THE MICA INDUSTRY IN THE SOVIET BLOC (RR PR-109)

Created: 4/12/1955

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

PROVISIONAL INTELLIGENCE REPORT

$ inbustry-inm beog

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED

CONTENTS

Page

Summary

I.

and Significance of the

of

II. Production and Unauned Reserves

III. Other Major Resources

IV. Consumption and

V.

VI. Capabilities, Vulnerabilities, and

A.

f B.

*

Appendix A. Mica Mines and Processing Plants in the Soviet

- ill -

HpeT

Page

Appendix

Appendix

AppendixIn

AppendixReferences

Tables

Production of Mica In the Soviet Bloc,

7

Production of Block and Film Mica and Mica

Splittings in the Soviet Bloc, 9

3- Estimated Consumption of Strategic Grades of Mica in

the Soviet Bloc, by Product andu . 12

U. Estimated Consumption of Strategic Grades of Block

and Film Mica in the Soviet

5. Estimated Soviet Bloc Requirements for Strategic

Grades of Block and Film Mica and Mica Splittings,

Following Page

Soviet Bloc: Mica Mines and Processing Plants

- Iv

cia/rr

(orr Project)

TKE MICAHE SOVIET BLCC*

Mica is an essential material in the manufacture of communications and automotive equipment and in the guided missile and aircraft Although substitute materials have displaced mica in some of Its uses, sheet mica, film mica, and micare stillto the electrical and electronics Industrie* of the Soviet

The USSR is the major producer of mica In the Soviet Bloc. Of the ST es"Inatcd Bloc Production0 metriche USSR0 tons. It is estimated that5 the USSR will0 tons of the Bloc total0 tons. Bulgaria, Rumania, and Communist China will produce the remainder.

Of the total mica produced in the Soviet Bloc, only aboutercentuality high enough to be used in the electrical and electronics industries, and of this relatively high-quality mica only fromoercent is of .trategic or the5 production of Bica in the Bloc, then, onlyons will be usable in the ilectrical and electronics industriec and only about UOO tons will be jf strategic grades.

* The estimates and conclusions contained in this reportie best Judgment of ORR asb.

** For specifications of these grades, see Appendix B. Throughout this report, tonnages are given in metric tons. * Strategic grades of mica are those grades of sheet mica and film nica which meet the high specifications established by the manufacturers il electron tubes und condensers.

Soviet Bloc requirements for strategic grades of mica5 are satimated atons. Total Bloc production of these strategic grades5 will approximately meet the requirements of the USSR?

The Europeaii Satellites and Conununist China will be dependent on non-Bloc sources for their supplies of strategic grades, as they have been in the past. India, the chief Free World exporter of mica to the Bloc can supply their requirements.

The major mica deposits in the Soviet Bloc are in the USSR,China, Bulgaria, and Rumania. Although large-scale production la now confined to the USSR, the Bloc has unmlned reserves which, ifwould meet all mica requirements of the Bloc. Adequatecould be accomplished by increasing the relatively small inputs of manpower, fuel, and elactrlc power now employed. As ofhe labor force engaged in the production of mica in the Bloc is estimated at The USSR alone could easily double that labor force.

The mining of mica is done primarily ir. small. Open-pitather widely scattered. Although the mines themselves are notthe few mica-processing plants are concentrated in the Moscow-Leningrad and Krasnoyarsk-Irkutsk areas, and this concentrationsome vulnerability. Because of the specialized equipment used in the mica-processing plants, the manufacture of replacement parts would bo difficult under wartime pressures. Under present mining and pro-ceasing conditionsnd in view of the dependence of the European Satellites and Communist China on non-Bloc sources of strategic grades of mica those Soviet Bloc Industries in which raica is an essential muterial oreulnerable position.

The mica industry in the Soviet Bloc is an indicator or Intentions only to the extentarked increase in the production or import* of strategic grades of mica might indicate increased manufacture of small electron tubes for use in field radios, proximity fuses, and guided missiles.

I- Introduction. A. General.

Certain sizes of the better grades of sheet mica arc essential materials in the electrical and electronics industries of the Soviet

Hoc. Mica, is of particular Importance in the manufacture of elec-JoniCE equipment, vhich la required in great quantities in time of ear.

