Created: 3/16/1955

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1. General.

bole* ar* Miopias of Coaaualst adalssioas of

failures Ininoloda tboaa due to natural oeusaa aa vail

u those which alghtblaaad on tbs ppor sdaialstratlon and aanagoasnt of ths varioua Conaanlit ragiaaa. lha infcreation prassntod has bosn liaittd to lha psriodolthough auchexists prior

Bscause this was to ba an exploratory study, Inforaation psrtslslng tonational, provincial, aad local, lathat Information

froa ths local lsval is oftontlaoa aor* soo than that rron ths national level slnos obsorvatioas wblch can be sully aade by ths loool populsos sothook on statsasnts by local sdslalstrstor*. On ths national lsval, ssTsrlty of difficulties can b* alnlalaed or caaouflaged. Zadlroot edaiaiion of failure should also b* considered. For azaapla, results reported one ysar aay bo sxtreasly favorablo whan aoaparsd to ths previous ysar. Soastiass no dlraot adnlislca of sbortagas is made, but the situationxplained by laying that tha supply la not equal to ths inorsassd coaacd brought shout byrise ia living standards under tho Ceaauaist rule.

Qtaaples are proa an ted by saoh aajor area of ths Bloo. It will bs noted that ths priaary eouroeo of aost of ths data given or* Bloo publloatlons, nswspapors and nagasinoe, whiob are unclassified, sad radio trsadassU, vbioh are also unclassified, or oooaaionoliy.

for offioialnly.

2. USSR.

a. (national level) Decree by CaJ$$fl Ooaalttoe, "On Usssorss to /urthor


the borelopaant of SovietDaily, OSSR, lh Septoaber




h'ucoroue oitatlona of failure* in Soviot agriculture are given in this deoree, oovorlng various sectors ln the egrleulturel economy such as livestock indue try, potato and vegetable growing and ao on.

development of stockbreeding iaarticularly unfortunate way... Ihe number of oows ln the country up to tha present time has not reached the prewar levelillion head, and coopered3 baa decreasedillionroductivity of oattle le low, loeeee froa eattle plague are great... The fodder base for stock breading In oolleotiv* farms is poorly developed) there is little good bay, silage, root fodder, and potatoaa. Shelter feollltie* for oattle are unaatlafaotory.

*Tbe serious lag ln production of potatoaa and vogotablosreat drawback in development of agrloultur*.

"On many aUte faros the harvest of crops and tho productivity of livestock are low. Bad management is tolerated, there le heavy unproductive expenditure and over-oxpenditur* of money and materiala, and production casta are very high.

"Owing to untimely and poor tending of grain, oil-bearing, oollectlvaa lateiireat dual of agricultural production."

b. (National level) Khrushchev's report at theai on of theof tha CP3U, "on the further increase ln th* production of grain ln thaon tho reclamation of virgin and ldltDaily,,b,

Official Use Only.

"Flax cultivationn an Intolerable state of affaire. Ihe area under flax cultivation on oolleotive farms baa aluepeduring thoears. Its yields, and particularly the marketable yield of flax fiber and aeeda, continue to remain exceedingly low. The material incentive* for flax esad* have proved to ba ineffective.

"Th* cost of state farm productionery high."


o. (Hational level) Deoreo of Central Cooaittoe of Cl'SU, "on Bosults of Spring Sowing, Tending of Grope, Harvestd on Ensuring /ClfiUaent of tne Plan cf Agricultural Produoo Prccurenentek. Currant Diaeat of ihe Soviet Prtta, ll AugustUnclassified.

"Tha struggle against agricultural orop pesU and diasasss ls organised extrexoly unsatisfactorily,oassQueaoe of which the spread of agricultural orop pasts and dissosss has increased during rsoont yearsusbar of areas. One of the baslo reason* forituation is tbe ooapletely Inadequate supplying of agriculture with inseotioides.M

d. Khruahohevis report at Plenum of Central CoonltteeDally,

(Rational level) esult of protraotod grain harvesting period up to lAt of the harvest on aollsotivo and state ferns Is being lost. Ines Uieae losses amount to evon acre thanercent.*

(Oblast levsl) "In Krasnodar Krai (vita favorable conditions for liven took breeding) the productivity of oove is uoeptlonally lowaaounted, last year,ilogramsnograns0ilograms of all*- plan for milk prcoureaent sad purchase was fulfilled only byorcont.

