MOLOTOVSK SHIPYARD NO. 402 IN MOLOTOVSK ARCHANGED OBLAST (SC RR 79)

Created: 10/27/1954

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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CIA/SC/RROctoberAuthorized

Assistant

Office of CurrentNo" "'

MOLOTOVSK SHIPYARDN MOLOTOVSK ARCHANGEL OBLAST

OA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS9

Office of Research and Reports CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

Ta hie s

Page

Modernization, and Repair ofand Merchant Vessels of Molotovsk Shipyard

8 to April

Other than Ships, of Molotovsk Shipyard

o April

Required to Construct Naval Vessels in

the

Estimated Number of Direct Employees Required to Construct Soviet Naval

Estimated Number of Employees at Molotovsk Shipyard

. 37

Plants supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw. Semifinished, and Finished 40

Possible Suppliers of Components for Skoryy-Class Destroyers Built at Molotovsk Shipyard No.

Personnel at Molotovsk Shipyard No. Si

Theoretical Concurrent Construction Program for Naval Vessels in Molotovsk Shipyard No. 54

10. Estimated Annual Naval. Vessel Production Capacity of

Molotovsk Shipyard No.

I I. Probable Current Construction Program for

Cargo Vessels in Molotovsk Shipyard No.

12. Estimated Annual Merchant Vessel Production Capacity of

Molotovsk Shipyard No.

ClA/dC/RR 79

MOLOTOVSK SHIPYARD NO. 4Q2 IN MOLOTOVSK ARCHANGEL OBLAST*

Summary and Conclusions

Molotovsk Shipyardn Mololovsk. Archangel Oblast, is the most important shipyard on the north coast of the USSR. The design and arrangement of facilities indicate greater emphasis on construction than on repair. Naval vessels of all classes and types ranging in size from small coastal craft to battleships or large carriers and submarines can be built.

With existing facilities andour shift, the shipyard is capable of annuallytandard displacement tonsf naval construction, which is equivalentceangoing submarines, and IS subchasers. Thc shipyard is alsoof producing0 gross register tonsfships equivalent toedium-size cargo vessels, if shipyardwere used for this type of production. These estimates are based on

* The estimates and conclusions contained in this report representest judgment of lhe responsible analyst as

Standard displacementurface vessel is the displacement (in tonsounds) of the vessel, complete, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready for sea.1 armament and ammunition,outfit, provisions and fresh water for crew, miscellaneousnd implements of every description that are intended to be earned in war but without fuel or reserve boiler-feed water on board. Standard displacementubmarine is thc surface displacement and is similar to the standard displacementurface vessel but without lube oil, fresh water, or ballast water of any kind on board.

"* Cross register tonnageeasure wherein the entire internal cubic capacity of the vessel is expressed in register0 cubic feet'to the ton). Certain spaces are not included in thc measurement such as peak and other tanks of water ballast, open forecastle, bridge and poop,excess, certain light and air spaces, anchor gear, steering gear, whcclhousc. galley, cabins for passengers, and other minor spacesby law.

Tg^sEett^r

a normal construction program utilizing all facilities rather than the maximum-size vessel on each building way. Production on this basis vould seriously limit any simultaneous repair activities.

Productionhich was probably the peak year, amounted toDT of naval vessels,RT of merchant vessels, and considerable production of components for other plants. Employment1 is estimated atorkers.

Lower production23 probably can be attributed to the omission of this shipyard from the program of building coastal destroyers and destroyer leaders. Possible construction of submarines now may be under way.

Further continued development in this yard can be expected until it becomes capable of maintaining any northern fleet that the USSR is likely to establish, with the possible exception of repair of underwater damage to large vessels. It is believed that repairs would be carried out in thc graving docks in Rosta in preference lo dismantling masts and structure aboveoot line as would be required to dock vessels in Molotovsk.

The location of the shipyard in ot strategic importance. It is one of the fow large shipbuilding centers that has access to open sea through Soviet-controlled waters. Except in the most severe winters thean be kept open to navigation. Very little foreign trade passes through the port, because nearby Archangel is the principal seaport for the area. Any construction within the large covered shipbuilding docks remains hidden untd "early ready for trials.

* The height of the entrance to thc large covered building docks is estimatedeet. It is assumed that the keelruiser when afloat iseet above thc dock floor and that thereoot clearance at the top. Thiseet which may be occupied by vessel structure and uprights.

The shipyard is well developed arid well coordinated, but is vulnerable with respect to its physical location. It is located aboutiles from the principal industrial centers Of the USSR. lo the shipyard consists mainly of thc Archangel-Vologda railroad line andmall extent the Baltic-White Sea Canal, which is open to navigationonths of the year. Heat and'power are obtained from the single plant adjoining the shipyard. ullprogram, industrial labor would have to be rccrtiited from the central and southern parts of western USSR because there are few heavy industries in the area of Molotovsk. The chief economic hazard of the Shipyard is the question of an assured flow of raw materials aridproduced by other industries.

This report

of Soviet shipyard studies made in an effort to better assess theand importance of the Soviet shipbuilding industry.

and Location.

Molotovsk Shipyard No., also known as Naval Dockyard, Molotovsk Naval Yard. Russia Naval Shipyard, or as Zavod. is situated north of the city ot Molotovsk. Archangel Oblast,. in Economic Region lb. **

*' Footnote references inarabic numerals are to sources listed"-n.

** The term region in this report refers to the economic regions defined and numbered on CIA.i (First. USSR: Economic Regions,

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TjQE-SEeKFl

The shipyard lies on the southern shore of thewhich empties into the Dvinekaya Cuba, the southeasternthe White

The harbor and shipyard arc enteredredged channelengthautical milesidtheet. Because of rapid silting, constant dredging is required toepth ofoeet.

Tides are semidiurnal. Mean high water springseet and mean high water neaps riseeet.

a a

The shipyard, including the area of the main electric powor

xtends in an east-west direction along the Nikol'skoye Ust'ye

ibouteet and extends inland abouteet. It covers an areacres.

It is believed that weather conditions are similar to those in Archangel, where the mean annual temperaturewith anmaximum temperaturen July and an absolute minimum of minusn January.

