozero Ayto-YarviJhere it turns sharply westhort distance before resuming adirection along the Rajapuro Brook. The boundary thenwampy region as far as marker, from which it passes through Lake Palojarvi /Ozero Palo-Yarviy. From the lake the boundary goesorthwesterly direction to Lakeero Kartsya-Yarvi7, which it crosses between markers- artltsa Farm is shown on the Finnish side oneries. Continuing the same course, the boundarymall lake, JerkosenlampI, at marker, continues to marker, and then extends along the middle of the haapajoki ^Chapa-Yokl7 River to Lake Ylinen Haapajarvi (marker No. 6ll). In this area the border passes through predominantly swampy land, coniferous forests, and some burned woods.

From Lake Ylinen Haapajarvi the boundary goesorthwesterly direction to marker, then swings to the west,ountry dirt rood at marker. At marker

t curvesmall lake, Korpllampl, then oaken another bend beforeorthwesterly course to marker. It then follows the Huokooja ^uokko-Ioki7 Stream (ditch), crossing the Ldeksanjoki (Lenderke) River between markers. The border then continuesorthwesterly direction,oad or track before reaching Fake Kokko-Jarvl ^Ozero Kokko-Ysrvl7) at marker. The border continues in the same general direction beyond Lake Kokkojarvi (markerassing through basically swampy terrain interspersed with conifers (prctoably pine) until Itrominent hill, Alttovaara,eet high (marker Southwest of this point, on the Finnish side, lies Alttovaara Farm. Just north of Alttovaara Bill, the borderthe Tuulljokl /Tula7 Rivert marker Thence the boundaryimilar course to the Saari-jarvenjoki River before crossing the eastern part of Lake Saarl-Jarvi. Frcoi Lake Saarljarvi the border goesorthwesterly direction, crossing the western section of Lake Pybralampl ^Ozero Pyurl-Yarvi7rom marker. Northwest of this point the borderirt roadnd then extends along the middle of Lake Pitka* Valamojsrvi from markeroPirtti-ValamanJarvi and Saarl-Valaman-jKrvt appear to the southwest and west of the line,(HP Fromhe boundary goes to markern the western shore of Lake Otrosjarvl (Nurmes;here the border comesoint. oticeable feature of this entire sector of the boundary (Lendcry;a the scarcity of roads of any kind. The whole area is dominated by swamps, small lakes, and coniferous forests.

At Lake Otrosjarvl, the border turns sharply to theJoklvaara, MbntbVaara, and Markavaara Hills. Fromhe boundary traverses anotherswampy and forested terrain, trendingortheasterlymarker, north of Kuusljarviake KuuslJarvi is toon the Finnish side), at which point atrail Intersects the bc*indary. Continuing to bear in adirection, the boundary crosses lakerominent hill (Pihlejavaara) to markernorthern edgemall lake (Sarkilampl). Thinemote, basically uninhabited, swampy region characterizedlowlands. The border follows the same general course untila small lake, Honkalampi (markerhere itorthwesterly direction (lake Vonganjarvl appears toof the boundary) (Kimasozero;. then crosses the eastern part of Lake Kaitakiekki) at markernd pursues tbe same course tohere it turns sharply northeastward. At marker

No. 6fh the boundary veers northwestward again,mall lake, fehakaslampi, and aturns further toward the west,the Mahakasjoki River as far as marker. From this point the border turns more to the northwest, then at markerlmost due north. It traverses the western sections of two small lakes (RUhllaopi andhen makeshaped bendat marker, intersecting lake Hoikkajarvi and the Hoikanjoki River, andrail along the eastern end of lake Ms^selfinjarvi) - In this sector the boundary passes through an area of bogswamp and lake regionwith some coniferous forests. Continuing in an Irregular northwesterly direction, the boundary passesntyjarvi- Between markershe boundarya northwesterly course thattraight lineistance ofilometersrossing Lake Koivoja-Jarvi. Koivaja Cabin appears to the west of this pointU).

North of Lake Koivaoajarvi, at markerhe border again turns to the north-northeast,erieshaped bends at markers,, and passes through Lake Karanka-jarvi from marker. aranga River is shown on the Soviet siderending slightly to the northwest from marker, the boundary makes anotherhaped bend at marker,rail, and continues through swampy land and coniferous forests. Bending slightly at each marker butenerally northerly course to marker, the boundary intersects another path between markerst raarkerSotkamo;; north ofouth ofmall lake on the Finnish side, the boundary turns due northeast. In this sector the border passes Honkavaara.Hill and Lakes Isa-Lahnajarvi and Pieni-Lahnajarvi. At markernearhe boundary turns farther to the east before crossing Lake KarsikkoJSrvi. The border intersects only one trail in this sector, but as elsewhere in the boundary area it crosses many brooks and streams. East of the Karslkkopuro Brook (marker) the border turns slightly more northward to markernd again to, Bituated in Lake Vuokkijarvi fOzero Kamennoye/ (Kimasozero;here it veers northwest to Lake Kivijarvi At markerKontiovaarahe line again turnsortheasterly direction and at markerevertsorthwesterly course, intersecting Lake Viiangin-jarvl (Pien-Viiankijarvi). It then turns due westoint south of Ala -Torrvi) The boundary thenesterly course, passinglightly raised area, or platform, between markers, foriles). In this section the boundary skirts the northern part of Lake Korpljarvl (Sotkamo;lU:

northeastassing through predominantly swampy land andrail to the west of marker- At Kongasaho (marker) the border turnsorthwesterly direction,irt road (Raatteese-Vaatanvaara) at markernd continuing across the middle of lake RaateJarvi At the northern end of tbe Lake the boundary turns to the northeast to markerSaarenmannpaa*hen veers again to the northwest toward Syrja'vaaronpuro Brook. This whole sector is swampy, with somewoods.

From Syrjavaaranpuro Brook (marker) the boundaryhallow curve to marker, from which it continuesorth-northwesterly course to Kivlpuro Brook) before turningenerally northeasterly direction. In this area the bordera forested and swampy area, seemingly remote and isolated,rail north of Ristikangas (marker along the same generally northeastern course to Yppyransuo Swamp, the boundary turns core sharply to the northeast. Near LavSvaara Hillt turns due east and continues to the vicinity of Punkoavaara Bill In this area the border crosses the Raippajcki and Kirkkelahjokl Riversath or trail-At Puukonvaara the boundaryeneral northeasterly direction to marker, where it crosses the Venethei ton joki Bivar. Veering sharply northwestward, the borderefore skirting around the eastern end of Lake Pirttijaxvl (markersrail north of the lake and continuing on to marker- At markerwest of Hautasuonaho) the border turns abruptlyortheasterly direction, crossing Lake Holkkaja'rvi, which approximates the location Of Omega Levie Soviet side (Kuusamc;:nd continues along the name course to markerefore turning slightly to the northwest. In this sector two small lakes are crossed, Aumn'ampt and Lomalampi. At.marker NoV^W'tne-boundary crosses the Kartin-Joki Riverorthwesterly direction, continuingiotanceilometers. mile) before turning graduallyeneral westerly direction, beginning at marker- Between markershe border intersects Haatajanoja Brook, goesistrict of small lakes, one of which la Sarkkalampl, andirt road (juntusranta-Lonkka) and on unnamed river before turningorthwesterly direction at Hallavaara Hill Between markers Nos.rail intersects the boundary. At markerhe border turnsortheasterly direction aod crosses Lake Ralmcjarvi- From markervest of Olkivaaratortheasterly course to. In this area of continuous marshes and sweeps the boundary crosses two trails. At markersoutheast of Ahvcnsuo Swamp) the border again turnsorth-northwesterly direction to marker

northwest of Louhisuo Swamp. From here ittraight northerly directionistance of approximatelyilometersiles) to marker/ in the vicinity of Kalliovaara Hill. In this sector the border passes Vierivaara Hill and crosses Rytipuro Brook, Kayrahokt River, and two small lakesJoutsenpesa'lampi and Karhulampl. From markerhe boundary extends northeastward Lo marker, then continues in the same general direction to Sarvikivi From here to boundary markerhe border passes through an area of burned woods and coniferous forests. At markereast of Matovaaranpalo and Just southrail intersecting thehe boundary turns sharplyorthwesterly direction, continuing forilometersiles)emote area of predominantly swampyto marker. At the western edge of Lake Lattajajarvi) the border turns due northeast, crossing Lake Lauttajarvi (lauttajajarvi)nd the Kaartojokl River (which approximates the location of the Koto River on the Sovietnd extends to Lake Parvajarviistance ofiles). From Lake Parvajarvi) the boundaryoutheasterly directionake areat which point it turns to the north,harp V, and extends to markerUkhta;he last in this section of the old state boundary between the USSR and Finland.

Sector No.arker, to the Kuolaja'rvl-Kelloaelka Road:

From boundary marker, the boundary goesortherly directiontraight line to boundary marker No. iv/ll, located north of Lake Suurijarvi /bzero Suuri-Yarvi7rossing Lake Kinnusenja'rvi, the eastern part of Lake Kovajarvi, Virraajoki River, and Lake SuuriJarvi. Lakes Pajulampi and Palolampl are on the USSR side and Lake Peltojarvi on the Finnish side. From marker Ko. iv/ll the boundary goesorth-northwesterly directiontraight line to marker Ho.ocated on Penninklluo-manvaara Hill, and continues in the same courserag south of Lake PenninkiluomaPenninkiloma7- North of this point the borderirt readnd then the lake. Froo marker No. IV/lo the boundary continuestraight line, crossing the Pistojoki River, which runs out of Lake Multijarvl ^Czerond skirting the eastern end of Lake Kuurna at marker No. iv/2k. Kbnttlla Hcaestead is on the Soviet side nearNo. From Lake Kuurna the course of the boundary continues north-northwesterly to the eastern end of Lake Laakialnen,the Pitkaperanjoki River north of marker Ho.ndmall lake, Kalhlalampi, on the Finnish side between Nos.nd This whole sector is marshy and swampy.

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orthwesterly course to boundary marker Ho.ocated on Mount Polovaara, the boundary extends to the southern shore of Lake Angerja'rvi /OzeroII:rosfling Lake Angerjarvi, the boundarywamp and bog region, intersecting the Kunnjokl Fiverrailoint south of raarker Ho. From here the boundary goestraight line northwest to marker Ho.eters south of the western tip of Lake Huutolampi. On the Finnish side of the border In this sector there is some meadowland. At marker No.he boundary bendsortheasterly direction to markermall islet in Lakezero Pukarl-Yaryi/U:at which point it turns backorthwesterly direction,haped bend. From here the border crosses the Kuuaamc-Pukarl Homestead road at marker No.hen extendsortherly direction,rail Just south of marker Ho. IV/'tli. The boundary then continuestraight line to marker No. IV/liG, located on Cape Jyrkkanieml on the southern shore of Lake Eksym/iju'rvi (Kuoloyarvi;outheast corner). In thisrail or path crosses the border south of The boundary bendsape in the western part of Lake Eksyma*Ja'rvi,ipper, to marker No.ocated on the north shore of Sarkllahtl Inlet. To indicate the passage of the boundary line along Lake Eksyma'Jarvi, pointers have been set up on boundary-marker posts Nos. IVAS andhowing the direction of the boundary line between Nos-ndnd Nos.nd

From markerhe boundaryorthwesterly course through swampy ond boggy terrain with some scattered coniferous forests to marker No.ituated on the south chore of Lake Soruja'rvi. In thisarest lane cute diagonally acrose the border at marker No. Prom marker No.he boundary goesortheasterly direction to No-ocatedmall islet north of the Strait of Hirvassalml, leaving Kelkkasaarl Island, onillage is located, on the Finnish aide. elkka-Saari Farm appears oneriesoutheast corner)- Prom marker No.he boundary continues acourse to No.here it turns sharply to the northwest,haped bend, to marker No-

on the north bank of

Isojoki River- From marker No.bout6 feet) fromhe boundary goesorthwesterly direction to Mount Hepo-ojonkangas (Ho.hich is south of Lake Hepolaapi.

From marker No.he boundary continuestraightdirection toNo-ocated or. the Kuusaao-Aittokuapu5 feet) northwest of the western end of of Kuntilahti Inlet /Zaliv-Kuntilakhtl7. South ofNo.rail crosses the boundary between Lakes Bepolampl

and Iso Kaivoslumpi and passes through another small lake, Kaakkuri-lampi, north of No.

From "he Kuusamo-Aittckumpu road (marker No.the boundarylight bead, 'out still goingorthwesterly direction crosses Kuntikorvensuorack,orest lane (between markers No.ndnd then continuestraight line to marker No.ocatedill southmall lake, Puuro-lacpi. Continuing in the same direction, the boundary crosses Lake Jumnajarvi between markers Nos.ndake Ruoppijarvi is On the USSR side and Jumajoki River on the Finnish side (an Ozero Yuma-Yarvi and Lake Ruoppija'rvi appear onorth of Lake Juumaja'rvi the boundary crosses Pirttivaara Hillirttivaara Farm appears on the Soviet sidend the Kuusaco-Paanajarvi (Tuutija'rvi) road, ut marker No. IV/Bl. In this entire sector the border passes through swamp and meadow interspersed with coniferous woodland. The boundary continuesorthwesterly direction, crossing the Kuusinkijokl River between markers Nos.nd At marker No.he boundary continuestraight line to the middle of the Oulankajoki River, then turns westward and follows' the middle of the riverouble bend to boundary murker No. IV/9I. North of marker No. iv/oi* the bordertroll lake (UopaJalanpi) and thentraightcourse to marker No.ocated on the summit of Mount Suistovaara, after crossing Suorapuro Brook (an Oiero Suora-Yarvi appears on the USSR side onhich flows from Lake Suis-ojarvi.

From marker No.he boundary continuesorthwesterly direction to Lake Kuivajarvi (north of marker No.ntersects two forest lanes, and extends to the Kayla-Sovajarvi road (marker Ho. IV/lO't). At this point the boundary, ccntinui ng In the same direction,rail south of marker No.hich is located or. the summit of Mount Korvasvaara, and continues to marker Ho-n the couth-central shore of Lake Korvasjkrvl (Ozero Korvas-Yarvi).

From Take Korvasjarvi the borderredominantly swampy and forested area,orest lane, and crosses the Kallio-jokl jj^Kallio-Yoki/ River. Between this point and the Bangasjoki River /pzero Khe*igas-Yarvl7 (marker No-he boundary crosses another forest lane (the region is probably one of pines) and passes through an area of numerous peat bogs. Continuingeneraldirection, the border intersects the NiitSClysjoki Riveretween markers Hos.ndnd continuesorthwesterly course to marker Ho.ocated in the middlerook flowing between two small lakes. Rest and West Sokkalampi.

From this point tho boundary follows an irregular course along the main bed of an unnamed brook to marker No.ocated in the middle of the Naatooja Streamhich It follows downstream to markerlkl, situated on the southeast tip of Lake Kortakkajarvl (KartaakoJSrvl). The boundary in Lake Kortakkajarvl startsorthwesterly direction, then goeB straight north to marker No.here It turns due east to No. JV/lW. The Klesklsjokl River (both the riverake of the same name are shown on the Finnish side oneries) flows into Lake Kcrtakkajar-vl at tbe northwestern shore. From marker No. XV/lAA, the boundary goesortheasterly direction to Ho- XV/lftS at the northeast corner of Lake Kortakkajarvl. Turningorthwesterly direction, the borderegion of swamp land to marker No. IV/luS, located on the left side of the Rarmusoja Stream at the pointrook from Lake Haltiojarvi /OierOlowB into it. From this marker the.border extendseneral northerly direction, winding along tbe middle of the Harmusoja Stream to marker No.ocated on the right side of the streameet)of the place where an unnamed brook flows Into it.