"In Kostroaa Oblsst the number of cow* lnoressod byercent la ocapaiisoa with JJU9 but the production of milk deoreosed byercent.

(Leoel level) "Collective farm* In Shkiryetovsky raion in Tula Oblast receive froo one egg-layingoggs per year on the everogo. In the raionhole 3U0 eggs or* being produood ncneotaree, in othergg* per restore. Each egg here is not an ordinary,olden one."

(National leval) "Lut yoar iUU farms failed to fulfill tholr pfan for to Increase io number and productivity of cattle and aheap. Milk, yields per cow bava Increased par your by onlyilograms Instead ofilograms envisaged ln tba plan. Tha lnoreaee in wolght of fattened pigs *nd wool clippings por abeep have even deoreaaed in collective farma in many oblaate aa.- China.

s. (National level) Report oa tha work of the government made by Chou an-lai. Premier of tho People's Repohlio of China, at tho Septembereeting of the firat saaslon of the First National People's Congress. Sourosi BIS Daily, For bast,t, Offlnial Use Only.

Scattered through this rather lengthy speech are reforanoss to difficulties being enoountored in agriculture, with the floods ln the Tangtae and ' Nlvtir Daeina being blamed for non-fulfillment of agricultural production plana, agricultural produotion ia admittod to boand "beosose the acreage under cultivation is etill not lirge enough, ^the/ peasants 9till liveather low level.

I'. National laval) Chan lun's etataaent at the Septembereeting of tbacos Ion of tM Pirat National PeopleOoogress. Dally, far Seat,

; Official Dae Cnly-

Thia atateaont on the oooaumer goods position also refers to tbe raoect floods, and states that the "supply oannot meet the demand for dally ooamoditlea and consumer goods." After aeveral comparisons of present output of various agricultural ooraooditlos with pre-World War II output, Chen Ton indirectly admits that shortages exist by saying that, "it is axioastio that the reason why supply and demand failed to balanoo Is not because of any reduction ln supply, ^But/ bsoaus* the demand increased jtill faster than tbe supply." Heavy exports of grain, meat, end oil-bearing orops are defended as

accessary for industrialisation, anddmitted that Mthe ratd-oaing of flour,

and odiblo oil ia not supported by all th* people.n

o. (notional level) Sourcei

"Dan Kin Dib Pao editorial January lg on spring plowing said peaoant production morale 'not goryisgivings on port of peasants oust bo dispelled. Autumn plowing, collootlco of fertiliser not uoll done. In calamity and other areas, working oatUo slaughtered. Tall planting of wheat ond rapeseed delayed by late summer orop harvests." Pnolaaslfiod.

Offioial Dae Onlyi Coasanti Spring^planting ocameata most pesslmisUoestablished. Regional papers state some peasants ontoricgcooperativos prefer sell cattle -instoad of investing thea in oo-op

level) Sourcei State, Review of Hong Kong Chinese Prose, 2kD. iblo Oil Shortage in Canton (Kung Shang Jih Poo, Dlspatoh froa"Can'ton. Ths Ohineee Coaaunists nave beeo^ebapulsorllyths peanut crops in Kw&ngtung for export to Russia for soma tine. esult,an aouto shortage of peanut oil, whichho principal form of ediblo oil ia Kusagtuagoes on to state that ahisMatayfroa other areas wore too small to aoet .-

oents. The ration of peanut oil hae, therefore, bean furthor reduced in all porta of Kwaagtcag except Canton, where tho Coaaunists want to putalse front for ;he

benefit of overseas Chinese in Bong Kong ind Macao.