The shipyard is aboutiles west of Archangel. ingle-track railroad of standard Soviet gage leads to Isakogorka. about iles southeastward on the Archangel-Vologda railroad.line, where there are large classification yards. Another single-track railroad line, probably standard Soviet gage, leads eastward through Rikasikha to Archangel. The dirt road leading east to the Archangel area is usable in winter only. ane plant road connects the commercial port with the city. Other roads are unimproved and in poor condition.

IH. History and Organisation. 1. History.

The shipyard, the harbor, and the town of Molotovsk date from thes. The shipyard and the harbor have been built on land largely reclaimed from the Nikol'skoye Ust'ye. Nothing previouslyhe areaew fishermen's huts and the old Nikolsky monastery

Construction of thc harbor and shipyard beganrobablye nullecision3 toarge Soviet Northern Naval Fleet. It is believed that the plans were tohipyard for the construction of new vessels to supportleet. In view of lhe secret prewar collaboration with Germany, it ia probable thai [he advice and technical assistance of German engineers who had experience in building the shipyard at Wilhelmshaven were placed at the disposal of thc USSR for lhe building of Molotovsk Shipyard.

Following the war the shipyard al Wilhelmshaven was dismantled and its machinery transported to the far north in Soviet ships. There seems to be little doubt that the destination of part of this equipment was Molotovsk. 3/

Work on the shipyard continuedhen it was halted by the war. During the war the town suffered some damage, but the damage lo the shipyard was slight. Building resumed in the shipyard/nd Figurehow the layout of the shipyard and the arrangement o. facilities. The transverse building ways shown as pointsndn the chart of the shipyard were completed and in use before and during the war. The large covered building docks and launching basin shown asndere not complete and operational

Labor camps of many political prisoners were Set up nearby to supply the labor force. Following theew prisoners of war also were employed. It was reported that00 forced workers were employed in the expansion of harbor and shipyard installations after the war. 5/

Construction of new buildings and Utilities may be under way. It is believed lhat development will continue until the shipyard is capable of maintaining any northern fleet the USSR is likely to establish.

2.

Before4 Molotovsk Shipyardaa under thc

* ollow p.

jurisdiction of ihc Third Chief Directorate of the Ministry of Transport and Heavy Machine Building. 6/ The combined ministries were returned to their former status as individual ministries following thcof Itassumed that Mololovsk Shipyards again under thc Ministry of thc Shipbuilding Industry and subordinate to thc chief directorate in charge of plants producing submarines and large warships.

IV. Importance.

Molotovsk Shipyards the largest and most important shipbuilding center on the north coast of the USSR- It was originally designed for the production of naval vessels and for work beyond the capacity of Rosta Shipyard in the Kol'skiy Zaliv (Kola Inlet). Except in unusual winters, approaches to the yard can be kept open to navigation. 7/

The Soviet Navy, required by geographic restriction toa separate fleet for each coastal region, has developed separate basing, shipbuilding, and repairing facilities for each fleet. and repair for the North Sea Fleet is handled, within its limitations, by Molotovsk Shipyard.

Thc covered and heated shipbuilding docks permit uninterrupted construction of large naval vessels of cruiser, battleship, or medium carrier size. These docks are tho largest facility of their kind in Ihc USSR.nd. in terms of ability to handle large-sized ships and offacilities, the docks are probably the best in the USSR. Its foundries and shops produce hull and machinery components for ships built throughout the USSR.

This yard is one of the few large shipyards that has access to open sea through Soviet-controlled waters. The shipyard is exceptionally well screened from observation by commercial vessels trading in Molotovsk. Very little commercial shipping passes through the port, which isile from the shipyard. Also, any construction under way in the covered ways remains hidden until it is nearly ready for Irials.

V. Buildings and Facilities.

The charts of the shipyard, developed from enlargedut revised lo agree with various intelligence reports, are believed

loeasonably accurate picture. Some of the buildings plotted from aerial photography remain unidentified. ey to the buildings and facilities thai have been identified will bc found on Figure I.

Construction of the shipyard began For the mosl pan the buildings are of permanent construction, with masonry walls, metal and composition rcofs, steel-supported roof structures, and overhead crane

lntrayard transportation is chiefly by railroad. As can be seen on the chart of thc shipyard, the shops, shipbuilding ways, docks, and outfitting quays are well served by railroads. Trackage is generally standard Soviet gage so thai freight cars may be shunted directly into shops, shipbuilding ways, and outfitting quays without transshipmentof freight. The shipyard is protected on the land sideence. Reports as to the type of construction vary from masonry to wood lopped with an electrified wire. All entrances are guarded by armed guards and entrance in by pass only.

Descriptions of the shipyard's building, equipment, and facilities were obtained from many reports. The equipment is listed as reported, even though it may be considered inadequate to perform the operations indicated by the designated use of the buildings. Although the majority of sources had very little knowledge of thc installed equipment, it is believed that the designated use of Ihe buildings is fairly accurate.

Gasoline Storage Tanks.

The gasoline storage tanks are abouteci in diameter byeel/

* The identifying numbers for this section correspond to those found in Figureertain numbers have been omitted because nothing is known about the buildings Ihcy identify other than their probable use.

COg SECRET

Pumping Station for Subterranean Oil Depot.

The pumping station for the subterranean oil depotingle-story building equipped with diesel pumps.

4. Subterranean Oil Depot.

The subterranean oil depot is an undergoundeet long byeet deep (width not given). It is used for the storage of oil. As the sourceteam line in connection with the pipes attached to the oil depot, it is probable that the stored oil is fuel oil of the viscosity of bunker-c.

6. Pipe Shop.

The pipe shopopper smithy, valve-testing equipment, pipe-bending equipment with sand-filling installation for pipes, an electric weldinglumber's shop, several small forges, lathes, two overhead trolley hoists inay. and pipe racks. Inhere are administrative offices, the foreman's office, tool issue rooms, material issue rooms, an electric shop which occupies part of three floors, and the mess hall. The plant is equipped with steam, compressed air, and water service. The shop produces valves and pipes, and it has been reported that crew lockers were manufactured and that some joiner work was done here.