Substitutes for mica in some of its uses have been developed,sheet and film mica and mica splittings arc still necessary ma-ertals in the electrical and electronics industries. 2/

Mica is mined in the USSR, as it is in other countries, in hallow, open-pit mines. Because of the erratic occurrence of the etter grades of mica, large-scale mechanical methods of mining and reparation are impracticable. Mica is mined as block mica or scrap lea, and aboutercent or the total mica mined consists or Bheet nd filmnd micaf grades high enough forhe electrical and electronics Industries.

B- History and Significance of the Industry.

Modern mining of mica in the USSH, the only country In the oviet Blocignificant mica industry, began9 production had increased to the point where the USSR was elf-sufficient andmall surplus for export. Theround mica for use in the rubber and aiiphult industrieshes.

Production of mica reachedOt the aglnnlng of World War II,hen several of the processing plants ?ar Leningrad were destroyed.

For serially numbered source references, see Appendix E. ** Sheet and film mica are used in electron tubes, condensers,

id the like.

*** Mica splittings arc used for insulation In electrical cquip-mt, heating devices, and the like.

Horn- of tho data in this report represents weighed or measured (entitles. The figures arer approximations based on avail--If mforciFtr.ion interpreted in the Light of the experience of the ialyst. Estimatesange of error ofo minusercent. P.elow.

The importance of mica to the Soviet economy was indicated in tc Third Five Year Planwhichroduction goal0 boos of all grades of mica. Later, the same goal wasut the total production of mica did not0 mis3 (see Table

The industrial significance of mica was relatively slighthen the modern electron tube industry began. As the production of electric motors, transformers, and generators increased and the telephone and radio industries expanded, requirement; for mica, an essential component in the manufacture of electrical equipment, also Apparently the growth not only of the electrical industry but also of those industries employing electrical equipmenttheshipping, aircraft, and precision instrument industriesan be gauged by the consumption of mica, kj

C- Uses of Mica.

The perfect cleavage, flexibility, chemical and physical stability transparency, high dielectric strength, and luster of mica make It serviceable in many industries.

The first modem uses for sheet mica were for stove andwindows and for lamp shades. The most important modern uses, however, are in the electrical industry, which expanded greatly with the invention of built-up mica. This product is made of mica splittings cemented by shellac or resin, and it can be made into sheets of almost any desired size. The sheets can be milled to uniform thickness or can be made into tubes of many and varied shapes. The electrical uses for sheet and built-up mica include insulating rings, sleeves, bushings, and commututor-segment insulation in electric motors, and components in generators, condensers, electric light bulbs, electron tubes, fuses, and heating elements of flat irons. The electrical industryccounts for aboutoercent of the block, sheet, and film mica and mica splittings consumed annually. 6/ Ground mica made from the waste in trimming sheet mica and from the milling of imperfect and folded sheet mica, as well as fine-grained mica obtained from mica schist, became of importance in the USSR Ins us the demand by the rubber, paint, and wallpaper industries increased.

A list of the possible uses for sheet and ground mica and

mica splittings in the USSR is presented belovt

essential

insulation Electron tubes Condensers

Splittings Sheet and film Sheet and film

Essential

Stove

lamp

Electrical heating

Pipe and boiler

Roofing

Annealing agent for

Nonessential

and built-up mica board

Paint

Filler in

Decoration and

The essential uses to which mica is undoubtedly put in the USSR correspond closely to, and include, the strategic uses. Strategic uses may be classified as those in which mica is used by the radio, radar, telephone, autceaotive, aircraft, and guided-misslie industries for military purposes. The less essential uses in the USSR are assumed to be the common uses to which mica may be put in any country which uses mica in quantities, and nonessential usee include all other possible uses which might be made of mica.

Information on the quantities consumed in each use in the USSR is not available. It la estimated, however, that the pattern orand strategic uses is essentially the same la the US and the USSR. The less essential and nonessential uses accountuch smaller percentage of total consumption in the USSR than in the US because

these uses represent, for the cost part, civilian consumer items which are producedelatively minor scale in the USSR.