From marker No.he boundary goesorthwesterly directiontraight line, crossing Kutuoja ditch (brook) at marker No.hen traverses an area of open water,o marker No., located on the western slopeilleters east of Lake Possolijarvi (Possolljarvi)- Theorthwesterly directionemote region to marker No:ocated on the left side of Peunaoja Brook (ditch). In this sector the terrain consists mainly of swamps, bogs. meadows, and some coniferous woods. rail Intersects the boundary betweenNos-nd At No-he boundary goes along the Peunaojaeneral westerly direction to marker No.ocated in the middle of Llinasoja Stream north of its confluence with the Peunaoja. Prom Ho.he border follows the middle of the Llinasoja downstream to marker No.ocated in the middle of the stream where it flows into Lake Onkamojarvi. The boundary crosses the lakeorthwesterly direction, turns slightly to the north, then veers sharply to the northeast at marker No.ndhallow turn at Bo.. Prom marker No.ocated on the right bank of Fkbirankyrbhoja Stream approximatelyeet) northwest of its confluence with Siikaojahe boundary continues along theof the Kbirankyrbnojaeneral northwesterly direction to markers Nos.- From marker No.he boundary goesorthwesterly directiontraight line to marker No.ocated at tho eastern edge of the natural boundaryoniferous forestwamp, and then on to No.ituated at the edge of the Plkkulehdonjanka Swamp northeast of Mount

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Murtovaara. At this point the borderore northerly route to marker No.ocated on the western slope of Mount Sarkivaara 2lso Sarkivaara/. Ir. this sector the boundary passes through an area of swamps and bog lowlands with some scattered coniferous woods. The boundary then goesorthwesterly direction from marker No.o No.hich Is located at the confluence of the Pekeloja and Kaulaoja Streams, and to markers Nos.. In this part of the Salla0 boundary, numerous lanes crisscross the border, principallyouthwest to northeast direction. Ituite probable that these correspond to the forest lanes, or firebreaks, previously mentioned.

Sector No.uolajo'rvl-Kelloselka Road to Mount Puitsitunturi:

North of markerhe boundary crosses the Salla (Kuola-Jarvi) Kelloselka' railroadoot-gnuge, single-tracknd continuesortheasterly directiontraight line to marker, locatedorest6 feet) southwestlearing that intersects the boundary .in the Sikakangas area. From here the border continuesortheasterly direction, turning slightly more to the cast, crosses what appear to be three winter roads (presumabjy swamp area traversable when frozen over) north of markers, and continues to markern the left bank of the sallajoki ^aila-ioki7 Riverorthern part). In this sector the boundary crosses Kiekioja Brook (ditch) between markers- The border then extends along the middle of the Sallajoki River to markerl, aituated on the right bank of the river, before intersecting the Kuolajarvi-Kctala road between markers2 In this whole sector there are numerous forest lanes on both sides of the border.

*It has recently been reported that the USSR hasection of railway track for at0 yards on its side of the Finnish-Soviet border eastward from Kelloselka1.

From marker3 the boundary goesortheasterly course toeterseet) northeast ofath northeast of Koltaanharju Ridge. umber of forest lanes intersect the boundary, as wellinter road (south of markerath (south of. From marker9 the boundary continues in the same direction.two lanes (at markers0ndrail or path between markers3U and again between4 North of this point the boundary crosses the Tennljoki (appears as Tennitt Joki /Tenlye-yokiJ oneries) River at marker6 (Savukoskl;outheast corner). This sector iswamp and bog area with sparse

woods. Pros the Tenuis Joki River the boundary continues In Bdirection toxeoJa,(Aayay&armeoy) Stream, between marker*8nd than on to markerocated on the northwestof Sllltunturi*art of the forest where there are few trees. Prom this point the border follows acourse along the Sataijoki River between markers8learing at marker The boundary then crosses Lake Sateijarvi (at marker, continues to marker9eneral northeasterly direction, and then bends along the middle of the TenniB Joki (Teimibjokl) Rivero markerituated in the middle of the river- This marker is* kilometersiles) southwest of the intersection of the boundary by the Sorsajoki River- mall lake, Siutoivalampl, appears on the Finnish side of the border oneries. Between markers5orest lane cuts diagonally across the boundary.

From the Sorsajoki River the border extendsortheasterly direction,learing south of marker5 andon to marker No.located at tbe edge of the5 feet)ather high elevationeet) on the Finnish side. Continuingeneral northeasterly courae the borderane at markernd continues to, located on the right bank of thentaa-yokl7 River01 feet) from tbe shoreline. From here the boundary goesorth-northeasterly direction to Jaurakkioja (jaurukkloja) Stream) and then on to marker, at which point it crossea Luuntaittumaojn Streamuuataltt Stream, or Brook, Is shown on the Finnish side oneries). The boundary continueetraight line from Luuntalttumaoja (marker) to marker, located on Mount Puitsitunturl on the old state boundary between tbe USSR and Finland (Kandalaksha;n this sector the border passes through predominantly swampy land andmall unnamed lake between boundary markers.

Sector No.yjltunturl to Korvatunturl Mountain:

At marker, the boundaryurn in adirection and follows the old Soviet-Finnish boundary to marker. North of Mount Puitsitunturl the border intersects Papuliaura (Po-puhaara) Stream (Savukoskl; HQortheast

"The Finnish ending "tunturi means barren arctic mountain or hill (found primarily north of the Arctic Circle).

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corner) and then crosses the Hirvasjoki Riveroint southeast of marker. At Mount Nuorttitunturihe boundary turns slightly oore to the north butenerallycourse, passing through swamp regions and areas of coniferous forests to marker, Korvatunturl Mountain (Vlrtaniemij- In this sector the boundary crosses the TOrmaoja Tb'rmffjoki) and Nuortljoki (Nuorttijoki) Rivers, Korvuspuolivaara Bill, and an unnamed brook south of marker. Korvatunturl Mountain Is5 kilometersiles) north of Nuortljoki River.

Sector Ho.orvatunturl Mountain to KrokfJell Mountain:

In this extreme northern areahe Fechanga sector (Murmanskaya Ob last)the boundary line is identical with theorder, which is tbe same as that between the former Grand Duchy of Finland and Tsarist Russia.* From markerhe boundary continuesorthwesterly direction to the JauriJokl ^auri-Ioki7 Riveristance of5 kilometers (aboutiles). In this heavily wooded sector the border passes through some swampland and crosses several streams. Continuing in the same directionew kilometers the boundary reaches Talkkunapaa' Pointelevationeet) before turningorth-northwesterly direction. Talkkunapaa and the surrounding territory are shown oneriesarren area devoid of woodland (possibly an area of bedrock).

From here the boundary extends forilometersiles) to the Aaddar (Anterijoki) /Anterl-IokiJ Riverrosses the river, and continuesorthwesterly direction. Intersecting several small streams flowingroup of lakes on the Finnish side, principally Lake Kiertama'Jarvi. North of this sector the boundary passesone of birch brush. eries shows another area similar to that of Talkkunapaa' minus the forested cover of the surrounding region. The boundary follows the came northwesterly course forilometerst vhich point it crosses the Lutto ^Lutto-YoklJ) On the northwestern shore of the river, on the Finnish side,aja Jooseppl Hut, where the borderain winter road. Two trails also appear to the southeast of the river, on the Soviet side. The boundary continuesorthwesterly

demarcation maps and protocols for this portion of the boundary are not available. AMSheet, Virtanieml; Ketzbild von PetBamoj and three sheets of Suomen Taloudell irn_>r;r) were used in describing this sector (see Maps of the Boundary,.

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direction forilometerstlee)arren point,ith an elevation ofeet.

Prom Suorsapaa" the boundaryortheasterly course to an arctic mountain, Konnostunturi, situatedirch-shrub zone at an elevation ofeet. In this sector the boundary crosses the Kirvausjoki River and the southeastern tip of Lake Hippisjfirvi (Kiepsajaur) leaving most of Lake Madaashjaur /Ozero Madsash-Iaur/ on the Soviet side. rail intersects the border about halfway between the lake and river,mall lake (possibly.Rautalampi) crossing the boundary line southwest of. From here the boundaryortheasterly courseegion of lakes,tream flowing from Lake Sulkusjarvi, and reaches the base point of the Finnish-Soviet boundary at markerhich ls setlearing on rocky*6 feet) north of boundary marker3 (fixed by demarcation documents. The coordinates of boundary marker.

From marker No.the boundary extendsest-northwest directionocky region to marker> sethe north slope of an unnamed hill. Continuing in the same direction the boundarywampy depression and rises along the rocky eastern slope of the Calkokotamaa Range to markerocated on its summit. From here the boundary extends in adirection along tbe steep western Blope of the Calkokotaiaaa Range, crosses the southern part of Lake Eastern Calkolampi, and continuesilometer (aboutile) to markerituatedlearing on the isthmus between Eastern and Western Calkolampi. The boundary then goes In the same west-northwest direction, touches the north shore of Lake Eastern Apilampi, andwamp before reaching markerocatedocky clearinglight elevation. est-northwest course to markerhe boundary Intersects Lake Kottilaaipl, then continueseight east of the shore of Lake Vipuja'rvi (Tshuhts-jorvi). At this point It crosses the lake, leaving one email unnamed island on the USSR side and three unnamed islands on the Finnish side.

is the initial point of the border between Finland and the USSR in the region of the Yaniskoski Hydroelectric Power Plant and the Niskakoski Control Dam. In order to conduct field demarcation work the area was divided into two sectionshe7 kilometers (ll miles) long, marked by Finland, and the6iles) long, marked by the USSR.

The boundary then continues to markeret upeterseet) west of the shore of Lake Vlpu-jervi beforeirect cut-through west, crossing aandmall unnamed lake on the USSR side, to marker From here the boundary goes along the same course, crosses two depressions, and extends to the southern slope of the Caloselka Ridge (marker. Continuingesterly direction for* kilometersiles) the boundarythree bays on the southern part of Lake Sortojorvi before reaching markerocatedlearing on an unnamed rockyeterseet) from the western shore of the lake. From marker8 the boundaryesterly course, crosses an unnamed brook and swamp, and continues to marker

Turningorthwesterly direction, the boundary then passesocky area andideection of cut forest,mall lake, Rakkalampl, to markerituatedlearing on the western slope of an unnamed height. 6 mile) farther on in the same direction is markerocatedlearing on rocky ground. In this area the border crosses the Pechenga-Rovaniemi (Arctic) Highwaynd the Pasvikelv> Virtaniemi /Virtaniyemi/is located at the point at which the border intersects the Arctic Highway (shown oneries). From marker8 the boundaryorthwesterly course along the southwestern rocky slope of the Mustikkavaara Mountains to markerituatedlearing on the southern slope. This boundary marker is the terminal point of the southern section ond is the base point of the northern section.

From boundary markerhe borderirect cut-through northeast by east to markerU, crosses an unnamed stream flowing from Lake JoutGcnjarvest, and passesilly region to markeret uplearing on an8 feet) -southwestrassy swamp. From here thecontinues in the same directionew kilometers to markerituatedlearing on the southeast slope of the Suovaselka Range. ortheasterly course, the boundaryirect cut-through along the northeast slope of the Suovaselka Range,mall unnamed lake an the USSR side. It thenepression and on unnamed stream before continuing in the some direction to marker At this point ita stream (Ristikurunojan)eep ravine, leaving an unnamed lake on the Finnish side.

From marker2 to markerilometersiles)he boundary crosses numerous wide.

6 hai lev depressions. From marker7 the border takes acourse to tbe southeastern slope of the Sakklselka Mountains (marker, descends along the northeastern slope of the mountains, crosses Sakkiaelanoja Stream, aad then climbs along the southwestern slope of an elevationenchmarketerseet) to markerOO. Continuingortheasterly direction forilometersiles) to Darker, the boundary passesumber of depressions,ooded footpath, and Intersects an unnamed stream. Between markershe boundaryirect cut-through northeaat,ew depressions and unnamed elevations. From markerhe boundary, continuingortheasterly course,wampy depression to markerO, situatedlearinglight elevation8 feet) Bouthwest of Lake Luppojarvenlompolo. The boundary then Intersects lake Luppojarven-lompolo,avine (at murkernd descends along the northeastern slope of an unnamed elevation to markern this sector ofilometershe border passesvampy depressionmall unnamed lake. From markerl6 the boundaryirect cut-through northeast to marker, then crosses an unnamed streamumber of rocky depressions and spurs of Krokf Jell. Mountain to the KrokfJeU boundaryarking the trl-Junction of the Soviet, Finnish, and Norwegian boundaries.

C. Boundary Harklnp, Administration, and Security

The boundary line between Finland and the Soviet Union In the territory between the Gulf of Finland and the trljunctlon of the frontiers of Finland, Norway, and the USSR is in moat places marked by two boundary posts of wood; stone, or masonry or by two stone mounds, one on each side of the boundary,eters from the line.* In some Instances, one stone mound or wooden post whose center coincides with the actual boundary Line is used. Along much of theorder the markers are cairns and natural stones or rocks. In the3iles) of the boundary in the Yaniskoskl-Niakakosklession) arearkers, ofre stone,re pairs of wooden posts,hree-posted marker. Boundary markers are located at all important spots, 6uch as railroad and road crossings, inhabited areas, and the shores of the principal water bodies. In some straight stretches of the boundary the poutsilometers apart, in other sections theyilometers apart, and In oporsely populated regions they

sources for the physical description and marking of07 Finnish-USSR boundary are the Protocols.

are within visible range of one another. The last arrangementspecially common along the old-domain border. Turning-point markers of wood or stone,entimeterseet) high, are placed on the boundary line where it departstraight line.

The course of the land boundary in forested areas is indicatedlearing on each aide of the border. The width of this cleared strip in the Salla and southeast sectors0 boundaries)eterseet) on each Bide,otal width ofeters. In the central and upper sectors (the old-domain borders) and in the Tanlskoakl-Niskakoskl region the boundary atrip2 feet) wide on each side of the line, measured from the boundary to the treeinn!ah-Soviet agreement9 provides that this strip shall be kept In proper condition and cleared of brushwood and other growth interfering with visibility, gjj/

In sectors where the boundary crosses lakes, rivers, or streams the Line is marked by two posts or two stone mounds, one on each shore or one on one shore and one on an island. In certain instances, three posts, situated at various distances from each other, denote tbe transition of the boundary lineandater sector (or from water to land). According to the survey agreement for4 old-domain boundary, which is presumably applicable also to0 boundary,ector that passesody of water has not been clearly defined, the following principles are to be applied: If the boundaryiver in which the main channel can be determined, the line extends along tho deepest channel bed (the thalweg). In the smaller rivers, the boundary line runs inanner that at mean water level each point Is at an equal distance from the shore of each country, figured from the nearest spot on the mainland an each side or on an island or rock that Is permanently above water level. Where it runsake, the boundarytraight line connecting the points at which the land boundary touches the edges of the lake. Ownership of islands or rocks by one country or the other is determined with reference to the boundary line. iver or stream that formerlyatural boundary changes its channel, the boundary remains asdetermined. In cases where changes In the shores threaten to shift the river channel or the water course, the state that would suffer damage or Inconvenience fromhift has the right to take preventive

The enumeration of markers of0 boundary is from south to north according to sectors. The numbers of the boundary markers are written as fractions, of which the numerator (designatedoman numeral) represents the number of the sector and the denominator (an Arabic numeral) Is the serial number of the boundary marker. The

- &

old-domain boundary markers are designated by Arabic numeral only; and numbers of the markers in the fanlskoski-Siskakoskl area are preceded by the letter A.

The height of the boundary posts above the ground6eet). The cross section of the posts6 inches)ide, SlJ except on the old-dommln boundary, where the cross section is8 inches) square. Each post Is cappedyramid. To increase the stability of the posts, two crosspieces, approximately6 feet) long, are nailed at right angles to the bottom part of each post onQ border but not on the old-domain boundary. The posts are seteter below tbe surface of the ground. Buried under the center point of each poet on0 boundary are pieces of glass, charcoal,tones; under those of the old-domainones are placed. ound of earth5 Inches) high ls built up around each post and covered by turf, brick, or stone. Water -moldings around tbe bottom of the posts are used on0 boundaries only.

On the Finnish side, the posts were originally painted all white.owever, with Soviet approval, the Finns changed to stripes of white and "official" blue. In all sectors of the Finnish boundary, the posts are probably now painted with horizontal blue and whlta stripes,entimetersnches) in width. On tbe Soviet side, the posts are painted with alternate vermilion and greenstripes the same width as the sides of the post. Thus painted, the posts on both sides of the border should be clearly visible when the ground Is covered with snow.