11. Pumping Station for Launching Basin.

The pumping station for thc launching basintory building containingorsepower (hp) electrically-driven pumps, which are reported to be capable of filling the basin to its maximum capacity in

15. Launching Basin Gate.,,

The clear width of the entrance to the launching basin is estimatedeet. ingle-piece floating caisson is warped into position toatertight lock so that the basin may be floodedeight necessary to launch or dock vessels in the covered building docks. The caisson is approximatelyeet high andeet wide at the top. In each of the basin wall ends, which form thc piers to receive the caisson, arcowspenings each in the west face of each pier and the same numberthe entrance, facing north and south, respectively, but located west of

thc caisson. These openings areeeteet by an unknown depth. Electric motorsorsepower were installed in some of the/ It is believed that some of these openings are for the purpose of draining the flooded basins and that others house the motors that operate the flood gates and possibly the warping winches which position the floating caisson.

21. Transverse Building Ways.

Thc approximate length of the transverse building wayseet. The inland depth is difficult to determine. It was reported thatays,eet long, were planned, of whichere completed/ Apparently these ways were planned for the serial construction of destroyers and smaller craft. 4 aerial photographs showarallel building areas exist, which would give an effective building width ofeet between the rail tracks and the water andeet between rail tracks for each ofnlandareas. Thc rail tracks crossing the building ways could also serve mobile cranes. Vessels constructed on these ways are side launched directly into the water.

Before the completion of the large covered building docks and

the large launching basinhese ways, together with the one at

ere the only areas in which ships were constructed. It is

not known whether or not they still exist, but it seems reasonable to

believe that small craft still may be built or submarine sections

assembled during the summer months. No heavy lifting facilities have

been observed in this area. rm mobile cranes of unknown

capacity were observedhich are believed to havesed also

in conjunction with thc outfitting quay,

i/

Area.

The open area at pointas reported to be swampy andwith There was no indication of yard expansion in this area, although, the building of graving docks or additional covereddocks north of the existing covered area is considered logical.

Basin Walls.

For the most part the walls of the large basin are an earthen dam sloping on both sides and surfaced on topidth ofeet with

precast concrete slabs. Thc outside slope of the dam is seeded, probably to prevent erosion and thc inside slopes are faced with rock. Thc top of the dam is estimated to be abouteet above the level of the southern floor of the basin, Reports conflict as to thc existenceate in the eastern wall, opposite tho main basin entrance. The construction of this eastern wall is somewhat different. It is reported to have boon made upetwork of wooden beams, but the existenceate is The part of the wall forming thc main entrance piers,nd the slots into which slide the gates of thc covered building docks arc of concrete. The earthen dam was begun before World War II and completed/

28. Launching Basin. North.

The final excavation of the north launching basin was made in the summer8 although thc sand bar lying to the west and in way of thc basin entrance was not removed until the summer The basin was excavatedepth ofeet below the water.level of the Nikol'skoye Ust'ye. The floor of this basin was covered with gravelncheshis basin is normally flooded level with the Nikol'skoye Ust'ye except during launching or docking operations.during which the water level is rained to the required height.

Basin, South.

floor of the south launching basin iseet below the shipyard ground level andeet above the water level in the north basin. The floor of this basin is sloped slightly toward the north basin. In front of the building docks, however, it is practically level with thc dock floor. This basin is dry at all times except when the basin is flooded for launching or docking vessels.

oint near the entrance to the southern half of the south building dock and running westward for the full length of the basin floorets of steel rails set in concrete abouteet apart flush with the basin door. These rails carry the launching cradles on which vessels differing in size but including destroyers are moved from inside the south dock into the launching basin. {See. Thc remainder of the basin floor is covered with gravel.

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North and south of the cradle tracks and at right angles to them are installed concrete skids or bearers surfacedinch-thick The height of the bearers above lhe basin floor is aboutnches. On the south side thc bearers are abouteet long, and those on the north are abouteet long. Their use is not known, but it is thought that they may be used for temporary docking and possibly for multiple launchings by skidding newly built vessels onto the bearers beforethe basin. (See)

As both the north and south docks were used to construct vesselst is probable that similar launching cradle tracks were installed to serve the north dock.

Thc layout ofasins, pointsould indicateider use of the south basin was contemplated than the floating of vessels into and out of the building docks. It is considered feasible that this basin may be developed to dock vessels for underwater inspection and repair of hull, propellers, and tailshafts and, with the installation of lifting facilities to effect repairs.

for Launching Cradle.

Sec thc descriptionbove.

Secured to the top of thebasin wallumber of bollards.

See the description Covered Shipbuilding rjocks. *

The covered shipbuilding docks are the largest facility of this kind in the USSR. The main buildmg iseet longc with an over-all height excluding skylightseet. The building

*> See Figureollowing

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is heated so that work tan proceed during thc winter months uninterrupted hy extreme weather conditions. At the eastern end there are twond e. which probably contain light machine and assembly shops on the first floor and administrative and engineering offices on the upper floors.

The main building is dividedain divisions, thend b, and the subassembly area c. Each of thedocks is surroundedidesoncrete wall approximatelyeet high. The fourth side or entrance can be closedatertight gate. Each dock is watertight and can be flooded to the top of thc wall. Both docks can be flooded simultaneously or singly, as required. s aareaeet wide. Four railroad tracks run thc full length of thcetween the docks and the outside walls of the buildinghrough the center passage between the docks. Crane rails are installed on top of the dock walls and continue over similar support for the length of the subassembly area ahead of the building docks. Eachdock and assembly area is servedantry cranes,on capacityton capacity. Twelve trolley hoist tracks run the width of the building, one under each skylight. Each track is mounted byon trolley hoists.

The entrance to each dock, point f,eet wideeet high. The entrance doors are probably sectional in construction. The lowerisieceeet higheet long and designed, when closed, toatertight end of the dock. This lower section, when opened, slidesails into concrete slots in thc basin dam. The upper section of each door is abouteet higheet wide and is suspended fromtracks.

s

Entrance into the building docks from the passages and subassembly area is by means of watertight openings, eight in each dock.