For some of the uses of sheet mica, film mica, and mica splittings It Is possible to employ substitute or alternate materials such as ceramics, glass, paper, rubber, silicone resins, plastics, and synthetic mica. Paper le still the chief substitute for mica. Improvements in the design of some communications equipment have made possible the use of lower grades of uheet mica in uses whereonly the highest grades were specified. In the US, Western Europe, and the USSR, long strips of "sheet mica" have recently been developed, utilizing tie large quantities of scrap mica available. Although this productuitable substitute for mica splittings, it cannot take the place of high-grade aheet mica In condensers andtubes.

Information on the quantitative reduction In mica requirements effected by substitutes in the Soviet Bloc is not available. Reports on the production and consumption of mica and descriptions of captured radio and aircraft equipment indicate, however, that the amount ofsubstituted for mica is relatively small at present but is

II- Production and Unsir.ed Fc&crvenA. Production.

U production of mica in the Soviet Bloc Is estimated0 tons. Of this total, the USSR produced0 tons) Communist China,ons; Rumania,ons; and Bulgaria,ons. Because of the extreme variation in the value of the various grades of mica produced, total production figures are actually of little significance. Changes in total productioneriod of years, however, are significant as general indicators of the consumption of mica in the electronics and electrical industries. Estimated production of mica in the Soviet Blocs shown in

* ollows on p. 7.

Because of the erratic occurrence of mica in the matrix, roost mlcu mines arc small, open-pit operations andelatively short

Table 1

Estimated Production of Mica in tho Soviet Bloc

Metric Tons

Rumania Total

ocket of mica has been fully exploited, the Dining or quarrying operation moves to another location. Mieo mining operations are best described in terms of areas or regions which contain numerous exploitable mica deposits.*

* See the map, Soviet Bloc: Mica Mines and Processlne: Plants following

** The term region Id this report refers to the economic regions de-llncd and numbered on CIA1 (First, USSR: Economic Regions.

The largest and richest single mica-producing area In the USSR is the Kama River district in But Siberia (Economic Region/

It is located northeast of the northern end of Lake Baikal and covers an area ofquare kilometers. Second In Importance in the production of alca is the area of the Blryusa deposits, located at the headwaters of the Blryusa River on the eastern slope of the Sayan Mountains. Although this area is considerably smaller than the Mama River districtthe richer deposits cover an area ofquare kilometershe potential deposits and the percentage of usable sheet mica are greater than in any other area in the USSR. The third most important mica mining area in the USSRalso in East Siberiais the Kondakovsklye area in Krasnoyarskly Kray, located on the right bank of the Taneyeva River in the South Yenlseyskly Mountain range.

Two other important mica-producing areas In Bant Siberia ore the Slyudyanka and Aldan River districts. The former, with four mines operating, wan the largest producer of mica in the USSRhe Aldan River riclds were discoverednd4 there wereines operating in the area. The other mica fields in the USSR which are steady producers are the Karelia and Kola Peninsula districts (Economic Region la) and the Ural Mountain fields (Economic Region VIII). Mica deposits and some small Intermittent production have been reported In the Ukraine, the Caucasus, and the Pamir Mountain area.

In Rumania theica are located in the Brezolu district, and although the deposits are small, they contain some good grades of block mica, o/ Production has only recently been reported in Bulgaria, where the mines are located In the south central part of the country. The known deposits of mica in Communisto date have yielded only small production of inferior grades of mica. The best deposits are located in Suiyuan Province in the North China area.

A Hat of the mica mines and mining areas In tho Soviet Bloc is given in Appendix A.

Most of the mica mined in the Soviet Bloc Is scrap mica, which can be used only to produce ground mica. The production of block mica suitable for processing to sheet and film mica and mica splittings variesoercent of the total production.

9 the Director of the Geological Committee of the USSR stated that only aboutercent of the mica produced in the Soviet Bloc ws3 block mica. U/ More recent reports show that the percentage of block mica recovered wasercent in the Urals and the Kola Peninsula,ercent in the Blryusa and Mama River fields, and

gag na^.

ercent In the Slyudyankaurvey of the evidencethatercent of the total mica produced annually in the Bloc is raw block mica from which sheet and film mica and mica splittings may be processed. The estimated production of block and film mica and mica splittings in the Blocs shown in Table 2.