On some of the markers on the Finnish side the numbers are painted with black enamel directly on the posts. In other sections of theheet-metal plate measuring6nches) is attached to each post. This plate la treated with rust preventive ond painted white with black enamel numbers. On all sections of the boundary facing the Soviet Union, boundary shields or plaques are attached to thenches) from the lower edge of the pyramid. These boundary plaques are made of cast iron with black edgesase of red enamel on which Finland's coat-of-arms (the lion) Is embossed and painted in gold. On the USSR posts is the Russianreaththe hammer and sickle. In tbe Yaniskoski-Kiskakoskl area, boundary-marker numbers on the wooden posts are blackhiteon the Finnish side and whitereen background on tbe Soviet side. Turning-point markers are painted white whereverbut stone or masonory posts are unpointed.

Maintenance of boundary markers (wooden and atone pasta, earth and stone mounds, signs of alignment, and others) inay that their location, appearance, form, size, and coloring conform to all requirements has been agreed to by Finland and the USSR. The care of boundary Barkers is divided between the two countries. Each country maintains the markers on its own territory; responsibility for thoBe placed exnetly on the line of the land frontier is divided, the even-numbered markers being cared for by the USSR and the odd-numbered by Finland. In case of loss, destruction, or damageoundarythe nation on whose territoryarker is located or to whom it is assigned shall take immediate measures for Its restoration or repair.

The boundary between Finland and the USSRclosedhis means that boundary crossings are restricted to the -'nlMM The Soviet Union is meticulous In securing the inviolability of its own side of the border, and It has concluded precise agreements with Finland regarding the frontier zone. elt of4 miles) wide along the border on the Soviet sidei is under the absolute control of the People's Commissariat of the' Interior. Adjacent toilometer beltkilometerlle) zone that can be entered only with special police permission.

The attitude of the Finns toward the problem of guarding the border is quite different from that of tho Soviets. It would beestriction of Individual liberty to prevent Finnish civilians from living in close proximity to the border. Because of the geopolitical position of Finland, however, the Government does all it can to prevent illegal border crossings by its nationals and has placed warning signs along the roads (Figures. An example of Its efforts to prevent violations of the Soviet boundaryecentlyoot-high reindeer fence that extendsiles along the Lapland section of the Finnish-Soviet border. (The exact termini of the fence are not known.)

The needinnish border guard first arose when Finland succeeded In obtaining Its independence. ivil frontier patrol was then established, which was later integrated into the Finnish armed forces. During World War II the Finnish Border Guard was used as the backbone for the organization of new military units.

The present Border Guard is composed of regular array officers and volunteers who are directly under the operational control of the Minister of Interior. The Guard is commandedajor general of the Finnish Army, located in Belelnkl, who is assistedead-quarters staff ofersons. The total strength of the Border Guard

-

iTtif; t

.

is believed toallith its main concentrations in the following areas: (l) Southeast Finland (Karelianorthern boundary of Porkkalaortheast Finland (SovietU) western sectors along Norwegian and Swedish borders-

The nucleus of the Border Guard consists of personnel with long service who have Joined the Guard on completion of their military service but before reachingears of age. These men must have at least an elementary-school education, must Join the Guardinimumear, and must belong to the Army Reserve. Conscripts may be assigned to service with the Border Guard Instead of with the Defense Forces, and are usually stationed near their respective home districts. Officers and noncommissioned officers may be detached from the Defense Forces for duty with the Guard. Recruits for the Border Guard are frequently obtained through newspaper advertising.

The functions and activities of the Border Guard are prescribed, by laws and regulations pertaining to the Guard Itself and by other legislation on related matters, such as the border zone. Some of the principal duties of the Guard are: (l) the surveillance of the boundary and prevention and reporting of unauthorized crossings;

prevention and detection of contraband traffic across the border;

the prohibition of any activities in the border zone which may create borderare and maintenance of boundaries, boundary fences, boundary zones, and boundary markers andesponsibility for maintaining liaison with the border officialseighboring country;he settlement of border disputes and incidents with neighboring border authorities.

The Finnish Border Guard is under orders not to observe any happenings on the Soviet side of the border, but merely to safeguard the border from violation from the Finnish side. They are interested primarily in activities that are directed against or might be harmful to the security of Finland.

Radio communication ls maintained between headquarters and units of the Border Guard, which in turn have subsidiary radio nets down to conmanieo and posts. At present thereadio stations inn the Coast Guard andn the Border Guard. and lower echelons ore connected by private telephones. Telegraphic communications and visual signals are utilized whenever possible.

Transportation needs of the Border Guard are met by making use of bicycles, horses,assenger-on trucks, and man-drawn"boat sledges" during the winter. Skis are standard equipment for all land-based Guard units.

The USSR guards Its border with Finland primarily by patrolling. Soviet patrols have been observed along the entire length oforder, even in the most remote sections- In winter, members of such patrols wear white snowsuits and arc equipped with skis. The complementatrol in the northern area is usually 1officeren, but occasionally it may have as manyen. In the summer, Soviet patrols have been known to make their rounds after midnight, accompanied by trained dogs. Each boundary post is inspected by the patrol.)

The Soviet Border Guard is perpetually alert, suspicious, and highly disciplined. Over-all training includes the art of forming ambuscades, as well as the careful observation of occurrences on the Finnish side of the border.

Soviet lookout posts supplement the patrols- It has been reported that in the Petsamo border region and farther south in the Salla area lookout posts are so numerous that they seem to form an unbroken chain. erpetual watch is maintained in important areas, such as those where there are roads, but not in the more remote regions. The security of the Arctic Highway, which is within the frontier zone, la the responsibility of the MGB Border Guardsnd the zone here is well patrolled.

In the more thickly populated areas along the southern sector of theoot barbed-wire barriers have been erected. is not available to indicate the length of this fence or the length of the gap between it and the recently built Finnish reindeer fence. It was noted recently, however, that Soviet defense activities on all Finnish borders have been speeded up.

D. tops of the Boundary

The exact location of the present Finnish-USSR boundary is best shown on the official demarcation maps. Those of the Mixed Boundary Commissionn list at end of section) show the exact position of the boundary line and topographic detail within the boundary strip. The five sections of the boundary Involved in the terms of cession under the Treaty of Peace0 are shown on the following sheets of0 demarcation map Sectionectionheetsectionheetsheetsection. epict tbe lOJtO border from the Gulf of Finland (marker) to Lake Virmajarvi (marker) on the "oldhose sectors of the Finnish-Soviet boundary not affected by0 changes). how0 boundary from markeriv/l) on the old-domain border at Lake Klnnusenjarvi to

bet

markert Mount Puitsitunturi (north of markerhe Salla sector. The coverage of the border area at the scaleSheetsndhows the course of the boundary in the central sector (marker*) and the upper sector (markers) of the oldinnish-Soviet border.

Official large-scale demarcation maps are not available for the section of the boundary from Korvatunturi (marker) to the Initial marker of the Yaniskoski-Niskakoski borderU) and then to KrokfJell, the meeting point of the present territories of tbe USSR, Norway, and Finland. The border in this northernmost region i* Identical with theoundary with the exception of the area of7 cession (Yanlskoski-Niskakoski). Maps at amUer, andere used in describing this portion of the boundary.

Two Army Map Service series3 andogether cover the entire Finnish-Soviet frontier, and these were used in conjunction with the demarcation and other maps, although theiris limited because of the small scale.

The land boundary InO Finnish-Soviet frontier of the Karelian sector is given in great detailinnish sheets. However, theorder atrips show the Finnish side of the boundary only, end orientation is difficult.

Large-scale Soviet maps produced since the USSR acquired Pechenga und Yaniskoski-Nlskakoski are not available. The presentboundary of the Pechenga area (identical with thooundary of the Grand Duchy of Finland) Id shownaput essential detail is omitted.

The entire ceded area in the extreme northern section of tbe boundary (Yaniskoski-Nlskakcskl) is portrayed on the, whereas on0 printednly the Finnish side is presented.

The official demarcation maps are supplemented by descriptive protocols.

1- Karta Gosud&rstvennoy GranltBy Soyuza Sovetuklkh Sotsialiatichesklkhlnlyandileuvosto Tasavaltojen Llltoa Ja Suomen Valtak.inrar. Raj ani Kartta) (Map of the State Boundary Bctvcen the Soviet Socialist Republic and6 sheetsn Russian andIA Map Library Call-

Kartta Suomen Tasavallan Ja Soslallstlgtenor. VSllF-esta" Va ltakjp.nar.ra/asta Laatokasta Pohjoisecn JiflincrccnuSotslallstichcskikhir.lyar.di.koy Rescubllkoy ot Ladozfa-Skogo Csera Do Sev.keanaJ (Map of the Finnish Republic and the USSR. Revision of the National Boundary from Lake Ladoga to the Arctic7 sheets, in Finnish, title and legend in Finnish and Russian;IA Map Library Call.

; Army Map Serviceheets Nob., VLrtanlcmi, andMS Library Call No..

Hctzblld von;3IA Map Library Call.

5- Suomen Talcudelllnen; /Finnish/ MaanaittauaholUtus (General Surveyheets,,,IA Map Library Call.

6. Kartta Jahlskosk^ii Veolvclmalaltoksen Ja Nlakakoiicri Saannostclypadun; photostat; InIA Hap Library Call.

7- Eastern; Anry Han ServiceMS Library Call No..

8. Uusl Valtak-mnonrajaunnes raja naastossa; inIA Map Library Call.

he railroad station at Vainikkalased regularly for traffiche border.

iew from the Iraatran Valtlonhotteliiooking toward the east and the Finnish-USSR border in the distance.

Figurehe Finnish-USSR border in the vicinity of Siopele. The Like in the background, probably SIrapclenjarvi, separates the two countries.

III. Poland-USSR Border

A. History of the Boundary

At the close of Worldnith theof the victorious Allies, Poland became an independent republic. The Paris Peace Conference9 provided for the establishment of the western and southern boundaries of Poland. In general along ethnic lines. The eastern boundary presented moreroblem because of the mixed nature of the population In that area. In9 the Supreme Council of the Allied Powersine within which the Polish Government could organize Its administration. This boundary became known as the "Con-zoo Line" the following year, when Lord Curzon proposed that it become the armistice line between Polish and Soviet forcea.* Before the Supreme Council's announcement, two alternative lines had been suggested as southern extensions of the provisional boundary through Eastern Gallels. One of these ran to the east of L'vovhus including that town in Poland; the otheronsiderable distance to the west of L'vov. Neither of these two lines was embodied in the Supreme Council's9 boundary, but the eastern line was shown on the map accompanying the announcement and later was popularly accepted as part of the Curxon Line. The present boundary is in some respects similar to the alternative western

Drawn on ethnic principles, the Supreme Council line excluded from Poland large areas inhabited by Lithuanians, Bclorusslans, and Ukrainians. The Supreme Council, however, intended only that this line should describe tho minimum eastern extension of Poland; it was not the purpose to prevent the Polish and Soviet Governments from agreeinginal boundary farther to the east. The Polish Government had, in fact, Insisted upon the territorial limits2 (before the first partition ofnd after Polish forcesthe forces of Soviet Russia, Poland received most of its claims by the Treaty of Riga, id In accordance withf the Treaty of Riga, the eastern frontier was to follow plans drawn up by tbe Polish-Soviet Delimitation Commission andin the General Pinal Protocol of the Commission signed 3l/ The new boundary of Poland ran southeast from the Latvian frontier, then generally due south, passingiles) west of Minsk theniles) east of Pinsk. In the neighborhood of Ostrog the line turnedsouthwest and continued in that direction forilometers

Curzon Line is also in part identical with the westernof the Polish territories annexed by Russia in the Third Partition of Poland

(aboutiles)- Then it turned due south again to tbe Zbrucz River, which it followed to its Junction with the Dniester JpnentrJ. In Paris inhe Conference of Ambassadors of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers recognized the boundary line as delimited by the two countries on

At the close of the Polish-Soviet Warhe Polish Government seized the Wilno region from Lithuania, laterit into Poland. 3 the Conference of Ambassadors officially allotted Wilno to Poland, an act that touchedontroversyPoland and Lithuania that continued

Onhe USSRonaggression pact with Germany, andeptember Hitler invaded Poland,World War IT. On IT9 the Soviet armies crossed the eastern frontier of Poland, and by the end of the month the German-Soviet conquest of Poland was complete. The treaty signed on9 by Foreign Ministers von Ribbcntrop and Molotovommon German-Soviet frontier resulting in the fourth partition of The Ribbentrop-Molotov line ran due west from the tip of Lithuania to the frontier of East Prussia, giving Germany the city and district of Suwaj!ki. The line continued along the East Prussian frontier to Ostrojteka, then southeast to the Bug River, along the Bug via Brest (Brest-Litovsk) toown north of L'vov, and then almost due west to tbe San River, which it followed to Its source on the border of Ruthenia. Inhe USSR ceded to Lithuania the disputed territory of Wilno.*

*This area was later incorporated into the USSR as part of the Lithuanian SSR.

At the Yalta Conference inhe Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) agreed that Poland's eastern boundary should be moved westward from its prewar line to the old Curzon Lineith some digressions in favor of Poland. / For this loss of territory to the USSR, Poland was to be compensated at the expense of Germany. At the Potsdam Conferencehe Big Three agreed to terms whereby Poland lost approximatelyquare miles of Its prewar territory in the east to the USSR and received provisionally0 square miles in the west from the former German provinces of Silesia, Pomerania, and East and West Prussia. The northern part of East Prussia was placed under Soviet administration and the southern part under Polish administration. Thetated that

pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement the section of the western frontier of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should passoint on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east north of Braunsbcrg-Goldapo the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania and East Prussia-Regarding Poland's western frontier and southern East Prussia it wua stated that

pending the final determination of Poland's western frontiers the former German territories eastine running from the Baltic Sea isoediately west of Swineaundend thence along the Oder River to the confluence of the western Helsse River and along the western Xelsse to the Czechoslovak frontier, including that portion of East Prussia not placed under the administration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with the understanding reached at this conference and including the area of the former free City of Danzig, shall be under the administration of the Polish State.

On l65 Poland and the USSR concluded atreaty on the Polish-Soviet frontier, as well as on agreement on the question of compensation for damages caused by the German occupation. The new state border as described in this treaty followed the Curzon Line and the westernmost of its southern extensions through former Eastern Gallets with the exceptionew deviations3 toiles) each. The principal deviations were In the vicinity of Grodno and Przemysl, where they were in favor of th* Soviet Union, and in the Jalowks-Nlemirow sector and the area along the Western Bug and SoXokija Rivers south of the town of Kry/ow, where they were in favor of Northeast of Suwa/ki the new line corresponded with the prewar Polish-Lithuanian boundary. The treaty further stated that,inal peace conference, in conformity with the decisions of the Potsdam Conference part of the Polish-Soviet frontier adjoining the Baltic Sea was to pass from the Bay of Danzig eastward, north of the cities of Braniewo and Goloap, to the point where the Polish, Lithuanian, and East Prussian boundaries met. f the treaty providedixed Polish-Soviet Commission for the demarcation of tbe frontier, within Warsaw. Upon completion of its work in the field, the members of the Commission signed the delimitation documents on

The Polish-Soviet border as delimited by the treaty ofas slightly altered by an agreement signed in Moscow on1 by Poland and the Soviet Union, which resulted in the mutual exchangequare kilometersquare miles) of territory between the two nations. Polandtrip of land near the southernmost section of the Polish-Soviet frontieroint where the San River had been the boundary, including the town of Ustrzyki Dolne- The USSR, in turn, received an area of land along the Sojtollja and Bug Rivers to the west of the town of/ Two agreements were signed by representatives of Poland and the USSR inne of which established theto be applied in marking the boundary and the other theand procedures for boundary administration. An agreement was signed1 modifying8 agreements in order to conform to the situation created by the two border rectifications of that year (see accompanying, 4

B. Linear Description of the Boundary

1. Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuanian Sector*

The boundary between Poland (Polish-administered East Prussia) and Kaliningrad Oblast (Soviet-administered East Prussia) begins on the Baltic shore of the sand spit, Mlerzeja Wislana (Frische Hehrung) (see accompanying The line crosses this sand spittraight northwest-southeast line, touching the eastern shoreoint8 miles) north of the Polish settlement of Nova Karczma (Neukrug)t the eastern shore of the sand spit, the boundary turns to east-southeast and crosses the lagoon Zalew Wialany (Frisches Haff)traight line.

The boundary intersects the mainlandointiles) northeast of the Polish settlement of Pas/eka

the description of this sector of the Polish border, the place-name forms are, wherever possible, those used on the Bide of the border on which the place or feature is located. For many places on the Soviet side, however, the Russian name Is not available, and in such cases the Polish name, if known, is given, followed by the old German name in parentheses. If only the German name is known, it is given in parentheses.

indices for places in the entire Polish border area refer to AMS. For an explanation of the key, see footnote, page 8.