level) Sccroej StaUa^JUw of Hong Song Chinese Press,ebruary"7cminsKwsngtun^fHalng Too Jih Pao, proaaMttoaalist, vsbruary (Dlspatoh from Shiukvan) Tbeaaaerious signs of faaine in several haien

in northern KwangtUQg, including Kukong, Xingtak, lungyun, Chingyun, sad loaf*. It ia estimated that at leasteasants Is Xukong, liagtek, Yungyun, and Chingyun are

'liTlng on cut al diary rood or oa vlld planta. Hundreds ox tnoa hava disd of surdities or food poisoning. This fact wo* admitted rooontly in tho Communist 'KcrtQ rvangUitg Nuns Min Poo' (Peasants' Journal). Tho paper said ttint in Dscember last yo*r,oasants died of dysentery or ealaria in eoaa northernesult of feedingiet of wild vegetation."

f. (national level) Sourcei

"Paoeeboren Kin Jih Pao in oosaentingu Chinartantioned planned target soybean pxocuotioa fulfilled byercent,of

Coaxeot: This ia firetas noted of scybean crop lossoybeans have been aost iaportant OHIOCS export cosaodity.

gr (Loosl level) Sourcei

"Sweet-potato orop*Jen-eUn 3ecauae of rain and anew, evset-potato cropsca are as have been flooded, result lag ia broken vinoo, rotting, andooo/ding to the statistics ofaiens uai ubiha ia the Esu-ch'aag, haln-yaag, Uaa-yaag, aad Shaag-oh'iueiststr-tive districts

of0 plants havo been floodedroken." Report goes on to nontioa

damage in ether areas.

h. (National levol) Sourcei

cf FoodWages Promotion ofJen-oin Jlh-pao, U

he Ministry of Pooda directive to groin dapartmaata oasls aajjaj th* reduction of aolsture ccctect and the extermination of harmful inseots

in stored grains." Mention is also aade of the oh orf granaries and warehouses,

the la ok of warohoueoo, th* laole of experience in tho storing of grain, and it ia etatsd thath, in *oa*ew grain infos tod vitb insects.woe put into grtzudUa, often resulting in severs damage to old grain." Octree* vigilance is to

e aaaagf to oic

be aaoerised "against tba possibilities of enemy elements eabotafiing granaries and burning grain.

1. (provincial level) Bourooi

"Cdl production to b* inoreaaed In Chekiang--TiantBln, Ta Surg Pao,ugust 2io oil-prooaaeiag Industry /ediblo oUb/ill una bio to koep up with tho grew lag demand reaultlng froa tba rising etandard of living among tba psople."

j. (National level) Sourcei

State Vara*Jon-eln. eview of tbe aohlavemsnts of tha state faros, vlth iba admission that "thereill muob disparity In results on th* various forms, and numerous waiknaosc* in manugaaant and production method*.'

k. (Local level) Sourcei

"Kiangau Hog-Pur ob a* ing Station Set* Newtain, Ta Kung Pap^Zlrticle pralaaa tho ohlangHsinurchasing station ioor cam in handling animals it buys.

This raocrd la compared to "the deferable altuatlon wltb reapeot to the health of boga oonlng on the market in Canton, During theonth* ofpercent of th* hogs slaughtered by ths Kuniolnaa,*ood *roduots Company war* unfit for ssls as food. on2 paroent were unfit for food, 'andune tho ijnmber reached U2 paroent. eighty-Wo percent of tb* hogsat tb* north slaughterhouse are dlaeaasddaya all the hogs are diseased.u. European Satellite*.

a. (National level) Sourcei i voZsi Daily, Boo tornarotiUnclassified.

"On account of unfavorable; weather In tba autumn and wintur, tba autuan-aown cropa havo suffered much damage, Moreover, aoae of orops eown laat autumn uero put ln the loll after unsuitable primaryHungary)

b. (National level) -oily, kaotorab,

Official Uoa Only. "Tba yield of whoat and rye ia not, however, aatiofactoryi It is no higher than the average for manyHungary)

o. {National lovol) flenoltlon of tba Central ^ommlttuo of tba Hungarian Workers Party. Sourcei fllS Daily, Saotorn Europe,b, Oneiaaa ifled.