Table 2

Estimated Production of Block and Film Mica and Mica Splittings

in the Soviet Bloc

Metric Tons

Block and Film of

andCrode b/ Splittings g/

to

to

to

tototo

percent of total production as given in Table 1.

toercent of total block and film.

percent of total block and film. There la some lossin processing. For methodology, see Appandix C.

B. Unmlned Reserves.

Before actual exploitation. It is impossible to determinereasonably narrow limits the quality, quantity, and size of the block mica containedeposit. ny reserve figuresmust be rough approximations without breakdown by grades. have been classified by the USSR In the following five13/

explored reserves ready for mining.

A2. Thoroughly explored reserves servingasis for the planning and construction of mines.

geologically explored and defined by tests, with

preliminary examinations completed on composition andof material.

established by geological investigations based on

natural or artifically Induced appearance of the material on the surface.

C2> Reserves geologically substantiated but not yet clearly defined and distributed over an entire district or basin.

Similar categorical breakdowns of the reserves of Coianinist China, Bulgaria, and Rumania are not available.

Reserves of mica In the USSR9 were estimated atillion tons. Of this total,ons were specified byonsnd A20 tonsV Reserves In Ccranunist China have been estimated atstimates of the mica reserves in Bulgaria and Rumania are notbut geological evidence indicates that they are small. Assuming that geological exploration in the USSR and Ccojmunist China hassystematically, it is estimated thatU unmlned reserves of mica in the Soviet Bloc are fromillion toillion tons. Of these total reserves, fromillion toillion tons are probably recoverable. As only aboutercent of the recoverable mica is block mica, the total unmined reserves of block mica in the Bloch are estimatedillion tons.

III. Other Major Resources.

Detailed information on manpower, transportation, electric power, and fuel in the mica industry in the Soviet Bloc is not available, but some estimates of the requirements can be given.

The total manpower requirements are estimated at" Of this total,0 are employed at the mines,0 are

* For methodology, see Appendix C-

-

Table 3

Estimted ConBumption of Strategic Grades of Mica In the Soviet Bloc, by Product and Classification a/

Percent

Radio condensers Radio tubes Other radio parts Magnetos Spark plugs Gouge glass Other

Classifications

:i)

10

6

V

13

methodolop-y,

text above.

see Appendix C.

The manufacture of electron tubes and condensers consumes aboutercent of the strategic grades of block and film mica used in the Soviet Bloc. The electron tube industry in the Bloc is located for theart in the USSR, Hungary, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia; the Satellites account for aboutercent of the total consumption of mica in electron tubes. The manufacture of condensers is confined largely to tho USSR, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany; the Satellites account for aboutercent of the total consumption of mica tn Estimated consumption of strategic grades of block mica and rilm mica in the Blocs shown In

* ollows on

Mica splittings are consumed in the manufacture of built-up mica, which Is produced in two formsbuilt-up board and tape. The board is used in commutator segments; in rings for generators and starters in aircraft, tank, and automobile engines; In industrial motors and generators; and in fractional horsepower motors. Tape Is usedrmature in Insulation in high-vcllege generators. Industrial motors,

mm

i

|

I

i! i

IF;

I E

n

r11t-

electron tubes end condensers Id the European Satellitesons. Production of the strategic grades in the USSRone, was approximately adequate3 Soviet requirementsons for consumption in electron tubes and condensers (see Table The USSR, obviously, could have supplied virtually none of the European Satellite requirements, and the Chinese Communist production3 of aboutons could not have altered the situation materially. 3 production of the strategic grades uf mica in the USSR was near the lower limit of theons, it ia likely that the USSR, as well as the European Satellites, was forced to import mica from the Free World. There is no Indication that stockpiles of strategic grades of mica exist in the Bloc, and it is likely that stocks other than working Inventories in the electron tube and condenner plants are very small.