) and Juot north of the southmall BtreaiB that runs northeast of and parallels the stream Pas/eka (passarge). The boundary continues overland, crossing the stream Omaza5 miles) northwest of the PolishZelazna Gora (Klsenberg) In the aectlon from tho coast to the Omaza, the boundary is crossed by the Braniewo (Braunsberg)-Kaliningrad (Kbolgebcrg) railroad, the Braniewo-Kallningrad main road,econdary road leading from the Polish settlement of Lipovina (Undenau) The boundary also crosses the stream Bahnau andhort distance parallels theHeiligenbeil)-TBinten (Zlnten) railroad. It is probable that very little traffic circulates across tbe border over any of the routes discussed. The following boundary crossings are given in west-to-east order:

A road crosses from Zelazna Gora to Masonovo.

The main roadormer Relchsajtobahn) from the west to Kaliningrad crossesoint southwest of the Soviet settlement Tyrowo (Thierau)

The Omaza River loops northward near Tyrowo, crouslng the boundary three times.

A road from the Polish settlement of Jachowo (Hansvalde)) crosses to Tyrowo and Mamonovo-

Two small streams cross the boundary south of the Soviet settlement (Eermsdorf)

South of Tslnten) the boundary passes Just south of the Junction point of two railroadsone from thefrom the Polish city of Orneta, the other from the southeast, from Lidzbark Uarminski; from the Junction point the railroad runs north to Tslnten.

the policy of evacuating the populationonsiderable depth on either side of the boundary has been carried out along the Polish-Soviet frontier, as has been done along some other Soviet frontiers, it is possible that many of the settlements or villages mentioned in this description may now be uninhabited. Sinceowever, the Ukrainian authorities havearge-scale compulsory resettlement program in the former Polish-Soviet frontLer area.

is the most recent Soviet name for this town. In the earlier years of Soviet occupation, the Soviet name appeared aa Kheyligenbeyl.

k^pk

he main Orneta-Tsinten road crosses the border Just east or the Orneta-Tsinten railroad.

In the sector from the coast to the vicinity of Tsinten, the boundary traverses low, open country withew scattered patches of woodland. Many small streams and, near the coast, omall canals or ditches cross the boundary. Before the boundary wan, there were aboutmall settlements In the border urea, and houses and buildings were distributed with fair uniformity. The border zone here and elsewhere along the Polish-Soviet boundary is probably almost uninhabited at present, and it is possible that many of the buildings that were near the line have been removed.

Proa the road and railroad crossings south of Tsinten, tha boundary line continuesenerally west-east direction. It extends for aboutilometers (l4 miles)oint8 miles) south of the Soviet town Bagrationovsk (Pr Eylau) In this section, tbe following roads cross the boundary:

A road from the Polish settlement Kandyty (Canditten)) torunch of which leads east to the Soviet settlement Bassiten (Hosltten)

Several secondary roads in the Kamiensko Forest (Porat Preusaloch Eylau) sector, through which the boundary runs forilometersiles) In the area southeast of Bassiten.

The Olsztyr.-Xaliningrad aain road, which crosses thesouthwest of Bagrationovsk.

The terrain is considerably more rolling and broken in this sector than to the east. The Kamiensko Forest occupies high ground east or Bagrationovsk, and another large forested tract,etached part of the Kamiensko PoreBt, ls on the Polish side of thehort distance south of Bagrationovsk. PrewarIn this sector was not quite as dense as to the east, although there were many buildings some distance to the north and south or the immediate border zone.

The boundary continues eastward for oboutilometers (nearlyrossing the Bartozyce (Bartenstein)-Keliningrad main road and railroad. It intersects the Bartoryce-Pravdinsk (Frledland) railroad and main road near the settlement of Shenbrukh (Schbnbruch) From.south of Shenbrukh the boundary runs eastward for aboutiles) and intersects the Olsztyn-

ailroad and the Olsztyn-Znomensk naln road5 mllea) south of the Soviet town of Zheleznodorozhnyy (Gerdauen) In this sector the line crosses the &na (Alle) River6 miles) cast of Shenbrukh. The Polish settlement Lipowo (Lindenau)) lies near the boundaryilometersiles) east of the Ryna- From the road and railroad intersections south of Zheleznodorozhnyy, the boundary continues in an easterly direction to the town of Nordenbork (Korden-burg)hich appears to be on the Soviet side of the boundary.

The boundary sector from Shenbrukh to Sordenbork traverses undulating, open land Interspersed with small patches ofairly large woodland area lies on the Soviet aide northwest of Nordenbork. Thereumber of small settlements near this sector of the boundary in the prewar period.

From Nordenbork the boundarytraight line bearing slightly north of cast to the northern end of the (Goldaperilometers north of Gojteap. In this long sector there ere now no sizable towns near the boundary, though there were many small settlements in the prewar period. West of Nordenbork thecrosses the aanal-Mazurski, which, with its extensions, connects lake Rydzowskle in Poland with the tyno River in Soviet territory. On theeries this canal is not shown as crossing the boundary. The boundary crosses the Wpgorapa (Angorapp) Riverilometersiles) south of the Soviet town of Ozersk (Darkenmen)

Between Nordenbork and Goldap the major road and railroad crossings are as follows:

Wcgorzewo-Zheleznodorozhnyy railroad crossing,5 miles) east of Nordenbork;

Wegorzevo-Theleznodorozhnyy main rood crossing at Rnuschen-feld (Reuschenfeld)

(Darkehmcn) railroad crossing

main road crossing

railroad crossing, cast of the main

Go/dap-Gusev (Gumblnnen) main road crossingiles) southeast of the Soviet settlement Plavlszki (Plawiachken);

Go/dap-Nesterov (stallupohen) railroad crossing, Just vest of tbe northern end of tbe Go Idaper See.

Free Nordenbork to the Gdldaper See tbe boundary traversesev small areas of woodland, mainly in tbe vicinity of Kovary (Kowarren). There are nearby woodland tracts of considerable size, however, one in Poland south of Nordenbork and tho lake Jezioro Nordenborskie (Nordenburgerecond, also in Poland, south of the place where the Wegorapa River crosses the line. The terrain is irregular, and local elevations are fairly high. The boundary passes over high ground east of Nordenbork, descends to the valley of the Wegorapa, then climbs to the highest elevation In this sector, about ISOOear the Goldaper See.

From the Goldaper See, the boundary extends eastwardorested area, the Puszcza Romlncka (Romlnteneror aboutilcoetcra (lU miles) to the vicinity of the Polish settlement of Zytklejay (Szlttkcheen) ranch line of the Goldap-NcBterov railroad crosses the boundary Just vest of Zytklejay. The boundary apparently followstraight course through the forest, slightly north of east. Forilometersiles) in the central part of the forest, itoad called the Goldaper-Teerbuden Weg on theeries. In the western part of the Puszcza Romlncka Forest, the boundary is crossed by several small streams, and thereew settlements and some cleared land in this area. From the vicinity of Zytklemy to the beginning of the Lithuanian boundary the terrain Is open and irregular. Outside Zytklemy and two other smaller settlements, scattered houses and buildings are rather evenly spaced.

From Zytklemy the boundary extends forilometers in an east-northeast direction to the point where It meets the Kaliningrad Oblast-Lithuanian SSR boundary,8 miles)of the lake J. Wisztynieckie (Vystiter See)ilometersiles) west of the Polish settlement of Wlzajny From this Junction point the Lithuanian boundary trends northeast for5hen curves around the northern end of Lake V'zajny and continuesirection slightly south of east for3 miles). Tbe Lithuanian settlement of Grafauskai) lies north of the boundary in this section. The boundary turns southwest forilometers, then southeast forilometers, passing south of the Lithuanian settlement of Liubavas In this section the line is crossed by the

river SheBhupc andecondary road leading from the Polish settle-ment Hutkatartak) to LIubavnu.

Ia the sector from the trlJunction of Poland, Kaliningrad Ob last, and Lithuania to the Sheshape there ls considerable high ground. Some of the snail streams that cross the boundary have rather steep-sided valleys, several of which are drained by chains of small lakes connected by creeks. There Is Marshy ground to tbe north-northwest of Jez Wizajny and along the Sheshupe. On the Soviet Bide immediately adjacent to the boundary are several fairly large patches of forest. Between two of these, the boundary skirts the southern shore of the small lake Dunajewo and buildings were rather uniformly dispersed in this sector before the war, Liubavas containing the only sizable cluster of buildings. etwork of secondary roads crossed the boundary, and there were apparently open fields In several places along the border.

FY cm the Sheshupe, the boundary parallels the streamributary of the Sheshupe, southwestward to the northern end of Lake Kupowo, passing to the northeastorest tract. The line then trends southeast for5hen curves northeastward for about the same distance; in this section it crosses tbe Suwa/ki-Kalvariya main road. The line runs southward for2hen turns east near the settlement of Trompolehich it apparently passes through. Thence It extendsirection slightly south of eastilometers, then southeast forilometersll.es). In this section,ointilometers northeast of the Polish settlement of Punakt intersects the railroad from Suwa/kl to Haryaiapole and Alitua.

The boundarylightly curving course eastward to Bereznlklasses through this settlement, andecondary road to the Polish town Sejny) from KBlvarlya. From Berezniki, the boundary follows an irregular courseeneral southeasterly direction to the northern shore of Lake Ga/adus,oad crosses from Poland to the Lithuanian town of Lnzdiyoi The boundary continues southward through Lake Ga/ndus for7oughly half the length of the lake.

The stream Szelmentka and the lake Kupowc, like the streams to the northwest, are in an entrenched valley. After traversing this valley, the boundary peases onto an upland of irregular topography. There are some marshy areas near the line,mall lake lies in an angle of the boundary near the Lithuanian settlement of Trompole. Several small tributaries of the Sheahupe drainage system flow across

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the line into Lithuania, and the boundary passes through oreries of small lakes before reaching Lake Ga&dus. As in the area to the northeast, buildings were rather evenly distributed in the prewar period and thereense network of secondary roads, many of which crossed the boundary.

Prom Lake Ga/adus, the boundary turns eastward on land andecondary road leading from Sejny to Lazdlyai. From the point where itcrosses this road, the line curves to thethen southeast, passing southwest of the Lithuanian settlement Janoslavas The Sejny-Lazdiyai main road crosses thehort distance northeastmall lake, Hozny, on the Polish side. The boundary continueseneral southerly direction, and after crossing the small lake Bo^oni it intersects the Suwa^kl-Alitus main road east of the Polish settlement Berznlki

The irregular terrain characteristic Df the boundary zone northwest of Lake Gajadus continues southeast of that lake to the vicinity of the Lithuanian settlement KuclUnaiouth of which elevations are lower and the surface is smoother. Southeast of Lake Gajadua the prewar buildings were grouped more definitely Into settlements than to the northwest.

From the intersection with the Suwalki-Alitus road, theextends southvestwardorested area foriles)econdary road running south from the Lithuanian settlement KLepociai In this forested tract the boundary is crossedoad extending southeastward from Sejny by way of Berznikl in Poland to Kapciamiestls) in Lithuania.

The boundary meets the Marycha Riverointiles) southeast of the Polish settlement Zelwa) and follows the course of the Marycha for3 miles) to the point of Junction of the boundaries of Poland, the Lithuanian SSR, and the Belorussian SSR, southwest of the Lithuanian settlement of Grickavas In this sector the land is cleared, and in prewar times buildings were spaced rather closely along both banks of the river, but on both the Polish and Lithuanian sides extensive forested tracts liehort distance of the stream. On the Polish side these tracts are part of the large forest, Puszcza Augustowska. The valley of the Marycha, where the boundary follows It, and the areas to the east and west are fairly flat and at lower elevations than the boundary zone to the north.

2. Belorusslan Sector*

The sector of the boundary between Poland and Belorussla may be divided into two parts. The longer northern oection extends across land or along snail streams from tbe point of Junction of the territories of Poland, the Lithuanian SSR, and the Belorusslan SSR to the Bug River. The second, or southern, section follows tbe Bug to the point where the Belorusslao-Ukrainlan boundary intersects the Polish boundary (see accompanying

The Polish-Belorussian border extends from the trijunction of the boundaries of Poland, Lithuania, and Belorussiaoutherly direction, bearing slightly to the east,oint on the Kanal Augustovski northeast of the Polish settlement of Kudawka In this sector, the boundaryorested areawith clearings. Tbe line continuesoutheasterly direction along the Kanal Augustowskl to its Junction with the stream Vo/kuszanka, which the boundary then follows for5 miles). Continuing southward over land, the boundary passes to the west of the Soviet settlement of Hofrcia Bear this village the line bends to the southeast, passes to the east of the Polish settlement of Rakowiczend again turns southward- After crossing the Augustow-Grodno highway, tbe boundary bears to the southeast, traversing the swampy area along the stream Popilja.

From this area the boundary continues its southeasterly course in an approximately straight line for aboutilometersmiles) to the vicinity of the Polish settlement of Kuiniearom north to south in this sector, tbe line intersects the Augustow-Grodno railroad, the Dabrowa-Grodno main road, the Soko^ka-Grodno railroad, and the Soko/ka-Grodno main road. The Augustow-Grodnois crossed by tho boundaryoint between the Bielany railroad station, which is in Poland, and theof the same name, which is in the USSR. The Soko/ka-Grodno railroad extends north from Kuinieahort distance before crossing into the USSR. In the vicinity of the boundary the railway parallels the stream jfosoena fZosottnaJ.

From near Kuznica to aboutiles) southeast, near the Swis^ocz ^Svlsloch_y7 Stream, the boundary againtraight line, passing to the east of the Polish settlements of

the descriptions of tbe Belorusslan and Ukrainian sectors of the Polish border, the place names uoed are these appearing on AMS. For places on the Soviet side, the Russian forms are given In brackets wherever possible, and alternate nomec arc in parentheses.

Ncwodzielinkowcend Krynki Several secondary roads from the Polish side of the line converge on the Soviet settlement Odelsk /odel'sk/pposite Krynki, on the Soviet side of the boundary is Porzecze oint south and east of Krynki the boundary turns southeastward, crossing first theributary of the Svis/ocz, and then the Swisjfocz itself. Between the two streams the ground is swampy.

The boundary follows the Swis/ocz southward (upstream) through swampy terrain for some distance. On the Polish side in this sector are the settlements of Ozierany Mlelkleobrownikind Swisjfoczanyn the Soviet side is the settlement Hofrnka and ^olynka7 Between Bobrowniki and Swisjtoczany the boundary stream is crossed by the main road and the railroad between Biajystok and Volkovysk.

The Swis/ocz rises in Soviet territory and flows first to the southwest, thenharp turn to the northwest^ At the turning point the boundary leaves the stream and continuesenerally southerly direction to the HaJnowka-Volkovysk railroadassing to the cast of the Polish settlement Ja^owka) and intersecting the railroad southwest of the Soviet settlementzbodlchi7 The boundary parallels the railroadhort distanceouthwesterly direction, then turns south, crossing the Ko/onna Stream and the marshy ground along it.

From the Kojfonna area, the boundary enters the Biajfowieska Forest, through whichonsiderable distance it trends southward and southwestward. It crosses an area of cleared land within the forest around the Polish settlement of Maslewohen continues southwardoint east of the Polish settlement Bia^owleza Here iteneralcourse, passing to the south of Bia/owieza. hort distance the boundary follows theributary of the Lesna Stream, and then turns briefly to the northwest along the Lesna. On leaving this stream the boundary curvesouthwesterly direction, emerging from the main part of the Bia/owleska Forest some distance to the north of the Soviet settlement ofelenets7 Within the forest the boundary is crossed by several narrow-gauge or tramway tracks, probably built for logging purposes. These lines radiate out from the vicinity of the Polish settlements of Bia^owieza and Hajnowka) to points on the Soviet side of the boundary.