The launching and docking of vesselsomewhat unusualalthough it is similar to the orocedure of the Komsomol'sk Shipyard on the Amur River. There are two procedures used in launching. The first is used when one or more vessels arc constructed in one dock and all are ready for launching. Then the basin gate, is closed, and basinsndnd thc shipbuilding dock are floodedeight sufficient to float the vessel or vessels. Each vessel is then moved from the shipbuilding dock tohere it remains until the water level is lowered equal to that of the outside channel. The basin gate,s then removed,

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and the launching procedure is completed. The second launchingis usedr more vessels arc buildingock and are in various stages of completion. The construction schedule is set up so that the vessel occupying the southwest corner of the dock is thc most advanced. When this vessel is ready for launching, it is moved from its position in the building dock to basiny means of acradle mounted on thc steel rails, The cradles arc towed by cables which run over the drums, mounted on top of the basin wall,o the winch house, The gate of the building dock then is closed and made watertight, and basinsndre floodedeight sufficient to float the vessel. The vessel then is moved out of the basins as described before,

39- Transverse Building Ways.

The "Artillerist" class subchasers, which areeet long, were buill on the transverse building ways during World War II. One report indicates that the caisson gate for thc large launching basin, No.n layout, was constructed at this

40. Workshop.

The two-story building at pointn the chart isorkshop or an assembly shop for vessels under construction on transverse ways,

43. Wharf.

The wharf may possibly be used for the loading and unloading of stores and cargo, where they are handled by the ship's own facilities. No wharf-stationed lifting facilities have been reported.

75. Fabrication and Subassembly Shop.

The fabrication and subassembly shop is the principal hull steel fabrication shop in the shipyard. Small subassemblies are made here and transported by rail to the shipbuilding docks andadio and radar equipment shops also are located in this building. It is believedold loft may be located on an upper floor.

xqp-seckPi*

Machine Shop.

f this shop probably contains small shops and tool rooms on the first floor and administrative offices on thc second and third floors. Section b contains an electric repair shop, the chief mechanic's office, milling machinery, steam hammers,orge.ontains several lathes for machining propeller shafts up toeet long, drillumber of smaller lathes,hip fitters shop. oading and unloading area. Onemallton capacity overhead traveling hoists serve each of

Shop.

Thc southern transverse section houses thc mechanics', thc electricians', and carpenters' shops on the first floor, the mess hall on the second floor, and the administrative offices on the third floor. The main shop houses milling machines, drill presses,umber of small lathes. Thc main shop is dividedections, each of which is served by one or twoton capacity overhead traveling

Shop.

The machine shop ats probably also usedressing shop; for castings. One report states that anchors and propellers arc finished

Forge and Machine Shop.

The south end of the building listed ats two stories high and houses administrative offices. The main shoporge and machine shopumber of lathes and boring machines, most of which are new and of German manufacture. Large BITIER lathes installed in this shop arc reported to be capable of machining naval gun barrels. This shop is reported to be capable of producing naval guns of small caliber upnches. It is also reported that flanges, turbines and electric generators are produced It is believed thatand generators may be assembled rather than manufactured here.

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Boiler and Machine Shop.

Thc boiler and machine shop was buill after the war. The southern end contains administrative offices. The western .half of the main shop is an assembly areaood-surfaced concrete

floor. The eastern half has abouteavy machinery installations. Thc north endoading and unloading area. The main shop and

loading areas are served by overhead traveling craneston

capacity in the loading areaton and smaller capacity in the

main

Steam Plant with Probable Machine Shop Addition.

The northern part of thc steam plant houses the steam genera, ting and compressed-air machinery. The southern part is believed to have been constructed since the war.

ry

building atontains two coke-fired melting furnaces. It also contains reheating furnaces and steam presses which forge propeller shafts.

Foundry.

The foundry was probably completed Fabrication Shop.

The shop ataa reported to be'a rollingt is possible that steel plates and shapes are rolled here, but it is believed unlikely because of the great distance from steel ingot The source may refer to plate-straightening or bending rolls, in which case the shop may have reheating furnaces. The shop isa hull-fabrication shop.

Electric Power and Heating Plant.

The capacity of the electric power and heating plant is reported to0 kilowatts. Although Ihis plant appears to be separate from the shipyard proper, it has been included among the facilities because il is thc chief source of electric power and possibly of stea heal for the shipyard.

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Cranes.

Very little information has been received relative to lifting facilities for the outfitting piers, poinlsndor the transverse building ways,nd for general use throughout theton floating crane andrmed cranes, however, were observed near It has been reported that two floating cranes are stationed at the commercial port. Oneelfcrane of ISO-ton capacity and the otherton capacity is mountedumb barge. These floating cranes could very well serve thealso because it is doubtful that commercial trade through the port requires the full-time use of thc cranes.

There are no data available that can adequately reflect the capability of the shipyard or of the associated shops during theo produce either naval or merchant vessels. The construction of this new shipyard began? and with the exception of the war years, during which all construction practically ceased, has been in astate of development.

A. Ships.

t Until the summer9 the only building ways from which ships could be launched were the transverse ways shown at pointsndn the shipyard chart. On these ways no ship larger thanlasswas built. Although no confirmation is available of the number of ships, the following types of vessels were reported to have been built on these ways: destroyersubchasersubmarines (probably SHCHnd medium and small war and merchant vessels. 9 it was reportederies of "escort0 toongfoot beam eachropellers were being constructed in the shipbuilding dock. Thetime of these vessels was reportedonths eacheported planned program ofer year. It is believed that the reference is to the transverse building ways rather than to the large covered shipbuilding docks, shown asecause the report refers to the large shipbuilding docks as the "concrete drydock."

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In the summer9 the launching basin to the large covered shipbuilding docks was completed and made operational. Thisenabled the shipyard to extend its capacity to the building and launching of vessels of battleship or carrier sise. Before thc completion of the basin, no vessel could be launched from the large building docks. Several reports, however, stale thatattleships were laid down in th*o=0 Other reports state thatattleshipDT was under construction and that it was building in the south dock. It is believed that the latter reports are probably true, becauseon gantry cranes had not been installed in thc north dock After the war the USSR apparently abandoned the battleship program, and the hull in the south dock was completelyby the early part

Following the dismantling of the battleship, the Molotovskalongther shipyards, one in each major fleet area, began the construction of an improved class of destroyer known as thcO" Or "Skoryy" class.