V. Trade.

Reliable quantitative statistics on Soviet Bloc trade in mica ere not available. There are, however, scce fragmentary data of Communist China recently placed an order forillion rupees1 million) worth of mica from India, lfl/ This isabove the value of annual purchases duringeriod, and It may be assumedort of thla mica from India is intended 'or use in the USSR and, possibly, the European Satellites. There are some scraps of information Indicating purchases of unprocessed sheeticanfinished sheet mica,and other mica from

Reports3 exports of mica fromive an incomplete breakdown by grade and country of destination:

East. Gel-many Hungary Total

(Metric Tons)

mica Mica splittings

Total

0

50

7:

Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from such fragmentary data. It appears that Poland and Czechoslovakia were the chief European Satellite importers of block mica and mica splittingsJ.

VI. Capabilities, Vulnerabilities, and Intentions.

A. Capabilities.

The USSR and Cccaminist China have large unmined reserves of mica which arc adequate for all Soviet Bloc requirements for many years. The possibilities of expansion of present production to satisfy all demands, therefore, are controlled largely by the number of men and the quantity of equipment allocated to the industry. Both mining and processing arc largely hand operations; so, except for relatively small quantities of specialized equipment in the processing plants, the major need in the expansion of the mica industry is for manpowera need which could easily be satisfied.

B. Vulnerabilities.

Because most of toe mica mines in the Soviet Bloc are email, open-pit operations scattered over wide areas, the mica mining industry itself is not vulnerable. The plants which process the mica, however, are concentrated in the Moscow-Leningrad area and at Irkutsk, Wlzhneudlnsk, and Zaozernaya. Because of the specialised equipment used in these plants, the allocation of material for and theof replacement parts would be difficult under wartime Considering present mining and processing practices, the potential deficit position of the Bloc, and the dependence of tho European Satellites on imports, it appeara that the radio, electronics, and automotive industries which are dependent on mica are in avulnerable position.

C. Intentions.

n"ease ln Sovlet Production and Europeanblock and sheet mica could be an

Indication of Increased production of electron tubes of the sizesfor use in proximity fuses, guided missiles, and small fSid radao sets used by the armed forces of the Soviet Bloc.

IKES AND PROCESSIKG PLANTS IN THE SOVIET BLOC

Mica Minon

1, USSR

r^rmlc Region la.

LouXM tooF

6 "E

37'Ng

09'R to26'E

32'RE

tv-onanlc Region VIII.

UrBlB' lUmuHd zone on the eastilometers long andtllceMtors wide; includes overpenings.

44'H to35'E

54'K to00'E

o06'E

goojwjgda Region XI.

Mama-VItta River' toabout 30

Blryusa b

Kondakovsklyeo 5

00'N toOO'E

ai'Hg-g

HDistrict (4

H toRiver

Economic Region I.

Chi-an Kal-p'lag Llao-yang

Economic Region III

30'NE06'N to10'E2t'NN toU'B

Hsing-lung

*E

Province

perations)

'N

perations)

*E

Region IV.

Region VI.

Gradevo

Gostun

Asenovgrad

4. Riinmnlr.

Brezoiu

VNE

59'H to52'E

20'H to

ca Processing Plantn

Economic Region Ia.

KE

E

Economic Region X.

E

^U'N to03'E

58'H to'E

Communistconomic Region III.

N to05'E

42'N to19'E

TAUTOLOGY

of sires and qualities to fit the particular uses for which they are required. The proper preparation of block nica to produce sheet and film nice and mica splittings requires both good judgment instructural imperfections and inclusions and knowledge andin trimming, splitting, cutting, grading, and classification. The poorest quality in one classification approximately equals the best of the next inferior classification. Likewise, tho largest size in one grade nearly equals the smallest size of the next larger grade.

The process of preparation of run ot mica to the finished sheet, film, splittings, and scrapand operation and encompasses five steps which are summarized briefly as follows:

First, the books or crystals of mica ore hand-separated in the mire from the mica suitable only for scrap and from the adhering dirt and rock.

Second, the books are split into sheets,nch and greater In thickness. The resulting product is untrimmed block mica of mixed sizes and scrap mica.

Third, the untrlmmed block is sent to the trimmer shed, where ragged and tangled edges and cracked and stained portions arc removed. Sheet mica splithicknessnch in thickness is known asrica. More scrap mica IsKd at this stage also.