On leaving the Bialowleska Forest the boundary continues to curveouthwesterly direction. In this sector the ltne passes

-7 e

to the east or southeast of the Polish settlements of Czeremchalukowiczend Niemlrou Another settlement, Tokaryies across the boundary hut probably mainly on the Polish side. On the Soviet side In this sector are the settlements of Omolaniec, Buszmicze ^ushndchl/nd Hola Thebetween Biclsk-Podlaski and Wysokle Lltevskle ^Vysoko-Lltovsk/ and the main road between Keszczele and Wysokle Lltevskle cross the boundary northwest of Hola-

The southern section of the Belorusslan border begins east of Niemircv,he bouniary ^'clns the Bug River. The boundary In the Bug Is now defined as following the middle of the stream,reference to the main or navigable channel (thalweg). In many instances the middle or median line in the central section of the river differs from the central line of the main channel. Theof river inlands presumably does not differ greatly from that agreed uponetween Germany and the Soviet Union- The Soviet Union probably retains most of the islands assigned to it inoundary agreements, and Poland probably holds most of the islands then assigned to Germany. The principal road and railroad crossings over the Bug River from Niemlrov south to the Ukrainian border are as follows:

Road crossing on the Janow Podlaakl-Kobrin route (Brazesc nad

One road nnd one railroad crossing at Brest, on theodlaska-Kobrln route

a minor road crossing at Koden

Crossingoad running eastward from Radzyn Podlaski to the north-south road paralleling the Bug on the Soviet sidetO).

Road crossing at Wfcdava on the Cheln-lCocrin route

Railroad crossing at Orchowo /OrkhovoJn the Chcjm-Brest railway.

At the time ofoundary survey, apparently the only bridges across the Bug on these routes that had not been removed or destroyed were the railroad bridge at Brsst and the road bridge at Koden.

3. Ukrainian Sector

The boundary between the Ukrainian SSR and the Belorus-sian SSR Joins the Polish-Soviet border on the Bug River several kilometers southeast of the Soviet town of Orehovo, todawa (see accompanying From this point, the Polish-Ukrainian boundary continues to follow the Bug River generally southwardoint southeast of the Polish town or Krylowistance ofilometersiles). In this sector, the boundary passesegion predominantly of swamp or To the west of the border are the Polish settlements of Sobiborberezeolka-Uhruskaubienkand Horodlo On the Soviet side lie the settlements cf Opalin) andtilug7 Numerous paths and cart tracks parallel the river on both sides of the boundary,inor road crosses the area east of Dubienka. The principal road andcrossings of the Bug River from WJ_odawa southward to where the boundary leave3 the river southeast of Ho/ubie) areain road between Hrubieszow ondrossing at Uscilug,ailroad crossing on the Zamosc-WJodzimlerz route

The boundary leaves the Bugoint southeast cf KoXubie* where the generally north-flowing riveride bend, then continues southward over land forilometersiles). It passes to the east of the Polish settlement of Honiatynear which the line turns to the southwestilometersiles)oint south of Oserdowhere it turns due west. In this sector the border cuts across patches of woodland and is intersected by many paths.

esterly course, then bearing to the southwest, the boundary crosses the Rzeezyca (Swynoryja) Stream andparallels the Rawa Ruska ^Ra va Russkaya7-Krystynopolailroad, which is on the Soviet side. Southeast of the Polish settlement of NowosioJUti-Prsednie) the bordertraight line to the south forilometersassing the Polish towns of Wolka-Wierzbicka) and Wlerzbica In this area the tributaries of the So/okija crossegion of considerable marsh and swampland.

*The boundary line south of Ho^ubie is described according to available documents, protocols, and small-scale maps.

After turning againouthwesterly direction, thecrosses the Szczebrzeszyn-Rawa Ruska rail lineasses to tbe east of the Polish settlement Hrebennend Intersects the main road between Tomaszov Lubelakl and Raws Ruska South of Hrebenne the boundary cutsooded area, the Rata Riverributary of thend the Lubaczow-Rava Ruska rail line Prom the vicinity of the railroad southwest for aboutilometersiles)hort distance south of the small stream Smolinka, the boundary againtraight line. Afterooded area interspersed withmall stream,econdary road in the vicinity of the Polish village Budomlerzhe boundary curvesouthwesterly then southerly direction. Turning southwestward again east of the Polish settlement of Zmljowskabe border crosses the Stkloed) and the Wisin laed),of the San River, and passes to the cant or southeast of the Polish settlements Budzynapuatnd Hedykned)oint east of the Polish village of Siedllskaed). On the Soviet side of the boundary in this sector are the settlements Gnojniceahorbyndkov7he settlement Starzava /Staryava7ed) is on the border but mainly in Soviet territory. The railway and main road between Przemyol and Lwow fZ'vovJ cross the boundary east and south of Medyka.

Prom Siedllska the border goes to the south as faroint east of Pod Luczyeamihere it againouthwesterly courseeak (elevationeet)of the Polish settlement Jureczkova In this area the boundary twice crosses the Wiarributary of the San River, atpolnts northeast and southwest of the Soviet town of It also Intersects numerous paths and the railroad and main read between Przemysl and Chyrow /KhyrovJumber of linear settlementa built along streams cross the border in this sector.

on theeries the Russianrid (purple) and the Danube Zone Grid (red) overlap in this area, the color of the grid system used is specified.

**The boundary line in the Jureczkowa area is describedto available documents, protocols, and small-scale maps.

Frera the forested peak southeast of Jureczkowa, the boundaryhaped turn and extendsoutheasterly direction forilometersntersecting the Ustrzyki Din (Dolne)-Chyrou railroad and main road northwest of the Soviet village Smolnica The boundary then continueseneral southerly direction, curving slightly,oint east of the Polish settlement of Hichniowiecn this sector the border crosses numerous streams and passes through scattered forest areas at elevationseet.

oint south of the vicinity of Wchnlowiec the boundary meets the San Riverhich it follows, first southeast then bending sharply northwest, to the point that marked the beginning of the former boundary between Poland and Czechoslovakia in the Beskid Range The Soviet settlement of Uzok (Uzhok) is located in this area. The lice then extends along the old border to Kremcr.ee*hich now forms the trIJunction of the frontiers of Poland, the Ukrainian SSR, and Czechoslovakia.

C. dmlnIntration, and Security

1. East Prussia Sector

According to the available Polish-Soviet agreements, the boundary between Kaliningrad ObLast, RSFSR, and theportion of East Prussia has not been further defined since the Polish-Soviet Treaty ofnd no fennel provision has beer, made for its administration and demarcation. The ostensible reason for this is that this segment of boundary Ibeace treaty with Germany is concluded. It is probable, however, that this segment has been demarcated and provieiom aade for its administration without the pertinent documents having become available.

Very little information is at band on the nu-king of .thebetween Kaliningrad ObLast and Poland. he Polish and Soviet sections of East Prussia were reportedly separatedorder zone aboutilometers wide from which the population had been evacuated and in which no farming was permitted. The frontier itself is completely closed and is patrolled by guards on both sides. arbed-wire fence apparently extends along the entire length of the frontier;2 the fence was reported to be equipped with flares.

"In documents on the Polish-Soviet frontier, the Polish spelling "Krzemieniec" and the Russian spelling "Kremenetz" (orre also used.

ouch or> the connecting wires would set off. It is likely that barhed-wire entanglements also are present along all or cost of the border. Possibly these frontier barriers constitute the only marking of the boundary.

A description of the barriers at an important railroadpoint between Poland and Kaliningrad Ob laat illustrates the extreme security measures used along the border. 1 thesuccessive zones ware reported at Zheleznodorozhnyyirst, farthest from the boundary lineleared ureaeet) wide; then, nearer thelowed stripo2 feet) wide, in which wooden watch-towers with searchlights were located-eteroot) intervals;5 feet) high of barbed-wire rolls and barbed wire strung on crosspieces; and84 feet) nearer theigh barbed-wire fence strung on wooden poles- Watchtowers withare probably spaced along the whole boundary, since they appear totandard security feature of the Polish-Soviet frontier. The stretch of the boundary in the lagoon _Zalew Wlslany la marked by buoys and is reported to be lighted at night by searchlights from towers on the sand spit Mierzeja Wislana and on the mainland.

2. Sectors South uf Ktint Prussia

The agreements81 establish procedures for the settlement of disputes and conflicts that might arise along the line, and for the general administration of the boundary, for the sectorb from the junction point of the Polish, former East Prussian, and Soviet territories southward to the Junction of the Polish-Soviet boundary with the Czechoslovaklan boundary. This entire stretch of boundary is divided into five Polish and five Soviet sectors, each under the chargeoundary commissioner who is responsible for its administration. Each sector bears the name of the town where its headquarters are located. Prom north to south the sectors on the Polish side are:

Sejny sector, extending the length of the Poliah-Lithuanlan SSR boundary.

Bia&stok sector, extending from the Junction point of the Polish, Lithuanian, and Belorusslan boundaries southwardhe point where the boundary Joins the Bug River near Rleairow.

Terespol sector, from Nlemlrow southward along the Bug to Orchowo.

he In. sector, from Orchewo southeast of Wfodawn (boundary Barkero the point at vhich the Jaroslav-Rave Ruska railway (marker) crosses the boundary.

zeszow sector, extending froo the Jaroslew-Rawa Ruska rallvay to the junction of the Soviet, Polish, andfrontiersith headquarters In the city of Przemysl.

Adnlnlotrotion of the boundary is designed to discourageacross tho line. Apparently no provisions are made for regular circulation from one side of the boundary to the other by Inhabitants of the border region in the course of their normal occupations, as is done along many western European and New World boundaries. Thewaters arc open to navigation by both Polish and Soviet vesselB and to timber floating by the nationals of both states, according to the stated provisions of tbe agreements, but navigation isonly in the daytime. Vessels of one state may put in at the bank of the other state only if they are in distress.

Agreements provide for local border crossing byew classes of Individuals. These include, among others, the boundary commissioners and their subordinates in the course of their official duties and the laborers engaged in construction of installationswith timber floating or in clearing the banks of logs. Notice of persons crossing the border must be given In advance to officials of the other state. Natlocale of either state may flah in thewaters up to the boundary line on their side, but only In the daytime. Shooting and pursuit of game across the line is prohibited. Provision la made for the return by boundary officlala of persons who may accidentally stray across the line. Generally, In mineralized areas, mining and mineral prospecting is prohibited in strips of landeters wide adjacent to the boundary.

The basic agreements8 state that commerce by railroads, main roads, and waterways intersected by the boundary line, and frontior transit pointB on such routes, are to be subject to special agreementB between Poland and the USSR. At such transit points,ajor transportation route crosses the boundary, each state is required to erect and maintain proper 6lgns and barriers. It is agreed that should the whole boundary or sections of it be closed to traffic, the border-crossing privileges of the boundary officials shall be suspended. It is therefore possible that even the limited border IntercouTBe permitted under the agreementB1 nay be Inoperative In whole or in part.

The course of the land boundary along the Polish-Sovietls indicatedleared strip totalingeters Ineters on each side of the lino. Provision is made in the Polish-Soviet agreement8 for keeping the border strip In proper condition and cleared of thickets and other undergrowth interfering with visibility. Care of the frontier strip on its own side of the line is the responsibility of each state. Cultivation and the construction of buildings for any purpose except defense areIn the boundary strip. Along the boundaryeries of markers, numbered in consecutive order from south to north, has been erected.

On land, the boundary is delimited by these markers andefined as an immovable line running from one marker to the next. These markers consist of two wooden posts, probably about the heightan,eters from the frontier line,mall round wooden post or four-sided stone post between them on tbe lino itself. At principal turningoncrete pillar is placed on tbe line between the usual two wooden posts. At points of crossing free land to water or water to land, two wooden frontier poctamall wooden post or concrete pillar are placed on one bank of the river or lake,hird post on tbe opposite bank in alignment with the frontier line.

Along water sectors, boundary markers consist of two wooden posts placed on opposite sides of the stream or lake. On navigable rivers (except the Bug, ao explained earlier) the frontier line is defined as following the thalweg (middle of the main channel). On unnavlgable rivers the frontier follows the middle of the stream or the middle of its main branch. Natural changes in the bedoundary stream that would involvo shifts in ownership of property or buildings do not change the position of the boundary line except by special agreement. The boundary line divides bridges, dikes, and sluices, placing one half in Poland and the other half in the Soviet Union, regardless of the location of the line in the water.

The frontier markers are numbered in order from eouth to north. The first marker io in the Beskld Range at Kremenec, the triJunction of the frontiers of Poland, the USSR, end Czechoslovakia. Tbe approximate locations of other known boundary markers are ob follows: marker, on or near tbe bank of the Son River, south of the Ukrainian settlement Zurawin ^annravnaji markers,ilometersiles) east of the Polish settlement Jureczkowa; marker, near the place where the Jaros^ov-Rawa Ruska railway crosses the boundary; marker, south or southeast of the Polish town Wierzbics; markers, on or near the bonk of the Bug River where it

intersects the boundary south of the Polish town Kry^ow; Barkerear the Belorusslan settlement Orchowo; markerear the Polish town Hiemlrow; markert the point where the boundary meets the Marycha River, at or near the Junction of the territories of Poland, Lithuania, and Belorussia; and markerear Gromadczyzna, at the convergence of the boundaries of Poland, the Lithuanian SSR, and Kaliningrad Ob last. Gromadczyzna appears on theeries in the German form, Gromadtschisna. In the prewar period, Gromadczyznamall cluster of buildings immediately on the boundary between Lithuania, East Prussia, and Poland.

The border between Poland and the USSR is the moat heavily guarded section of the Polish boundary line. It has been reported that along the entire borderontinuous line of barbed-wire2eet) high and broadened at the top to increase the difficulty of crossing. On the Polish side of the frontier, watchtovers have been erectediles). The Polish border police maintain postsiles) apart all along the boundary.

On the Soviet side, much stricter measures have been taken. In order to make the frontier impenetrable, the Soviets have divided the border area into three zones. The first zone (that farthest from the frontier) reaches fromilometers7 miles) in the interiorointilometersiles) from the boundary line. In this zone, the population Is kept under rigid control by restrictive measures. Departures or arrivals in this area can be made only with proper authorization, and all inhabitants are provided with temporary passports, which are marked aod numbered. Tbe second zone extends from the periphery ofeters (aboutile) from the border. This sector is under approximately the same strict control as the first, with, in addition, an established system of outposts manned by frontier guards. In this area there are also numerous "observation points" equipped with machine guns, telephones, and radios, some of which are surroundedystem of defensive dugouts. The third zone, alsoeters vide, includes the frontier itself and is entirely depopulated. The ground has been completely leveled and cleared of treeB. Watch-towers stand aboutilometereet) apart on the Soviet side. Running parallel to the barbed-wire entanglements that extend along the boundaryelt of plowed land abouteet) wide, which is under constant surveillance for footprints. In addition to these securityariety of alarm devices, some of which release flares upon contact, have been Installed as added precautions. Moreover, the border area is patrolled regularly by guards with trained dogs. There is believed toine of

fortifications, tbe ao-called Stalin defense line, on tbe Soviet side of tbe border. ine of fixed heavy-concrete gun emplacementa has been observed between the city of Brest and tbe boundary-

D. Maps of the Boundary

Probably the most authoritative and legible map source for the Polish-Soviet boundary available in this country, asideew medium- and small-scale Soviet maps, isapa Polski (l, in list at end of section). The linear description of the boundary given in this report is based on that map, but it Is alBo keyed to the Army Map Service series, although the latter does not show the present boundary line. ore recent German map of the Rest Prussian, based on sources available in Western Germany, shows the lineather generalized manner but differing Inew details from that on the Mapa Polakl.

In the Lithuanian SSR sector, the boundary apparently has been altered only slightly from the prewar line between Poland and Lithuania as shown on theeries. The source of that lineeries of the Polish Military Geographic Institute9

The position of the boundary along the Bug River from Hiemlrov southward to the vicinity of Kry/ow and along the upper San River at the extreme southern end of the line corresponds with that of the Ribbentrop-Molotov line between the German and Soviet conquestsetoundary-demarcation maps of this, at the scaless available, but the boundary markers and numbers shown are out of date. The extent to vhich the boundary in the Bug River as shown on these maps differs from the present line is not known, but presumably the difference is not great.

The text of the Polish-Soviet agreement regarding the exchange of territories signed1 and the accompanying map at scaleboth enclosedoreign Service despatch from Warsaw) provide Information on the rectified sections of the boundary.