Tablehows what is believed to be the principal naval and merchant vessel production, modernisation, and repair at the Molotovsk shipyard8 to the date of this report. Tonnage figureB reported are an estimate of tons produced withinmonth period and are not necessarily synonymous with the number of vessels delivered.

The nature of the work listed innd the apparentdate of each vessel indicate that the work was accomplishedheated covered building docks. state that

destroyers were under construction in the south dock8

it

In addition to the nrnUers listed inhere are reports ntroduction.

/ These arc uniden-

tified projects which may be small craft conHtruction or repair contracts. As stated earlier in this report, such work aa small craft construction and possibly barge building would probably bc done on the open transverse building ways in thc northern part of the shipyard.

ollows on page 21

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The production lislcd inas derived from anstudy

that lhe MolotovsK sinpyaiu wag one of thc four shipyards building thc Skoryy class destroyer. Also it showed that this program continued over the period shown in Table I

Using the date ot the tint appearance oiiwisuvyai

as evidence that the vessel had been delivered by the shipyard, togethernowledge of the building facilities within the shipyard, provided the basis whereby production rates were determined. With the exception of the four destroyers deliveredhe production time required for each destroyer is estimated asonths. Thc two railroad car ferries

built by the shipyard are believed to be the Chulim and the Severny. which

made the trip from Archangel to the Black Sea in

the destroyersimilar to the program under way during

thc same period in, the shipyard at Vladivostok. The class of destroyer or the number involved is not known. The modernization is believed to be quite extensive as considerable time was allotted to this project.

Sufficient information it not available to slate conclusively that submarine construction is an actuality. It is highly probable that ocean patrol submarines of either or both" or "W" classes will be constructed at. as this program is under way in the three other major fleet areas.

Up to the date of this report, with the exception of the dismantled battleship, no construction larger than the Skoryy-class destroyer has been reported under constructional any place in the shipyard.

Vessels of destroyer size and smaller built in the covereddocks can be essentially completed before launching. Because of the great height of the entrance to the docks, such items as thc stacks, superstructure, and masts, can be erected before launching. It is believed

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IDE SCGRfiyr^

that complete lining out including all naval ordnance is accomplished within the dock. Immediately following the floating of the secondin thc south basin, smoke was observed coming from the stacks, indicating that steam was being generated, and the conclusion may be drawn that only dock and sea trials remained to be accomplished.

of Ships.

Thero is little indication of extensive ahip repair activities. During thc6essel of cruisor size was undergoing an undetermined amount of conversion at ihc fitting-out quay, pointn Figure 1. The destroyer Gremyashchiy.nevnyy-class destroyer, reported burned out during the war, was also rebuilt in the shipyard. This destroyer was moved into the north dock of the large covered shipbuilding docks in

No heavy lifting facilities were observed at any of the quays to indicate that major repair or fitting out could take place in the open.

The only facilities which can adequately accomplish major hull and machinery repair or overhaul are the large covered docks. Large veaeels can be docked in the covered docks only after all top masts and structure aboveoot line have been dismantled.

The shipyard is well equipped with machine shops, fabrication and assembly shops, foundries, and forges. All hull fabrication, submarine hull fabrication is believed to be accomplished in the40/

In addition to supporting the shipbuilding and ship repair activities of the shipyard, the various shops produce much equipment for other shipyards and industrial installations.ists the more important production for outside consumers.

The production shown in Table 2.

. probably reflectsortion of thesupport of other shipyards and industrial installations. Muchequipment furnishedor thc Skoryy destroyerdestroyer program, and

ferries, was in connection with the Interfactory Cooperation Plan (Mez.h

* ollows on

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Zavodskoye Kooperirovanive MZKI.

no information is available on which to assess the component p, oouction for the western Soviet shipyards. The principal products furnished byor the Skoryy program atere hull components consisting of stem and stern frame castings, propeller struts and shaft tubes, rudders, and chain and hawse pipes. It is highly probable that, under the MZK plan for thc Skoryyfurnished theestroyers built inn Leningradn Nikolayev with specialized products such as it furnished for theestroyers built in its own plant and at.

indicate thatill furnish Plantcomponentsthe same general cate-

gory as thosene Skoryy destroyers.

The shipyard has fine machine shops, and its progressiveindicates that the yard willreater portion of the manufacture of thc end products than previously possible, Therefore, past production recordsf relatively little importance in assessing the Over-all value of thc shipyard.

VII. Labor.

Reports up to9 as to the nvmber of shipyard employees range from0 employees. During this period thewas engaged in producing ships, erecting shops, installingand building thc large launching basin.

The employees in the immediate postwar years were mainly forced laborers, many of whom were women,ew prisoners of war. mall number of Soviet free civilians were employed asin charge of shipbuilding.

Three shifts, composed.-ofmployees each, were used in the large, covered shipbuilding docksestroyers were under construction in the south dock and no work was under way in the north dock. Each shiftaval personnel, most of whom were skilled workers;pprentices;ree civilians who were in charge of shipbuilding; andorced laborers. Work in most of the production

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shops and covered building docks during lhe69 was reported being carried on

Shipboard electrical work including marine communications is done by two trusts which apparently operate independently of but coordinate their work with the shipyard. These two trusts, the Marine Electrical (ElektrcmortrestEMT) and the Marine Communications (Svyaz'mortrestMT) are responsible for specialist work andtheir own labor units.

A theoretical but realistic program for thc construction of naval vessels in the shipyard {see) indicatesons can be completed annually. This production wouldabor forcemployeeshift basis. Assuming that this direct force isercent of the total employment, the total shipyard force required would

In calculating the number of direct employees,the figures inhowing tho number of man-hours required in the US to construct certain types of naval vessels were

Table 3

Man-Hours Required to Construct Naval Vessels

In the US

Tonnage Totalofper SDT

Tableollows on* Direct employees are personnel whose labor is directly chargeablepecific ship; indirect employees are personnel engaged in management, clerical work, maintenance, and the like.