Fourth, this, trimmed block or sheet mica is then graded to size,rading chart which was first used in India and which now has been accepted with alight variations In all the mica-producing countries of the world. The sizes rangench to special 3lzesynches toynches for sheetnchynches for film, punch, and circle mica (sheet mica in circular shapes with diametersnchnches in size for splittings. Mica

mi a

sheets on the top and bottom of the crystal or book of mica. These sheets are often more cracked and stained than the remainder of the book, andelatively small part of each sheet Is usable. This serviceable part is then split to not more2 Inch in thickness for splittings2OU inch in thickness for film.

Fifth, after the mica has been graded to site and split to the required thickness, it is classified as to quality. There ore six qualities into which each size is classified. These qualities are clear, clear and slightly stained, fair stained, good stained, stained, and black-stained or spotted, in descending order of insulating and dielectric Scrap mica is classified only as light or dark-colored scrap (indicating the occurrence of, or the lack of, the dark, iron-bearing minerals) and mine and factory scrap.

This exacting method of grading muscovite and phlogopite block and film mica and mica splittings is necessary because of the strict specifications for grades and classes of mica required in radios, radars, telephones, and other products of the electrical industry. The classifying of scrap is done because only the Light-colored or low-iron muscovite scrap is suitable for the mixed mica and glass insulation bases for radio receiving sets utilized in some types of aircraft. Factory scrap resulting from the milling of built-up mica products is not usable for some ground mica products, because of the binders used in the built-up material.

MBTHODOUX);'

Production flguree for the USSR9 and for Rumania3 are reasonably reliable. Chinese production figures5 are leas reliable but are believed to be acceptable. Production flguros for all countries of the Soviet Bloc after the several years reported above represent estimates obtained from various Intelligence reports, as well as estimates based on technical These estimates have been checked against the available geologic informationesources, unmined reserves, and requirements for finished mica products. It Is believed that the totals reported are accurateargin ofo minusercent.

The possible supply of block and film mica and mica splittings available from mica production In the Soviet Bloc shown in Tables based on the almost universally accepted opinion that block and film mica recovered makes up aboutercent of the total mica fepresentsercent of the total mica produced In the Soviet Bloc (as Indicated in From the information available on the mining and processing methods in the USSR, it is estimated that onlyoercent of the total block mica produced will meet specifications for strategic-grade mica. Possible splittings are calculated atercent of the total Thepercent difference between the strategic grades of block mica and mica splittings production is accounted foross in processing the splittings and the block mica.

Tho consumption percentages shown in" were obtained in the following manner. heck was made of US practices from the World War II period to date. This, in turn, was checked againstobtained from intelligence reports on Soviet proctices and from CIA personnel who have had contact with European practices. On the basic of this Information it was estimated that condensers and radio tubes in the USSR account forercent of the consumption of strategic grades of block and film mica compared with theoercent consumed in the US. The remaining categories in the table --

P.bove. ** P. bove.

with the exception of sparkplugs, which are believed toarger quantity of mica In tho USSR than in the USlosely follow the US pattern.

The estimates of nica consumption and requirements in the Soviet Bloc shown in Tablesandere made in the following manner. It is known that the electrical and communlcations industry utilizes almost the entire supply of the strategic grades of block and film mica and mica splittings. The USSR also uses essentially the same type of electron tubes and condensers utilized in the/ and theof the total mica consumed in tubes and condensers is comparable for the two countries. Radio electron tubes and condensers account for SO toercent of the consumption of tho strategic grades of block and film mica in the US. An estimate ofercent of totalof strategic grades of mica by these two components has been assigned to the USSR. It is also estimated that one-third of themanufactured In the USSR utilize mica In their construction.

Using the estimates of electron tube production and one-third of the condenser components produced in the Sovietactor ofounds of mica per thousand tubes andounds of mica per thousand condenser units, the cortEumptlon of mica in the tube andindustries and the total mica required for all strategic uses were obtained. Again using US practices, the percentage of the total mica consumption accounted for by block and film mica and by mica upllttlngs was utilized to obtain the estimate of the consumption and requirements of mica splittings in the Bloc. Consumption of the strategic grades of block and film mica in the US representsoercent of the total consumed. For theigure ofercent was assigned to block and film micaike percentage to mica splittings.

bove. ** bove.