1- Mapa; Wojskowy Institut Geograficzny (Polish Military Geographic

2. ; Army Map Service1MS Library Call

3- Kartc des Verlauf3 der poinlgch-sovjctirciirnpr. (Map of the Course of tha Pollsb-Soviet Administrative Boundary in East; Bundeaanstalt fur Iandeskunde;

4. Karten der Staats- unddcs Poutschen Relcheaorer Epzlallstlsf'nrnz-rc^ubliken vosi GrenztelchendIe -us Grcr.zzclchen la DrelortReich-UPIon'-^p) (Maps of the State and Sphere-of-Influence Boundary of Gercnny and of the State Boundary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from Boundary Markero the Boundary Marker at the Tripoint of Gerneny, the USSR, andie Gemlschte Zentral-kommisolon des Deutschen Reichcs und der Union dSSR fur Grenzfragen (Mixed German-Soviet Boundary.

IV. Czechoslovakia and Hurwry-USSR Border A. History of the Boundary

The Czechoslovak Republic that come into existence on8 was confirmed by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of9 arjl tfOS formally recognized by the Allied and Associated Powers. The new state comprised the five provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Slovakia, and Ruthenia. Ruthenia, which along with Slovakia formerly belonged to Hungary, wasinto the Republic as an autonomous territory in order to provide Czechoslovakiaatural boundary in the east (the Carpathian Mountains). Most of the inhabitants of Ruthenia were similar in many respects to the Ukrainians of southeastern Poland and the Soviet Union, but there were Hungarians also in the southern part.

On0 years after its formation, theRepublic was dismembered by Hitler in accordance with the Munich Agreement signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany. Germany was ceded the Sudetenland plus additional small scattered areas, and Poland demanded and received Teschen. By the Vienna Awardungary was assigned the southern portions of Ruthenia and Slovakia. In Ruthenia the new boundary extendedorthwest-southeast direction to the south of Uzhgorod, in general separating the plain of the Tlssa* River to the south, where the Hungarians were concentrated, from the Carpathian Highlands to the north. On lhhe German-sponsored government of Slovakia proclaimed the territory an Independent state. Onarch, German troops occupied what was left ofs the name of the dismembered republic was nowad the next day Czechia (Bohemia plus Moravia) waserman protectorate andinto the Third Reich. Meanwhile, Hungarian troops marchedthe northern part of Ruthenia, which was formally annexed by Hungary onarch, givingommon frontier with Poland.

After Germany's defeat Inhe Czechoslovak Republic was reborn and the territories seized by Germany, Poland, and Hungary were returned to Czech sovereignty by- esult ofreaty was concluded tn Moscow onthe Czechoslovak Republic and the USSR for the incorporation of Ruthenia (the Subcarpathian Ukraine) into the Soviet This

*"Tisa" is the Czech form, "Tisza" the Hungarian, and "Tisea" the Russian form of the name of this river. All three forms arc used in the report.

treaty provided that the frontiers existing between Slovakia and the Subcarpathian Ukraine as of8 (the pre-Munich eastern boundary of Slovakia as part of Czechoslovakia) were towith some alterations, the boundaries between Czechoslovakia and the USSR. 6 the Mixed Czechoslovak-Soviet Commission for the demarcation of the frontier concluded its work and defined the boundary in general terms (sec accompanying The Commission's definition of the boundary, whichiles) long, reads in part as follows

from the Polish frontiers in the north it retains the old Slovak Subcarpatho-Russian regional boundary to the south as far as the Vysne Nemecke Plain. From here the frontier turns west and runs between the villages of Sahor ond Bozos. It continues behind the commune of Pinkovce, which belongs to Czechoslovakia, and turns right to the commune of lakard /LekartJ.

The fate of this latter village remained in doubt until the Soviet Union agreed to allow the boundary to pass to the east and southeastilometer of Lekart, leaving the town and its territory on

the Czech side,

The Hungarian Armistice signed on5 provided that the boundaries of Hungary as they existed8 should be restored. This provision was confirmed by the Hungarian Peace Treaty ofith the exception that the so-called Bratislava bridgehead opposite the city of Bratislava was ceded to Czechoslovakia. With Ruthenla ceded to the USSR, the frontier that98 was the boundary between Czechoslovakiaecome the Hungarian-Ruthenian (USSR) boundary

B- Linear Description of the Boundary*

From the convergence of the Czech, Soviet, and Polish bourdaries at Kreoeneche Czech-Soviet boundary dips

names in this section are those appearing on AMS.iddle. Russian forma, where known, follow in brackets, and alternate names ore give in parentheses.

heet of AMSll other sheets referred to in this section are of AMS For explanation of locational key, see footnote, p. 8.

slightly to the southwest before turning due south forilometersiles). This area ls heavily wooded and contains few settlements. Southeast of the Czech village of Hova Sedlicahe boundary curves before taking acourse thattraight line forilometersiles). Southeast ofzech villagehe boundary againoutherly direction,etaled road between tbe Czech settlement cfoviet settlement southeast of Ubla. Beyond the intersection the boundary turns westhort distance. On the Soviet aide in this sector the Uh /fizhj River and the railway and main road between Vel' Berezny ^Velikiy Bereznyy7) and Perecin ^erechin/) roughly parallel one anotherouth-southeast direction.

East of the Czech village of Dubrava) theenerally southward course, through predominantly forested mountains (Popricny Peak)or5 kilometers (roughlyiles) to Cervcnu bora) northeast of Uzhorod ^Uzhgorod/) at which point it again turnsouthwesterly direction and crosses the main road between Sobrance and Uzhorod at the site of the Czech village of Vys* Nemecke (Vyl-Nemeckc)ew kilometers to the southwest the Jankovce-Uzhcrod road is intersected. South and west of Vys* Nemecke the border passes to tbe east of the" Czech settlements of Zahorlnkovcchich is east of the commune of Lekart, and Ketovce At Pinkovce the line crosses the Uh River.

Southeast of the Czech village of Matovce the boundary continuesoutherly directionoint where it intersects the Vel* Kapusany (Nagy-Kapos)-Uzhorod railway and roadl8). 2 miles) due south, another road is crossed between Rusks and Surtyest of the Soviet settlement of Paled' Kbmarovce /KoaorocJ Prom here the line dips slightly to the southwest and then turns southward again, bisecting theof Vel*ls)-Slemence (Male SlementBe)-

Prom the vicinity oflemence the boundaryouthwesterly coursetraight line forilometersiles). In this lowland area the borderthe Latorica (latorltsa) River afterributary, the Szlrln, southeast of the Czecb settlement of Ptruksa (Ptr-jksa). In thisumber of minor roads and cart tracks cross the East of the Czech village of) the railroad and naln road between Satoraljaujhely (Satoraljeujhely) and Cop /Chopy intersect the line. South of this point the boundary turns

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r ii j] t

due east forilometer, ot vhich point It meets the Tisa River, where the borders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Ukrainian SSR meet

The boundary between Hungary and the iSSR follows the Tisaoint south of the Soviet village of Salokahere it leaves the river and turns eastward along the old border. In thisailroadoad cross the borderorth-south direction to the west of Cop To the north of this sector lies an area of swamp forest. The line continues In an easterly direction forilometersiles) until it meets the Carondaributary of the latorlca River; it then bearsouth-southeasterly direction. East of the Hungarian village of(SatuS-8l) the boundaryhaped bend, then extendsortheasterly direction forilometer, at which point It turns eastward- To the north of the border on the Soviet side lies the settlement of Koslno (Kosini)o the south on the Hungarian side ia Barabas This entire sector is characterized by patches of woodland and brushwood interspersed with marsh areas. From east of Koslno the boundary extends in an irregular southeasterly course,the Beregaurany-Berehovo (Beregovo) main rood) and skirting the Kis erdS (forest) to tbe east. As in the area to the northwest, thereense network of secondary roads, many of which cross the boundary.

East of the Hungarian settlement of Tarpa) the border turns and runseneral easterly direction to the Tisa Riverhen follows the river through lowland characteristic of this stretch of the border. South of the Soviet settlement of Vylok ^Vylok7) the boundary leaves the Tisa andributary, the Bator,oint eaat of the Hungarian village of Magostiget The railroad and main road between Berehovo and Vylok skirt the eastern reaches of the Tisa along this section of theranch of the. roadthe boundary south of the river.

After leaving the Bator Stream, the border extends south-southwestverd through continued lowland until meeting the Tur, another tributary of the Tisa. It turnsoutheasterlyalong the Tur,oad, and follows the course of the stream to the point where the Hungarian, Rumanian, and Ukrainian SSR frontiers meet east of Nagy ord8 (forest)

Tbe Czech-Sorlet border la Indicated on tbe groundleared strip, usuallyeters wide buteters in some places. Tbe cleared area Is especially evident in mountainous and wooded areas. Provision is made for keeping the border atrip clear of growth at all times. Paralleling the cleared strip on the Czech sideone of Impenetrable growth. Presumably, all reads and highways6 feet) of the boundary not actually used aa border crossings or necessary to forestry and agriculture have been destroyed. Hunting grounds near the border area continue under the control of the forestry service and are nonleasable.

Observations along the frontier of Czechoslovakia indicate that the boundary is marked by small red-white-and-blue posts. On the USSR side the border posts are solid red. Boundary markers are probably spaced similarly to those along the Polish frontier,no definite information lo available.

It Is known that the frontier between Hungary and the USSR has been demarcated andoundary regime has been agreed upon, but the details of these agreements are not available.

Inoint Soviet -Hungarian Frontier Commission redemarcated the line in accordance with the terns of7 Peace Treaty with Hungary. Tbe protocol resulting from this demarcation, along with maps and other documents, was signed In Moscow on This protocol presumablyborder markings to conform to those set up at the time of the Treaty of Trianon after World War I. reaty on the regime for the frontieronvention on the method of settling frontierand incidents were signed in Moscow on 2i* The provisions of these agreements on boundary administration are not known.

The method of boundary marking probably is similar to that described for the Polish frontier, consisting of numbered border posts. The white stone markers mentioned in8 description of security zones have probably been replaced by new boundary markers.

Soviet border posts are closely spaced along the Czech-Soviet frontier. Twc command posts for the sector of tbe border situated west and south of Orohobycz (Drogobych) are located at Turka and Ustrzyki-Dolne. Subordinate patrol posts are at Sianki, Benlow, Buczkaroia, Lot owlska, Tarnawa, Lokicc,hary, Boberka, Zurawin, Seolnlk, and Chmiel. The number of border troops stationed at these posts ranges fromoen at Zuravin to approximately

t Siankt. Situated between the border poatB are border defense points manneden. Reportedly, these defense points are located In well-concealed bunkers on tops of hills and ore spaced2 miles) apart. The typical layout at these pointsne-story wooden building for housing the troops, surroundedircular trench connected with tbe building by arterial trenches. Each defense point Is equipped with machine guns, pistols, rockets, flares, and telephones.

Behind the frontier area on the Soviet sidelowed and raked strip approximatelyeet wide. High wooden guard towers aboutile apart, equipped with revolving searchlights, are visible in the vicinity of Ciema-nad-Tlsou. On the Czechumber of wooden towersooeet) high are located very close to the border at Intervale0eet) and are occupied by guards at all times.)

An elaborate system of border security Is maintained along the Hungarian,-Soviet border. According to a' report from the Mukacevo district, there are eight parallel security areas on the Soviet side, beginning at the border and running eastward. The border itself is markederies of white stones2 feet) apart. learing abouteterseet) wide next to the border Is bounded on the eantarbed-wire fence5 feet) high, surmounted by two electrically charged copper wires. econd zone6 feet) wide lies east of the fence and consists largely of marshland. In this zone an alarm wire, which releases rockets when tripped, runs close to the ground and Is difficult to detect. Tbe third area la an artificial swamp,4 feet) wide, through whichigzag strip of dry, carefully raked earth. The fourth area eastwardlowed and raked strip alsoeters vide. The fifthleared patheters wide. Is patrolled by pairs of Soviet frontier guards, who arc often accompanied by trained dogs. The sixth zone,eterseet) wide, is in uninhabited, swampy terrain and baa wooden observation towerseters high spaced ateter intervalo.

To the east of the six narrow zones lie two other security areas of greater depth. The first of these, called theone or "Forbiddensiles) deep. The Inhabitants of this zone are handpicked Communists, and their identification documents are printedarge figure 1. There are additional observation towers in this zone. Theone, or "Restrictedhich lies further east, isilometers (aboutiles) deep. Only CommupistB and politically trusted

peasants, who often serve as informers, are allowed to live in this zone. Their documentsargeor identification purposes.

Soviet troops in tbe border area are carefully picked and well trained. They are organized into sections (Otdcls) and detachmentshich In turn are designated by numbers and codeetachment varies in strengthr more men depending on local requirements. These frontier units arcfor security along assigned border areas and are equipped with horses, motorcycles, automobiles, and light patrol planes. The section commander Is responsible for the collection ofalong the adjoining border strip as well au for the security of his frontier section.

D. Maps of the Boundary

The postwar boundary between Czechoslovakia and the USSR, as delimitedreaty ofuneand later approved by the Mixed Czechoslovak-Soviet Commission for the demarcation of the border, is showntate Department map (l, in listther maps showing this boundary are listed.

The present boundary between Hungary and the USSR corresponds to the prewar Hungarian-Czech border (in the Subcarpathian Rutbenia area). oint Soviet-Hungarian Frontier Commission redemarcated the border in accordance witheace Treaty with Hungary. The principal source for this line is the0 series

(M.

The linear description of the boundary as given in this report is basad on tbe maps mentioned and, except for the Czechoslovak section, on AMS.

Provisional Boundary Between Cze.bO-lovr-kia and; Division of Map Intelligence and Cartography, Department of

Czechoslovakia: Uzhorod and; JCicxhJ Zememericky' Urod v. Prase (Survey Office,

Mapy Krajov. KraJraj Prcaovaky (Maps of the Krays. Koslce Kra> and Preftov;eme?lcky Urad v. Praze (Survey Office,heets Hos.

4. agyar Kiralyi Allami Terkepeszeti Intezet (Hungarian State Cartographic.

iddle; Anay Map Service1;MS Library Call Ho.

V. Rumania-USSR Border

A. History of the Boundary

The boundary separating Rumania and the Soviet Union hasconsiderably during the last centuryalf. The aroa between the Prut and Dnestr Rivers formerly known aa Bessarabia (now comprising the major portion of the Moldavianas changed hands in whole or In part several times. The population in this area included Rumanians, Ukrainians, Jews, Russians, Bulgarians, and Germans. In the period between tbe two World Wars, Rumanians (Moldavians) comprised aboutercent and Ukrainiansf the population of Bessarabia,.

After changing hands several times between the Turks and tho Russians, Bessarabia fell once more to Russiand the boundary between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was placed along the Prut and the lower Danube Rivera, In practically the same location as the present line. 9 the Russians obtained possession of the Danube Delta, butesult of the Crimean War> they were pushed backine in southern Bessarabia considerably north of the Danube. The strip of southern Bessarabia from vhich they withdrew became part of Moldavia, which, together with Wallachla, was recognised as an autonomous principality under the Ottoman Empire. By the Treaty of Berlin8 Rumania became Independent and secured possession of the Danube Delta and the Dobruja area, while Russia again annexed tbe southern strip of Bessarabia, ph/ The boundary between Rumania and Russia was thus restored to2 position, which is approximately its present location.

After Worldnd the Russian Revolution, the National Council of Bessarabia declared the province independent of Russia and later approved its annexation to Rumania. Groat Britain, France, Italy, and Japan recognized this act in5Jj/ but the United States did not- The USSR also refused to recognize the incorporation of Bessarabia into Rumania, and for many years the frontier between the two countries, along the Dnestr River, was closed. Bucovina, which had been part of Austria-Hungary, was also ceded to Rumania after World War I.

Onhe Soviet Union presented Rumania with an ultimatum demanding the return of Bessarabia and northern Bucovina. Rumania, powerless to resist Soviet claims, was forced to cede these territories, totaling0 square miles, to the USSR (Soviet-Rumanian Agreement,

inhen the Germans invaded the USSR they were aided by Rumanian troops, and the territories of Bessarabia and northern Bucovina were temporarily reannexed by Rumania. Tndessa and Transnintria (an area beyond the Dneotr) were brought under Rumanian administration. However, byhe Soviet armies had recaptured the greater part of this territory, and by that summer Rumania accepted the armiatice agreement offered by the USSR (representing the Allies). f the armistice signed oneaffirmed the Soviet-Rumanian boundary Rumania's retrocession of Bessarabia and northern Bucovina to the Soviet Union as provided by the armiatice wasby the Rumanian Peace Treaty signed at Paris Thus the Rumanian-Soviet boundary was once again placed along the Prut and lower Danube. Delimitation of the frontier was carried out by the two countries9 (see accompanyingrotocol (including maps and other documents) describing the exact line was concluded, but the terms were not revealed.