Sovorul rwferenoaa to agrlaultuxo, including the followlngi 'Agricultural production falle to live up to requirements. Particularly backward la tho situation as regards tho crop yields of bread grains and tha development of tbe breeding of horned cattle."

d. (National level) Comment by Stabad Sep on the heport of tbe Centralof Hungary on fulfilment ofU National Economic Plan.

Dally, Baa tern tiurope,toolaaslflod.

Tho editorial notee that "the oolleotion of agricultural produce is not prooaedlng oatiaftotorily, and that thereonsldsrabl* slacknsaa in dlaoiplina in oonnootionellverlea. Agriculture' did not fulfill tbe prodjce-collaaticn plan conpl.telyj tboroag in the fulfillment of the wine-collection plan, too." Tho editorial adds that "the latest figures for January show that dellverlea of pig Quotaa ore alao prooaedlng

a. (National level) Addrass by Zenon Mowak, before tho Second Flenxm ofB Central CoaultWe at thoUIn Warsaw. Sourcei State, aerae*

,b, Unolasfllfled.

"Msoundly crltlolsad ^FbliehJor tholr failure to assumi ths

guidanoe nnd control of tho problem of ineresslng for* output snd for herlnt;farmers to fall to fulfill tholr livsstoak ano milk aellvory plans duringmoat is of this yusr. lis also crltiolaed Uiefor chair failure

to oooperate fully with th* Stat* end oollsotdve farms and the

industrle* for their failure to provide sufficient supplies and maintain suffloient distribution of fsrtillaers and fans aaoblosry."

level) Extract* froa speeob by Polish *rime Minister, toCongress of thaonu. Th* speech seals largely vith progress


(or lack of it) under th* Six Year I'lan. Sourcei Statu, Warsaw Dlspatoh ttiik,u, Unclassified.

Critlcien.rloultur* lnoluoes tba following atateasnti "ahereaa in thsdustrlal produotion laoraassdercent, the agricultural produotloa


Increased by onlyercent, Ibe comparison between those figuree provee the axasssive lagging behind of agriculture, aad aleo tbat tbs dlscrepanoy between the envelopmentdustry end sgri culture haserious ohareoter. Breaking down Uia iurtoerof the natloosl eoonoay. Ibe development of strlculuirsl production not only failsd to fulfill the task* of th* Six leer Plan but th* leat four years displayed numerous faults and shortooalngs."

Thle speech is primarily ooncornedeview ol the prooont situation and plans fir future duvolopmunt of CtecQoslovaif agriculture. Probleoe regarding animal husbandry

levsl) Summery ofoh delivered by Proaior Slvoky at th*of the Control Committee of the Caeohoelovak Coamualst Party.

are referred bo is "earlou*,and It lo statedrovious eolations to uioa* problow have boon unsatisfactory. Koohanlaatica la propoaod aa "tho aaaontial aoans cf*ing tho lagging of animal proedotion." Attention must ba given to foddur orop


(National loval) 3pBaoh by 'ramier Sivoiry at tba Csaoboalovax CoaaaaBlsa Party


Daily, Eastern5b, Unolaaaiflad.

inoraasaa in agricultural production ar* oallsd for. of moat are admitted. Tho number of swico and aboap haa lnoroaoed, but beef and dairy oattlo bavaesult of tbe ehrinkago of theof hards kept in tbe border regions." Th* output of milk has gone down, Other difficulties are sen'.iccad.

1. (Local loral) Oouroei CIA,

Rumanian publication, Staagul Rosa6b, orltioiiei a

livestock brooding atotion and state

(National love!) Sourcei

Poliah publication,uduotaa that "raporti

frou all uojevedatvos provinces/ Indicate taat not all compulaory oailverieo of li*aaw

were completedanuary 1SS5.'

Original document.

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