The estimate for the total labor force, the breakdown by types of workers, and the additional workers required to reach self-sufficiency was made in the following manner. Taking into considerationew mines giving the number of men employed and the quantity of mica produced, the average number of men employed and the average quantity mined was calculated. 3J/ The average quantity of mica mined divided by the average number of men employedactor

of the average quantity of mica produced per man. This factor wu divided into the total eotimated output of mica to obtain the total manpower employed. The breakdown by type of workers in each category von based on US analogy. The US analogy was modified by the analyst.ight of his knowledge of the mica Industry, to apply to Soviet conditions. In making this modification, the analyst took Into con-plderatlon the excessive number of unskilled prison laborers, technical advisers, inspectors, and political agents usually employed in Soviet operations. The estimate of additional workers required to reach aclf-sufficiency in mica production within the Soviet Bloc is based on the geologic occurrence of mica and on current recovery methods. Mica deposits are, for the most part, small and are scattered over wide areas. Mining and processing methods often are not very efficient, and In many regions both mining and processing are seasonal operations. During some periods, relatively large numbers of men are employed and at other timesew. Thus the estimated requirement of doubling manpower to achieve self-sufficiency is at bestough

The classification of mica uses as essential, less essential, and nonessential was mode in the following manner. Previous surveys by tiM analyst covered the uses of mica in all the major mica-consuming countries of the world outside the Soviet Bloc. Sources covered in the present study of the uses of mica In the USSR Indicate that the Soviet pattern of use follows that of the uses reported for the countries outside the Bloc, and therefore the list of uses shown is the same as that reported for the US.

CAPS IN INTELLICBKCE

Reasonably accurate Information is available on the sources and possible maul pad reserves of mica in the USSR. Little reliableis available on sources and reserves In China and Rumania. On the basis of general geologic knowledge, resources axe not believed to be large in these countries. The largest gaps are accurate production figures, by qualities and sizes, and the percentage of finishedrecovered fron the raw block produced; consumption requirements by type, grade, quality, and size of sheet and film mica and mica splittings; and statistics on trade and stocks of the various grades and qualities of processed mica.

-

g. r. ft

SOURCE REFERENCES

h? ClaSSif ICatlon entry designated aval., have the following significance:

Source of Inforaat10Tl

onfirmed by other sources

ompletely reliable robably true"

sually- Possibly true

airly- Doubtful

ot usually reliable robably false

ot- Cannot be Judged

annot be judged

"Documentary- refers to original documents of foreign governments andopies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or information extracted from such documentstaff officer, all of which may carry the field evaluation "Documentary."

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "PR" are by the author of this No "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

Interior, US Bureau of Mines, Information Circular,omestic Mica,. Owinn. U. Eval. RR 2.

trategic Mica,. Gwlnn. U. Eval. RR 2.

hapterMinerals andS. Eval. RR 2.

Geologlcheskayncral'no-syr'yevaya bazaVIII gye?.du VTK (Geological Study and MineAw Materl.ilre he USSR forh - U. Eval. RR 2.

-

r--

5- Ibid.

IAk. S. Eval.- clt.

8. l

CIA CS, S. Eval. RR 3-

Interior, US Bureau of Mines, MineralsO. Eval. RR 2.

9- - Cbowdbury, Handbook of Hica, New. U. Eval. RR 2.

10

hapter 6, "Minerals and. Eval. RR 2.

11. Canada, Depo_ wnent of Mines, Branch Raportica,. Spence. U. Eval. RR 2.

12.

y to Soviet Power, Cambridge,

U. Eval. RR. Betekhten,ursolcznykh lskopayemykh (Course on Deposits of Useful U. Eval. RR 3.

13- '

14.

Geologicayaineral1 no-syr' yrvaya bazaXVIII syezdu VPK, Moscow-Leningrad,RR 3.

li- clt. Eval. RR 3-

Intcrlor, US Bureau Of Mines, Foreign Minerals Survey, Vol.o.Mineral Resources ofan lqkb. U. Eval. Doc,

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Mica. U. Eval. Doc.

State, Calcutta Despatch U. Eval. RR 3.

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CEa/RRhe Electron Tube Industry io the

The Electron Tubs Industry In the Soviet Bloc,

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Air, Treasure Island,,. C. Eval. RR 3.

Original document.

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