Lincur Heiicri.ption of the Boundary

The frontier between Rumania and the USSR may be divided into two sectors for purposes of description. The northern sector extends from the trijunction of the Bungorian, Rumanian, and Soviet borders to the Moldavian boundarynd the southern sector extends along the Prut and lower Danube Rivers to the Black Sea

I. he Trijunction of the Hungarian,and Soviet Boundaries to the Moldavian Bo lndary*

The western part of this border is the former frontier between Rumania and Czechoslovakia. From the trijunction point eaBt of Nagy erdo (Satu* the boundary follows the Tur Riveroint scuth of tha Soviet village of PerteBalraafteaving the river, the line extendsortheasterly direction forile) and then turns sharply northward,an elbov south of the forested area of All erdtJ.

names in the description of this sector of the Rumanian border are those appearing on the AMSiddle,astern. For places on the Soviet side, the Russian forms are given in brackets wherever possible. Alternate names are in

**Locattonal indices for places named in this sector refer to AMS1 except for theile stretch, which Is covered on Sheetf AMS For explanation of locational key, see footnote on p. 8.

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rbe border then takes an east-southeasterly course. Intersecting the Satu Mare-Chuot jKhuatJ railroad and main roodn thlG sector many secondary roads branch off from the principal highway, each with different termini. To the east of the railroad crossing, the bcKindary dips to the southeast before continuing in an easterly direction along tbe Egersky Kanal. After following the same general course for several kilometers the boundary turns abruptly to the northeast, passing through an area interspersed with woodland. Throughout thisetwork of minor roadsumber of streams cross or approach the frontier. To the east of the line, on the Rumanian side, the settlement pattern is dense, although it is possible that In the postwar yeurn many of the villages in the border zone have bean evacuated- The boundary then continues in an irregular northeasterly directionoint west and north of the Rumanian village of BocicBu In this general sector the Satu Hare-Chust railroad on the Soviet sideain road on the Rumanian side parallel the border.

From the vicinity of BoclcHu the lineroad, irregular, north-south loop, then straightens out andoutheasterly direction for about8 miles). The highest elevation in the0 feet) is in this sector. South of Frasin) the boundary makes another loop to the north andeavily forested tract,eneral southeasterly course for roughlyilometers (aboutiles)oint lessilometersile) southeast of Polsn. The border than turnsortheasterly direction, which it follows until it meets the Tisa Tbe boundary foil own the riveroint south of the Soviet village of Trebustanytretch of aboutiles). In this sector the railroad between Tacovo /Tyachev7n the Soviet sidend Sighet) on the Rumanian sidethe border southeast of the Soviet settlement ofreshva7 From Sighet the railroad parallels the boundaryhe point where the frontier leaves the river and continues overland On each side of theain road, fromumber of secondary roads and cart tracks radiate, closely parallels the boundary. The road to the north, between Tacovo and Trebustany, passes through the Soviet villages ofdevlya7,lat In Doly, Selo Slatinand

ev rail line, not shown on AMSas beenalong the north bank of the Tisa Riveriles east of Teresva to the village of Slatin Doly

**In aerial photos of the area the settlements of Slatin Doly and Selo Slatina appear as one.

The border then takes an cast-southeasterly course. Intersecting the Satu Hare-Chust ^QiustJ railroad and main road In this sector many secondary roads branch off from the principal highway, each with different termini. To the east of tbe railroad crossing, the boundary dips to the southeast before continuing in an easterly direction along the Egersky Kanal. After following the same general course for several kilometers the boundary turns abruptly to the northeast, passing through an area interspersed with woodland. Throughout thisetwork of minor roadsumber of streams cross or approach the frontier. To the east of the line, on the Rumanian side, the settlement pattern ls dense, although it is possible that in the postwar years many of the villages in the border rone have been evacuated. The boundary then continues In an irregular northeasterly directionoint west and north of the Rumanian village of Boclclu In this general sector the Satu Hare-Chust railroad on the Soviet sideain road on the Rumanian side parallel the border.

ew rail lino, not shown on AMSas beenalong the north bank of the Tisa Riveriles east of Teresva to the village of Slatin Doly

**In aerial photos of the area the settlements of Slatin Doly and Selo Slatina appear as one.

Prom the vicinity of Bocicau the lineroad. Irregular, north-south loop, then straightens out andoutheasterly direction for8 miles). The highest elevation in the0 feet) is in this sector. South of Frastn) tho boundary makes another loop to the north andeavily forested tract,eneral southeasterly course for roughlyilometers (aboutiles)oint lessilometereile) southeast of Polanhe border than turnsortheasterly direction, which it follows until it meets the Tisa The boundary follows the riveroint south of the Soviet village of TrebuKtanvtretch of aboutiles). In this sector the railroad between Tacovo /Tyachev7n the Soviet sidend Sighet) on the Rumanian sidethe border southeast of the Soviet settlement of Teresva ^fereshva/) From Sighet the railroad parallels the boundary tothe point where the frontier leaves the river end continues overland On each side of theain road, fromumber of secondary roods and cart tracks radiate, closely parallels the boundary. The road to the north, between Tacovo and Trebustany, passes through the Soviet villages of Bedevla ^edcvlya/eresvalatin Doly, Selo Slatina* and

Vol Bockov The road ta the south passes through the Rumanian settlements of SapSnta) and Sighct andthe border aboutilometersiles) to the east of the latter. Numerous tributaries of tbe Tisa enter the river from both sides of the boundary. Throughout this sector the line traverses an area Interspersedoodland and brushwood.

From the point southwest of Trebustany) where it quits the Tisa, the boundary continues in an coat-southeasterly direction to the ridge (peak) Vf Muncelnd then follows an east-northeasterly course to Pop Ivan ^Pop Ivanu?on the western approaches of the Eastern Carpathians. From here the borderip along the Capul Grosilor ridge, then goes in an east-northeasterly then irregular easterly direction, reaching higher elevations along the ridges of the Gary Czyvczynakie (Polenlle de sub In this heavily forestednumerous paths cross the border. West of the wooded area of Copllusulain road connects with the Rumanian settlement Poienile de sub Munte Several kllometera east of Copilasul the boundary beginsouth-southeasterly trend, continuing for5 kilometers (aboutiles)oint aouth of Hhlatiasa From here the line curves to the east and then gradually assumes an east-northeasterly coursetraight line for aboutilometersiles). This entire section of the border area is densely foreBtcd. tn the vicinityozarcahe boundary turnsortheasterly direction, following and then paralleling the Cobilora Streamributary of the Suceava River)ew kilometers beforeecondary road and another tributary of the Suceava east of the Soviet village Sipotele Sucevei (Sheplt) Northeast of this settlement the border follows the Suceava Riveroint south of the Soviet settlement of Seletln /Selyatin7 From Sipotele Sucevei topur railroad track parallels the boundary. The border then follows the bend of tbe Suceavaoint southul Mortunhere it crosses tho river and the Seletir.-Radfiutl road and railroad

From the vicinityul Mortun the boundary goestraight lineortheasterly direction forilometersllea). It turns due easthort distance,oursetraight line for5 kilometers1 miles)oint northwest of tbe Rumanian settlement of Vleovul de Sua (Vicovu de Sua)n this sector the border'crosses numerous paths and the Sadea, Ctumarnarului, Falcau, Falcheutu, and Rostoaca Streams, tributaries of the Suceava River. South of Dealul Basulul (hiu)

the boundary extendsortheasterly direction intersecting the StoroJineJmain roadefore turning eastward. Continuing along the same course, the boundary follows tvo tributaries of tbe Suceava (the Bllca de Sus and the Bilcantersects the road between Patraujil de Jos (on the Soviet side) and Vicovul de Jos (on the Rumanian side)nd extendsoutheasterly direction for about 5 mllea). In this area the lineumber of minor roads and another tributary of the Suceava River, the Par Bllka. To the east of the stream the border turns to the northeast for severalintersecting the PBtrSuJli de Joe-Fratautli roadnd the Petrlmlnlasa Stream. It then skirts tbe edgeooded area, turns more to the east of north and then east-southeasthort distanceoint south of the Soviet village of Pantana AlbS In this entire sector the boundary follows the drainage system of the Suceava. Theauyi railway and road roughly parallel the border to the south,hickly settled area.

Southeast of Ffcittnaoad connecting that settlement with the Rumanian village of Climautl) crosses theew kilometers to the east the boundary turnsoutheasterly direction and then extends east-northeasttraight lineilometersiles). Along this stretch of the border the line intersects the Volcinet ^VolchinetsJ-Bornestl railroadhe road betveen Volcinet and Siretnd the Slretul (Siret) River. Northeast of theailroad and road betveen Storojinet and Siret and the principal road between Cemautl /Chernovtsy7 and HIMlienlross the boundary. Prom this point the line goes in an easterly direction,ranch road northwest of the Rumanian settlement of Mlhfiileni and crossing theributary of the Slretul. Several kilometers to the east of Molnita the border turns to the northeast and passesooded area interspersed with clearings. Throughout the whole sector numerous secondary and minor roads crisscross the frontier. SouthwesturmBturei) the border bends slightly to the northwest, crossesijia Stream, and then turns northeasterly again, extendingtraight line forilometersiles). In this area the Berta /GertotJ-Dorohol main road crosses the boundary Northeast of the road Intersection the border passesoodland, leaving the village of Pundu Bcrta) on the Rumanian side. The boundary thenlearing,umber of secondary roads and an unnamed stream, and enters another wooded areaointorhana Prom here the boundary curvesortherly direction foriloneterniles) until it reaches the Prutul (Prut) River From the vicinity

of the Soviet village of Tarasauts' ) the bCAindary follows the Prut River for roughlyilometerstlles)oint south of the Soviet settlement, of Klshla Sallyeva, where the frontiers of Rumania, the Ukrainian SSR, andSSR meet.

2. The Boundary Along the Prut and Lower Danube Rivers*

Lack of precise Information on the delimitation of thealong the Prut and lower Danube Rivers leaves some question as to its exact course. In the Prut sector, the boundary line ls difficult to determine because of the meandering course of the river and the possibility of frequent cut-offs, as well as the presenceumber of fluvial islands.

The most difficult area in which to determine tbe exact course of the boundary, however, is tho Danube Delta. Here the line presumably follows the Kilia, the northernmost arm of the Danube, and it is so shown oa recent small-scale maps. Along the Kilia Arm there ls some question as to the course of the boundary in two areas. The boundary as shown deviates from the Kilia Arm and passes to the south of three IslandsSalangic, Dalerul Hie, and Dalerul Marelocated about midway between Izmail and Killya. At the mouth of the Kilia Arm on the Black Sea, the boundary ls shown as following the Star! Stambul Arm, which lies to the east of Musura Island and theArm. The position of the boundary in relation to the three Islands In the Kilia Arm and the Musura Arm and Islandatter of considerable concern to the Rumanians in the negotiationsthe peace treaty. The final outcome of the discussions is not known. The boundary as here described corresponds with that oa the Soviet map which served as the primary source.

Although the line along the Kilia Arm must be regarded as tha official boundary, theretrong possibility that the USSR has taken over territory to the south and that the de facto limit of Soviet control may lie along the Sulina Arm (the main channel of navigation) or even farther south. The presence of Soviet

the description of this sector of the Rumanian border, the place names given are, wherever possible, those used on the side of tbc border on which the place or feature Is located; Russian names are followed in parentheses by the old Rumanian names as they appear on sheets of frndinica I:ermon reprintumanian map series. Locational indices refer to that series.

vatehtovers along the northern bank of tbe Sullna Channel la one Indication that actual control amy be exercised by the USSR at least as far south as the Sullna. 6l/

The boundary betveen Rumania and the Moldavian SSR begins on tho Prutointilometer vest of the Soviet settlement Krlva (Crlva) This point marks the Junction of the administrative boundary betveen Rumania and the USSR formed by the Prut. The boundary follows the Prut from here to its confluence with the Danube.

Prom Krlva to the Rumanian settlement RadBuJiboutilometera east of Krlva, the river flowsenerally easterly direction, but with several northward loops. The Soviet settlement Llpkany) lies Just north of the river, opposite RHdauJl. Prom Rftdaupl and Llpkany tbe Prut flowseneral southeasterly direction toward the town Stefanestl (Stefanestii)hich lies on the Rumanian sideilometers from the river. In this sector the boundary passesensely Inhabited area. The Soviet settlements Pereryta (Pererita)etskanyopatnikliahoraadrazh Staryy (Badragilbrpachtaryy Kukoneshty (Cuconestli:herbakand Kosteshty) lie on or near the left bank of the river. Tbe Soviet settlement AvrameniIO) Is directly across the river from Stefaheati. Rumania settlements along the Prut are Cdtulndjo).

In the boundary sector from Krlva to Stefanestl, although the Prut flowsather narrow valley, Its course is meandering. The land rises more steeply from the river on the right, or Rumanian, side than on the Soviet side. Both sides of the boundary are almost completely cleared of foreat cover. Theremall wooded area on the Soviet side east of Llpkany and north of Pereryta, and the river passes through another wood south of Kosteshty.

There are no railroad crossings in this sector. Possible road crossings Include: oad from RHdaupi tooad

running northeast; freerossing at Badrazh Staryy;oad crossing from Stefanestl to Avrameni.*

The boundary continues In Its southeasterly course fromto the Soviet settlement Koyucheny (Colucenl) In this sector the river valley becomes broader. tretch of about2 miles) In the vicinity of Stefanestl the Prut flows near the left valley rim. und the floodplalno 5terciles in width) is on the Rumanian side. Tho river then tume to the west side of the valley and resumes its course near the higher right valley rim until it bends to the east side again at Koyucheny. There appear to be small patches of woodland along tho river banks throughout this sector. From the Rumanian settlement) down to Koyucheny, there wasarrow but fairly continuous strip of woodland along the Soviet side of the river. It Is probable, however, that this has been partially or completely cleared. In conformity with frontier security

In the Stefanestl-Koyucheny sector, as In the area to the north, there are many villages along the Prut. and) are among the settlements on the Rumanian side. On the Soviet side the rayon center BolotlnoOO) and the settlements of Kukhneshty) and Kalineshty) lie at the edge of theew kilometers from the river. There are no rail crossings of the boundary in this sector,umanian road runs roughly parallel to the river, and thereossible crossing from this road to the Soviethort distance south of Santa-Maria.

From Koyucheny to the Soviet settlement of Croteshty (Grozestl) (Raducaneni;he Prut flows at the eastern edge of Its valley. Patches of marsh are found in the low valley on the Rumanian side, and the few wooded areas are small and scattered.

Small settlements near the boundary on the Rumanian side includend On the Soviet side the rayon centers Skulyany) and Ungeny (Ungheni-Targ)) are located Immediately on the river. At Ungeny the boundary is crossed by a

and rail crossings mentioned in the boundary description are those shown on theap,hich served as the primary source for delimiting the boundary. For the road crossings mentioned as possible, it is not known whether tbe river is crossed by bridge, ford, or ferry.

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railroadain road frca Iaylail line* and roads lead from Ungeny to Bel'tsy and Kishinev on the Soviet side. Between Ungeay and Grozeshty ore the Soviet settlements of Valya-Morend Kostulenyituated near the river.

In the boundary stretch from Grozeshty to the Rumanianof FSlciuhysical conditions along the river are similar to those in the area to the north. The number of pond and marsh areas Increases, however, as the river flows southward, particularly on the Rumanian side, and the small wooded areas become increasingly rare.

A main road from Huai crosses near the Rumanian settlement ofOO) to the Soviet settlement of Leusheny Few other sizable Rumanian settlements are located on the Prut in this sector. On the Soviet side, Tofcila-Radukany Toe hi:) and the rayon center Leovos wellumber of smaller settlements, are located on or near the Prut.

From FSlciu to its Junction with the Danube, the Prut flows southward, continuing its broadly meandering course. Marshy areas are prevalent, and near the mouth of tho Prut the large Lake BrntoB lies Just west of the boundary.