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The productivity of rhc free Soviet shipyard worker is assumed comparable to that of the US worker. No factor of relative efficiency was therefore used. The continued use of forced labor in Soviet production shops and shipbuilding facilities would, however, make doubtful thc estimated production rates and the adequacy of the estimated total number of employees,

The working year (man-year) in the USSRaysorking hours. On this basis the direct labor required to yield the possible productionDT of naval construction is shown in Table 4.

Table 4

Estimated Number of Direct Employees Required to Construct Soviet Naval Vessels

w

Type of Vessel

(SDT)

Em*

50

120

327

000

0

071

probable program for the construction of cargo vessels in the shipyard (seendicates0 CRT can be completed annually. S factor5 man-hours required toRT of cargo construction, the annual program would requireirect

* Tabicollows on p. 56

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employees workingshift basisour man-year. Thc total labor force for the yard would bemployees.

As no information is available as to the total number of current employees, an estimate is made in Tablef employment for the This year was selected because the greatest known tonnage was produced in that year, and therefore employment would represent availability and may possibly represent current employment.

5

Estimated Number of Employees at Molotovsk Shipyard1

/

Direct Employees

Type of Work

Destroyer Construction Car Ferry Construction

Cther b/

Total

an-hours per GRT was used insteadper GRT as these-car ferries arc more complex thanvessels.

percent of the total of direct employees have beenbe engaged In the production of components for otherrepair and small craft construction, capitaland the like.

A shipbuilding technical school in Molotovskear courses to both sexes fromoears of age. This school trains students to become technicians, mechanics, and technologists inship machinery, and

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Sources of Power and Materials

freighters call at the port of Molotovsk, but no estimate of actual tonnage handled by the port is available. Inadequate cargo transfer facilities and poorly supervised and inexperiencedfrequently delay cargo unloading. The bulk of freight moved into the shipyard is by

Shipyard imports from the interior mainly must be shipped over the double-track Archangel-Vologda railroad line or by inland waterway over the Baltic-White Sea canal, which also connects with the Volga waterway system at Shcherbakov. This inland waterway system is open to navigation from May to

Electric power and probably some steam heat is supplied to the shipyard from the municipal power plant located at the eastern end of the shipyard,n Figure 1. The capacity of this plant is reported to be0 kilowatts. The estimated consumption of the shipyard isillion kilowatt-hours per yearoincident peak loadilowatts basedpercent load factor. This plant supplies the shipyard, the city of Molotovsk, and part of the city of Archangel with electric power. This power plant is not connected with any major grid system. It is tied inmall generating plant at

No data are available indicating the amounts of raw,or finished materials received by the shipyard. Coke, steel plate, cement, and wood are received in large quantities by rail. Foundry pig iron, steel forteel plates, and shapes aro probably obtained from thend possibly from Moscow and Armor plate is obtained from the Izhora/Kuybyshcv Plant at Kolpino. Coal is probably received by rail or water from thc Pechora Basin and by water from Novaya Zcmlya.

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the majority of steel, electrical and electronic equipment, and heavy machinery came from western USSR. Marine boilers were probably produced by the Baltic shipyard in Leningrad, which furnished boilers to; propulsion turbines were probably furnished by the Kirovplant in Leningrad, which also furnished turbines to. Considerable lighter machinery and much shipboard equipment was furnished by plants in the Far East. Of these plants.. the Amur shipyard in Komsomol'sk. was by far the heaviest supplier.

Tableists the more important items.

supplied to. s not meant to suggest that the items listed were the only items supplied from plants outside the Molotovsk shipyard oringle reference constitutes the total supply of an item. There is reason to believe that the supplier of each item listed furnished that item for each ship of the same class built at Molotovsk.

Additional suppliers of components, for thedestroyers, may. the

Amur shipyard at Komsomol'sk.

the pattern of component supply under the MZK plan would indicate that each of the fourreceived components from the same plant. The plants listed inre'listed as possible, suppliers only.

ollows on page* ollows on page 48

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Table 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw, Semifinished, and Finished Material

Plant Supplying Item

8 Plant at Stalinsk (Kermovo)

Plant at Taganrog imeni Andreyev

Plant at Zcstafoni

Ferroalloy Plant

Plant at Leningrad, imeni Vyborshets

All-Union Fluorspar Combine, Turga

t Prokopyevsk, imeni Taraichev

Angles and Bart

Sheet Metal

Manganese and

Electroferro

Manganese

Nonferrous Metal (Probably Copper)

Fluorspar

Armatures Motors, Type

Remarks

End use unknown

End use unknown

End use unknown End use unknown

Foundry

Probably for use in EMT Shop

Preheateri Pumps.arts

Ropeons,m)

For Skoryy-clasi i destroyers

End use unknown. Probably wire ropes1 inch in diameter.

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Table 6

ts Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardth Raw, Semifinished, and Finished Material ontinued )

Supplying Item No.. Arsen'ev

Water Cage Columns

toequipment for Skoryy-class destroyers.

g, 2mm thick End use unknown.

and Compressor Plant. Katajsk

Pumps, Type ESN8 (Drinking Water Pumps)

For Skoryy-class destroyers.

For Skoryy-class destroyers, owtern capstan, shernstalled on each destroyer.

Preheatcrs, Pipe Sleeves. Manholes (probably with covers),Equipment Capstans,Gate Valves Kingston Valves. Ventilator Heads, Dozernye Pumpsith Electric Motors and Controls

va'lves

- 41

Tabic 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw, Semifinished, and Finished Materialontinued}

Supplying Item No.rasnoyarsk

Marine Electrical Trust Vladivostok

habarovsk

No. . Khabarovsk

. Nikolaycv

Machine e

Machine Tooli

Jacks

Ventilating Fans, type LE 10

Winches with Electric Motors and Controls

Blowers, type

nd 2A

Boxes (YaruJ

Remarks

These machine! are

m naval gunu. There are seven on each

Skoryy-class

destroyer.

Probably for use in EMT shop.

End use unknown. Probably shop equip-ment.

For Skoryy-claas destroyers.

Probably turbine-driven blowers for boilers Ln Skoryy-class destroyers.