Immediately to the south of FSlciu, near the Rumanian settlement of Bcgdanestlailroadlad crosses the boundary. On the Soviet side the railroad runs northeast through several minor settlements before swinging southeast; Its eventual terminus is Belgorod-Dnestrovekly. There isossible road crossing south of FSlciu.

In the northern part of the boundary sector from FSlciu to the Danube, several Rumanian settlements are locatedhe right bank of the Prut. These includendartherumber of larger Soviet settlements form an almost continuous line along the left bank of the lower Prut. From north to south these are Mantaadu-Luy-Isak (Vadu-lul-Isac) ollbashrynza (Brfinza) alenylobodsiya Mare islitsa Prut

:nd Dzhurdzhuleshty (Giurgiulesti)

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_

Just south of Dzhurdzhuleihty,ointilometer from the river mcuth, the Galatl-Peni road and railroad bridge crosses the Prut. This important bridge also carries an oil pipeline.

The boundary follows the Danube from the mouth of the Prut to the point northwest of the city of Tulceohere the Danube divides into two distributaries. The boundary then follows the northern distributary, the Kllla Arm, through the Danube Delta to the Slack Sea.

At the mouth of the Prut the Danube isilometer in width. It is assumed that the boundary follows tbe middle of the sain channel (thalweg) of tbe Danube.

A few kilometers from the mouth of the Prut tbe Danube passes south of the Soviet town of The river then swings southward, passing to the westarge lake on the Soviet side, Otero Cagul (Lacul Cahul). South of this lake the river ahiftaere easterly course, and the boundary follows It southeast to the divergence of the Saint George (Bratul Sfantul Gheorghe) and Kllia (Bratul Chilia) /Kiliyskly Rukay/ Arms of the Danube. Two otherzero Kartal (Lacul) and Ozero Kogurluy (Laculie north cf theIn this sector.

Although some areas along tho river may be cultivated, the land is low and in many places morahy. There are few settlementa directly on the river below Renl. The Soviet settlement of Orlovka (Cartel)) liesilometers north of the boundary near the western end of Ozero Kartal, and tbe Rumanian settlement of) is situated near the river to the south of that lake. mall Island, also called Isaccea, is near the Rumanian shore of the Danube approximately opposite the town of the same name; this island is presumably Rumanian territory, as the main channel of the Danube passes north of It.

From the fork, the Kilia Arm swings northwarderies of broad meanders around the eastern edge of Ozero Kogurluy, then turns southeastward past the Soviet town of Izmail oint aboutilometers below Izmail, theturns northward, then where tho Bratul CSslita branches to the left it leaves the Kilia Arm and follows Bratulhannel that runs south of three Islandsstrovul Salsngic, Dalerul Marc,

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and Dalerul Mlc. The latter two are shown under the single name of Ostrovul Daler. The boundary rejoins the Kilia Arm at the eastern end of Ostrovul Paler and follows It to the northeast, past the Soviet town of Killya (Cbilia The rhrmenian settlement, Chiliaies on the south side of the river. East of Killya'the boundary continues to follow the Kilia Arm north of Babina Island, then south of the island of Salman and post the Soviet town of Vilkovo (vfilcov) (Pertprava

The Kilia Arm broadens considerably in the vicinity of Vilkovo,umber of distributaries leading to the see branch off from it. The boundary follows the Stari Btambul Arm (Bratul Stambul Vechiu) (Sulina;ontinuation of the Kilia Arm,to the Black Sea.

There are no road car railroad crossings of the boundary between the mouth of the Prut and the Black Sea.

C. Boundary Marking. Administration, and Security

Inhe Soviet press announced that theof the exact frontier between Rumonia and the USSR had been completed androtocol describing the exact line, along with maps and other documents, had been signed by representatives of the two countries. ixed Soviet-Rumanian Frontier Commission had been at work on the delimitation and actual marking of the boundary for some time before the signing of the protocol. OnRumanian-Soviet Frontier Treaty was signed in Moscow, but as in tbe case of the protocol the terms were not revealed.

Tho administration of the frontier zones is under the Ministry of the Interior in both Rjsmnla and the USSR. In both countries, standard border-security measures are prescribed by law or decree, but methods of control may vary from area to area, depending on natural conditions and the sensitivity of the frontier sector. Reports from other parts of the European border of the USSR indicate considerable variation in depths of security zones and methods of border control. The features of boundary administration described here are those that apply to frontiers in general. It is doubtful whether all the features of the prescribed frontier-security system are uniformly operative along the river boundary between Rumania and the USSR.

Along all Rumanianoneetersfeet) wide la required to be cleared of trees and any form of cultivation. This zone ls kept plowed and raked by the frontier guards. one

8 feet) back from the frontier line must be kept clear of troeu and brush; and cultivation of orchards, vineyards, or tall plants io prohibitedepthetersrganized hunting is also prohibited ineter zone, and individual Bhooting Is prohibitedC0-meterile) zone, except along the Danube and tbe Slack Sea, where shooting is allowed as far as the banks,

Fixed observation posts are maintained along the boundary at intervalseters, and border guards patrol the frontier in pairs. Tho Rumanian border guards are the Oroni-crl. The smallest organizational unit is the platoon ofoen, which ls divided into functional unitspickets (abouten) and fixed postsen). The platoons are armed with automatic pistols, rifles, machine guns, and hand grenades. The uniforms of the Grantcert are olive green like those of the Rumanian Army, from which they are distinguished by dark- and light-green caps, shoulderboardc, and collar tabs and theirmall metal grenade with the letters GR, on the shoulderboards.

The Soviet Union maintains on even more elaborate system of border zoneo, which appears to conform to the pattern observed Four zonos ore prescribed- oot) zone Inaedlate-ly adjacent to the frontier Is completely cleared. econd zone,eters from the line, is strictly supervised by frontier troops, and various barriers ore installed in It. In moot sectors, this zone is marked by concrete blocks painted black and white and the civilian population has been evacuated from it. In the third zone, which6 miles) back from the frontier, the guards may establish concealed observation posts. The fourth zone extends into the interiorepth ofiles) from the line; in it the population is under the close surveillance of the HVD (Ministry of Internalnd frequent security checks are made. Persons living in or traveling through frontier zones must have passports stamped by the MVD.

Soviet fortifications on the Rumanian-Moldavian frontier are probably typical of those believed to extend all along the Rumanian-USSR boundary. They consist of bunkers spaced-eter intervals, eachun of approximatelyentimeters mannedrew of six men. Watchtowers equipped with searchllghtc and machine guns are located between the bunkers. Troops armed withcarbines and accompanied by watchdogs patrol tho area. Barbed-wire barriers and automatic warning devices such as flares, apparently typical features of other Soviet borders, huve not been mentioned in reports on the Moldavian frontier, but they may bo preoent.

Ii-

In the Chernovtsy area it appears that there are the usual watchtowers on the Soviet side, alongtrip of raked sand between two wooden fences. The watchtowers, which are of wood, are located abouteters from the frontier line, spacedeter intervals, and equipped with searchlights and machine guns. ence, presumably of barbed wire, is thought to be electrically charged. Along the western part of the Rumanian-Soviet border area, in the vicinity of the Sighet-Kolomyya railroad crossing over the Tisa River, similar security measures are known to exist.

Soviet border troops of the MVD carry on extensive espionage activities on both sides of the border. Their uniforms resemble those of the Bed Army but are distinguished by the color green on the cap, shoulderboards, and collar tabs. Kishinev is known to be the headquarters for Soviet border troops in the Moldavian Border District.

The MVD border troops are organized into otryad, kcroendatura, and zastava units. The otryad, or detachment, is the highest organizational unit. The number of otryady stationed along the Moldavian border is not known, but there are usually three to fiveorder district. The border otryad carries on operational workarge boundary sector and also trains recruits and directs Intelligence in tbe frontier area. The subordinate komen-datury are more directly concerned with guarding the boundary through the supervisionumber of outposts (zastavy).

The zastavu is the basic unit for border control. It may be composed ofo ICO men,umber of horses and watchdogs. The number of men and the spacing of the outposts depend on the length, importance, and terrain conditions of the border sector. The zastava operates the watchtowers, patrols, and hidden observation posts along the frontier. Each zastava has telephone connections with its koiccndatura and with neighboring zastavy.

D. tops of the Boundary

The postwar delimitation of the exact boundary between Rumania and the USSR was completedixed Soviet-Rumanian Frontier Commission in The western part of this border is the former frontier between Rumania and Czechoslovakia,oodsource for this lineritish seriesrinted1 (l, in list below). The main available source for the eastern frontier of Rumania in the Bucovina area is three sheets published by the Rumanian Geographic Military.

The source used for the boundary along the Prut and Danube Riversussian map at the scaleublished. rge-scnle oops covering these sectors of the boundary are not available. The only available official map is Karta Pumyriil. The small scale of this map, plus lack of clarity in the printing, makes It impossible to follow the course of the boundary in the Danube Delta area; the boundary is shown along the northern (or Kilia) arm, but its course in relation to minor channels and islets is not clour.

4 German reprintumanianas used for tracing the boundary aa determined from the above sources.

Brltlsh7 War Office, Geographical Sectlor, General Staff,

; /rhjmanian/ Institutul Geograflc Hllitar (Geographic Military

Politiko-Administratlvnaya Karta Ukrainskoyoldatfiikoy SSR (Polltical-Adniinistrutlve Map of the Ukrainian and Moldavian; Olavnoyo Upruvleniyeortografii;

Karta Rumynll (Map of; Peace Treaty with Rumania, Annex

5- ; German General

wsggSB

Figure 2S. The settlement of Tyachev on the Soviet-Runanian frontier, located on the Tisza River at

*

tK-T

APPENDIX A

GAPS IN OfrELLIGKHCE

Id general, Information on the European borders of the USSR must be obtained from accondary sources. Per tho Norwegian and Finnish boundaries, however, the official demarcation naps and protocols were available exceptmall area in the northern part of Finland. Information on boundary marking, administration, and security lsexcept for Norway, Finland, and part of Poland. The latest place names for areas that have recently been annexed by the USSR ore lacking.

The most serious gap in information on the Norway-USSR boundary concerns activities on the Soviet side of tho line. Such information as is availableew areas cornea from observotions from the Norwegian side.

Comprehensive reports on the Norwegian border are available, and although most of them ore old, they hove been brought up to dato to some extent by recent spot information. It la not known whether Norway and the Soviet Union have begun negotiations concerning the use of the waters of the Pasvikelv or the extension of theboundary Into the territorial soo.

Per the Finnish-USSR border, official demarcation maps and protocols were supplemented by AMS maps, but theof the AMS mops Is limited by the small scale. large-scale Soviet mops produced since the USSR acquired Pechenga and Yaniskoskt-Niskakoskl are not available.

Although the boundary between the USSR and thepart of East Prussia has probably been demarcated, no official naps or documents hove become available. Detailed information on boundary marking along this sector Is also lacking.

Along the Cxech-Sovict frontier, boundary Barkers are probably spaced similarly to those along the Polish border. Official maps showing the border as delimited by the treaty ofnd approved by the Mixed Czech-Soviet Commission are not on hand, but the line is showntate Department nap.

It is known that the frontier between Hungary and the USSR baa been demarcatedoundary regime hoit been ogreed upon, but the details hove not been received. The provisions of the agreements on boundary problems signed in Moscow0 arc still unknown -

1

The only available official map of the Rumanian-USSR border is at the scale; larger-scale coverage of the boundary along the Prut and Danube Rivers is lacking.

Mapping deficiencies for all sectors of the boundary have been noted in greater detail in the sections on "Maps of the Boundary-"

APPENDIX B

SOURCES AND EVAr^ATTOK OF SOURCES

of Sourceb

Official documents, including protocols and agreements, are reliable sources for boundary Information. Such materials werefor the northern part of the USSR European boundary. In addition to the sources listed, all of which can be rated of goodreat number of secondary sources were consulted, especially for information on the history of the various sectors of tbe boundary.

In general, research for this report was completed in, but more recent spot Intelligence information was incorporated wherever possible. The added information is believed to be accurate, since practically every report used was confirmed by at least one other source.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Storting

tr in port us CIA4FF USE)

Edward. The Map of Europe by Treaty,

, U

J. League of Nations. Treaty Series, v., Treaty,

sources used in compiling the present study but not specifically cited in the text are:

The Boundary 3etvcen Norway and the USSR,l Oct

ONLY

The Karelo-Finnish Border Region,S

ONLY (out of print) The pQlljh/'ftSFSP-Llthuanian SSR Border Arcn,un

ONLY (out of print)

The Belorusslon-Polish Border Area,5out of print)

.Hi :r. yiriar.nS ONLY (out of

The fronia-nian-USSR BorderKrlva to tin- Black Sea.S ONLY (out of print)

It. Haataja, KySsti. "Creations Jurldlque Surgies Lots de La

Revision de la Front le re Finlandalse entre le Golfe de Bothale et 1'Oceano., U

State, Oslo. ,

State, Oslo. ,

State, Moscow. 9

Norway/ Overenskcronter med Frcmmede Stater (Agreements with

Foreigno 4, tr In part as CIAFF USE)

Oslo. 1

State, Oslo. ,

verenskomster med Fremracde Stater (Agreements with

Foreigno0tr by State. Dlv Foreign Language Services,R-XXlJ U)

Oslo. 6

15. Army, Helsinki. 5

of Nations. Treaty Brrlea, v. HI, noreaty

State, Helsinki.

"Peace Treaty of" tepartcect of State Bulletin.

v. H,7, U

Fbrfattning3samllnga^ FCrdragaserle (Collection of the

Statutes of0tr as CIAFF USE)

withoyartment of State Bulletin, v. XII,

,, U

of Peace with" Treaties of Peace with

Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rcnimanla, and Finlandepartment of Stateuropeanreaties separately paged, U

fiafrsfijt FT"

State, Helsinki. , IS

Russian and Finnish Protocols for the Settlement oi" Border

Disputes and Incidents,tr as CIAec

State, Helsinki.

Rajnyart1opalveluohjo sMtnto' (The Border Patrol Service

h6tr aa CIA FDD0S ONLY)

(Sucanen) Aactiuikotoelnan Sopimussarja (UlJ-Ovaltain

ehnyt.Collection of the Statutes ofgreements Concluded with Foreign,tr as CIA0FF USE)

Srdragsserie (Collection of the

Statute? of2

(tr as State Department Rpt5)

Ja Reuvostoliiton VKllsenV' (Survey-

ing of the Boundary Between Finland and theaanmittaus, v. IX, ,tr as CIA4FF USE)

Ja Heuvostolliton VHllsen Rajankgynti

(Surveying of the Boundary Between Finland and the USSR During, Maannlttaus. v. XV,,tr as CIAFF USE)

Peace Conferencetate file nos

D-Iol,, U

Times5.

Journal of Central European Affairs, v.o

Jl. League of Rations. Treaty Series,,, U

eague of Rations. Treaty Series, State, Berlin. 9 U

j4. Department of State. Soviet Rule la Eastern,.

35. Department of State Bulletin,,, V

56. Department of State Radio Bulletin,, p.

57- "Treaty Betveen tbe Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Polish Republic on tbe Bov let-Polish Stateoscow Mews,, P-

State, Warsaw. 9

Department of State. "The Soviet-Polish Territorial Exchange

Agreement of" DBS Information Paper,

Department. WDG8 Intelligence9 State, Moscow. ,

State, Warsaw.

State, Warsaw. ,

United Rations. Treaty Series,,. United nations. Treaty Series,

Department. WDOS Intelligence6

encl, U

of Peace Betveen the Allied and Associated Powers and

Austria, Together With Other- Treaties,ermain-enondon,

, U

State, Prague. ncl

State, Prague. ,

State, Prague. ,

Peace Treaties (Various Treat lea and Agreements Betveen the

Allied and Associateden DocBO, U

RJE^

52. State, Moscow.

53- War Itepsrtnent. WJXJS Intelligence, c

54. Hertslet, Echmrd. Tbe Map of Europe by Treaty, v. IT,.

55- Popovlci, Andrei. The Political Status of Bessarabia,, U

56. State, Moscow. ncl

57- "Armistice Agreement Between the US and the USSR and the UK andogether with Annex and Protocol, signed at Moscowxecutive Agreement Scries,

58. Mavy, Bucharest. , State, Bucharest.

Air, Switzerland. ,

Havy, Bucharest. 1

State, Bucharest. ,

"Frontier Controls of the USSR and Soviet Satellites,"

Department of State Intelligence

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Original document.

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