Probably electrical equipment for Skoryy-class de st.

42

Tabic 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw. Semifinished, and Finished Material Continued)

Supplying Item, Arscn'ev

Hem

Remarks

Shipboard equip- For

Parts

Gene tors

for general use.

Type

for Skoryy-class destroyers.

general ui

CalciumNo.0 Volts

Shipboard Equip- For Skoryy-class

ment. Sea Chests,destroyers.

Bow and Stern

Capstans, Air

Preheaters,

Dozernye Pumps

ith

Electric Motors

a nd Controls

Equip- For Skoryy-class ment. Ventilating destroyers. Fans,

Diesel Genera- Capacity not given.

be generators

for Skoryy-class destroyers.

Tabic 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw, Semifinished, and FinishedContinued)

Supplying Item No.. Khabarovsk

No.rasnoyarsk

No., AreenV'

Blowers, Typed 2A

Machines

Shipboard Equipment, Spare Parts

Probably turbine-driven blowers for boilers in Skoryy-clasa destroyers.

Type of Naval gun probably for Skoryy-class destroyers.

For Skoryy-claso dctilroyers: r

erpukhov

electronic cur: ment. Probably for Skoryy-claBo de stroyers.

For Skoryy-class destroyers.

rd Equipment

Shipboard Equipment, Drinking Tanks

May be class of unidentified surface ve sseI.

For

ol railroad car ferriei

Tabic 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyardith Raw. Semifinished, and FinishedContinued)

Supplying Horn. Arsen'ev

Shipboard Equipment. Spare Parts

Remarks

For Skoryy-clai destroyers.

Shipboard Equipment

Equipment

For '

of railroad cm fe rries.

Winches, Type LE 10

Probably turbine-driven blowers for boilers in Skoryy-class destroyers.

For Skoryy-class destroyers.

Engine End use unknown.

Type TVK-2A

Probably Ship-board

Probably turbine-driven blowers for boilers in Skoryy-class destroyers.

For )

O*

unidentified vessels.

T.-tl.le 6

Plants Supplying Molotovsk Shipyard No. ith Raw, Semifinished, and FinishedContinued)

Supplying Item No. . Komsomol'sk

. Arsen'ev

Steam Pipe Fittings

Connecting Pipe Couplings

Remarks

For Skoryy-class destroyers.

For

and Con-uniden-

necting Pieces tified vessel.

tified project; may refer to submarine construction.

and Stopcocks

indicates Storyy-class destroyers.

Ship board

Probably

Plantaditem for Planthaveduring the

under construction.

Unidentified vessel.

Table fa

Supplying Molotovsk Shipyard No. aw. Semifinished, and Finished Material SI/ (Continued)

Supplying Item No., Khabarovsk

habarovsk

Probably Blower, Type TVK-2

Soda -washing Tank

Rcmarkii

Type used on Skoryy-class destroyers.

For *

unidentified vessel

Table 7

Possible Suppliers of Components for Skoryy-Ciass Destroyers Built at Molotovsk Shipyard2 /

, Leningrad

No. . Komsomol'sk

. Moscow

Analyzers, gas

Sonar

Fathometer

Photo-Electrical Cell Smoke Indicators

Anchor Windlass Trawling Winch

Electronic and Electrical

Gyros. Variometers Fire-Control Equipment

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Table 7

Possible Suppliers of Components for Skoryy-Class Destroyers Built at Molotovsk Shipyard

(Continued)

No. . Leningrad

. Khabarovsk, Leningrad >

Kirov Plant, Leningrad (possibly)

, Nikolayev

No., Bolshoi Tokmak

. Serpukhov

, Leningrad, Moscow No.habarovsk

['cm

Boilers and Boiler Fittings Automatic Feed Regulators

Propellers Shock Absorbers

Main Battery Housings and Base Rings

Steam Compressors Electric Compressors Valvss

Condensers

Main Steam Turbines

Davits, Boat and Routing Paravane Winches

Diesels (Power Unit of Diesel-Generator Set)

Gun Directors, Assemblies for Fire-Control Equipment Transformers

Gun Directors, Assemblies for Fire-Control Equipment

Gun Directors, Assemblies for Fire-Control Equipment

Electric Motor for Paravane Winch

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.Table 7

Possible Suppliers of Components for SKoryy-Class Destroyers Built at Molotovsk Shipyard/ (Continued)

. Kazan'

, Moscow (possibly)

Reiner Firm) Elektrosila Plant) No., Moscow

urga

Starokoamatorsk Machine Building Plant. Kramatorsk

No.set

or'kiy

Izhorsk Plant. Kolpino

. Leningrad. Prokopyevsk

Item

Fathotnelc rs

Torpedo Tubes Torpedo Tube Fittings

Unitiesel Generator Set

DC Generator of Diesel Generator Set

Possibly Radar Equipment and Other Electronic Equipment

mGuns.MT Ordnance Assemblies

m Guns,MT Ordnance Assemblies

m Guns

m Guns

Director Sight Ordnance Equipment

Gun Sights

Electric Motors. Typendm Guns Electric Motors for Ventilating Fan a

Table 7

'osoible Suppliers of Components for Skoryy-Class Destroyer Built ;ti Molotovsk Shipyard Continued)

ev'yansk

No.verdlovsk

. Kazan'

. Stalingrad

, Leningrad

Leningrad Metals Plant, Leningrad

Khar'kov Electro-Mechanical Plant Khar'kov

ftem

Electric Oil Pumps Turbo Fuel Oil Pumps Turbo Lube Oil Pumps

Turbo Main Circulating

Pumps Turbo Condensate Pumps Possibly Main Turbine Reduction Gears

Range Finders

Shafting. Stern Tube

Gun Sights

w Generators

Electric Motors forumps (Dozernyc)

Pipe and Rolling Mill, Chelya binsk

Kirov Plant, Leningrad

Personnel.

personnelwith thc shipyard,

. are listed in

* ollows on

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Tabic C

Personnel AssocMted with Molotovsk Shipyard No.

Bogolyubov Vollk

Egorov

Kamerskiy

Dubovichenko

Position

Director

Director9 to

Director2 to present)

Deputy Director Official

Assumed directorship of.2

Assumed2

eputy director.

aa ministrat ive, engineering, and expediting activitie s.

a deputy director.

administrative, engineering, and expediting activities. -

Tabic 8

Personnel Associated with Molotovsk ShipyardContinued)

Na me

r.

/

Other personnel,

believed lo be of lesser importance.

Vulnerabilities, and Intentions.

The facilities of the shipyard will probably be used to their fullest extent for building naval vessels, with special emphasis onships for the Northern Fleet. This shipyard has thc capacity for building all types of naval vessels from the smallest patrol craft orto battleships or carriers and merchant ships from barges lo fairly large oceangoing passenjer liners.

Facilities within the shipyard indicate that all newincluding vessels oi destroyer sue could be completed, including the installation of all naval ordnance. Cruisers and other large vessels built in the large covered shipbuilding docks could be completed upeight ofeet above the base line. Past production has not required fitting-out facilities for vessels larger than destroyers. It

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would seem reasonable, however, to assume thatrogram building be undertaken, fitting-out cranes would be

installed as required. An alternative to expanding the fitting-out facili-lies would be to move large vessels to thc Rosta Naval Dockyard near Murmansk tor completion or possibly to the commercial quay in Molotovsk, where portal and floating cranes have been

A. Capabilities.

Basedealistic appraisal of the support required by the Soviet Northern Fleet, Table heoretical program for lhe concurrent Construction of naval vessels in Molotovsk Shipyardhat will utilize all known facilities.

Table 9

Theoretical Concurrent Construction Program for Naval Vessels in Molotovsk Shipyard/

Location

ngth

Tom

000

rs

400

rs

000

The use o( all known facilities to their maximum capability wouldthe concurrent construction ofestroyers totalingubchasersons,attleshipsrand totalDT. Annual production on this basis would o*ons. ore realistic program id presented in Tablend there fore all capability estimates used in this report are based on

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There is little evidence of new construction being laid down on the transverse ways, pointsndn Figure I. it is believed, however, that these building ways would be made serviceable should the program demand.

B. Annual Naval Vessel Production Estimate.

Based on the construction listed in Tablehe possible annual production in naval SDT is estimated in

Table 10

Estimated Annual.Naval Vessel Production Capacity of MolotovskNo.

o! Vt-ssels

ubma rino ft Subchaae rs Cruiser Destroyers

Class

Z w

Artillerist

Sverdlov

Skoryy

Total Tonnaee

SDT

750 to 0

ln computing the annual production the following estimates and assumptions were made

The necessary material, labor, and power would bc available.

Onlyour labor shift would be employed.

Vessels would remain on the ways until essentially completed. Thc time required to complete thc cruisers aboveoot line has been disrega rded in this estimate, because the construction rate will not be affected.

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4. Way lime ia considered to be thc principal limiting factor of the production rate. Estimaten have been made basedtimated and reported rates elsewhere in the USSR and modified,according to the geographic location of the shipyard, weather conditions which would affect construction on thc open ways, and the possible advantage gained by building inside the heated, covered building docks. Way timeare as follows: lass submarine.onths; Artilleristonths; Sverdlov cruiser, onths; and Skoryy-class destroyer.onths. It is assumedruiserestroyers could simultaneously be built in each dock.

C. Merchant Vessel Production.

In the event that the shipyard should be devoted to theof merchantrobable program for the concurrentof self-propelled cargo ships is shown in Thl*would-fyitfcy.octupV'alrhknO'rtWfa.cilities.

Table 11

Probable Concurrent Construction Program for Self-Propelled Cargo VesselsMolotbvrfk Shipyard No.

Number

Vessels Length and Breadth Total Tonnage

21 Cargo 6

39 Logger 1

Cargo 8

Ii Four vessels can be constructed simultaneously in each of thc two building docks.

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Based on the construction listed inhe possible annual production of merchant vessels in gross register tonnage is estimated in

Table 12

Estimated .'Annual Merchant-Vessel Production Capacity of Molotovsk Shipyard

Number of Tonnag*

(GRT)

The estimates and assumptions made in calculatingtonnage were similar to those made for the calculation of na va1 tonnage.

necessary material, labor, and power would bc

available.

our labor shift would be employed.

vessels would be essentially complete before

it

time foroot cargo vesselsonths for those building on the transverse open ways and atfor those building in thc covered building docks. Itoggers could be produced per year on the

Output in both naval and merchant tonnage possibly may b* increased by increasing the number of hours of the one shift, thc repe

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titious productioningle design, improving technological processes, and adequate apprentice training. Assuming no bottleneck in the supply of material, output may be increased by working additional shifts. It is-considered doubtful, however, that sufficient qualified supervision and skilled workmen could bc made available toaterial increase in the output estimate for the additional shifts.

Production of vessels at the foregoing estimated rates would seriously limit thc yard's capability for vessel repairs. All docking facilities would be engaged by new construction and possibly all quays in fitting out the newly built vessels.

The supporting shops in the shipyard are believed to beto produce the estimated tonnage assuming that all hull steel would be fabricated and assembled within the shipyard from rolled plates and shapes; all light and heavy castings and forgings. including propellers and propeller shafts, would be cast and machined within the shipyard; all machinery assembled and installed; boilers manufactured and installed; and probably'all naval ordnance installed.

D. Vulnerabilities and Intentions.

Molotovsk Shipyardppears to be very well developed and well coordinated but is vulnerable with respect to its physical location, Although located in the western part of the USSR it isoiles from the main industrial centers. The lack of highwaylays the burden of supplying the shipyard largely on the double-track Archangel-Vologda railroad line. The Baltic-White Sea Canal is ofimportance and is open to navigationonlhs of the year,

Few industries are located in the general area of Molotovsk from which industrial labor could bc drawn in case of rapid expansion.

The source of electric power and heat is the single large plant located immediately east of"the shipyard. This plant is not tied in with any major power grid upon which it could call in case of power failure.

In general, the shipbuilding industry may be classifiedvalue added" type of industry. Because of this type of operation, thc chief economic hazard of the Molotovsk shipyard is thc question of an assured flow of raw materials and components produced by other industr

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