Created: 11/16/1954

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CIA/.tRORR Project'J3;


The data and conclusions contained in this report do not necessarily represent the final position of ORR and should be regarded as provisional only and

'. to ivvI^iM.

bo available to the user are solicited.

HTaiJCSKii AGENCY Office of Research and "Jeoorts





and Substitutes


of tbe

h. Comaunist




b. rriaary ,'ntimony in the




AppendixAlloys ana Their



Appendixand Evaluation of Sources


Antimony Alloy Specifications in the USSR L

AntLnony Establishments in the

Sources of Orer for the Radanshay Snelter in the USSK,

1|. Antimony Establishments in

of Ores for the Vajskova1 Smelter ln Czechoslovakia,

of Primary Antimony ot Oberboehrasdor' in East


'!. Reserves of Antimony in Communist Chins, by Provinces,

i. Antimony Mines and Deposits in Certfiunist

9- Estimated Smelter Production oftircony in Com-

,iunist China,

Smelter Production of primary Antimony ln the

Soviet Zh

Imports of friiimry AntLnony by Countries of fee

SovietO-S3 2?

- iv -

Exports ofy Antimony bv Countries oi" the

Soviet Eloc,

Total Available Supply of Prbu'ry AntLnOny in

Each Country of the Soviet Bloc,

lli. Estimated Consumption of Primary Antimony in ihe Soviet


Estimated Consumption of Primary Antimoiy by Majorin the USSR,

16. Estimated Supply, Consumption, and Surplus of .ruK.ry

Antimony in the Soviot 35

17- Estimated Major Inputs in the "inlng and Smelting of

Primary Antimony in the Soviet Bloc,

16. Uses of Selected Antimony Alloys in the

19. Comparison of Uses of Antiraony Alloys in the USSR and the



(ORR Project


onferrous metal, has diverse uses which have madeital commodity in both the civilian ond military sectors of the economy of the Soviet Bloc. Antinony alloys and compoundsaportant components of bearings, storage batteries, small arms ammunition, solders,ost of other industrial products.

Total production ofn the Soviet Bloc3 wasetricapproximately double the production. Communist China was the largest producer, with0 tons, moreimes8 production. The USSR producedons and the European Satellites0 tons. The Soviet production,.although it was two and one-half times thewas equal to onlyercent of the current normalin the USSR, ond the Satellite proauction was also somewhat short of demand. About one-third of the total combined requirements of the USSR and the European Satellites was supplied from Chinese Communist production.

Reserves of antimony ore ln thec are adequate for any foreseeable demand. Communist China alone has known reserves ofillionears of production3 levelsnd the USSR has reserves which would last about ICQ years. Reserves in the European Satellites are smaller,in East Germany.

Only minor quantities of antimony are imported by the Soviet Bloc from non-lilac countriesabout JjOO tonsnd little is exported to non-Sloe countries. Tne pattern of trade for the Soviet Bloc, then, is largely one of intra-Bloc imports and exports.

*kk: Throughout this report, tonnages arein metric tons.

* "he estimates and conclusions contained in this report represent the best judgment of the responsible analyst as of

r ti y. T-

Coianunist China exports to the USSR almost all of its production,

and Czechoslovakia exports to the other European Satellites, he USSR is both an importer fron Communist China and an exporter to the European Satellites.

Total supply of antimony in lhe Soviet Bloc3 wasons. The total supply in the USSR0 tons; in the Europeanonsj and in Communistons.

Total consumption of antimony in the Soviet Bloc3 is estimated0 tons. Of this total the USSR consumedons and the European Satellitesons. The amount consumed ln Communist China was negligible.

The quantitative antimony use pattern for the USSR ls indicative of the consumption pattern for the Soviet Bloc. Of theon consumption in the USSRona were used in the manufacture of bearings,JOG tons in storage batteries,ons in small arms ammunition,ons for miscellaneous products, andons in antiaony compounds (nonmetallic).

The total supply of antimony in the Soviet Blccotal consumption byons. tudy of the supply-consumption relationship for the yoars3 indicates that tho total surplus for the period amounts to0 tons. Assumingons of this accumulated surplus is in industrial stocks, the strategic stockpile ofin the Soviet Bloc is0 tons- When added to annual production at current levels, this stockpile constitutes moreear supply for the normal peacetime requirements of the USSR.

Although the European Satellitesroup probably cannot increase production substantially, there is evidence bo indicate that Communist China could double production and that Une USSR could probably make snail increases in production. The Soviet Blochole, then,igh capability for increased production of antimony, and the industry is not significantly vulnerable.

If the Bloc were deprived of Chinese Communist resources,the situation would be quite different. Production facilities in the USSR are concentrated in two plants, he event of war.

disruption of production would confront the economy with antimony supply troublesears. Increased demands woulddeplete tho stockpile, and shortages of antimony would affect the Soviet military machine vitally. Conservation of antimony in any of its present uses in theould increase the shortages cf other critical metals, notably lead and tin.

I. Introduction.

A. Importance.

In relative terms the antimony industry ln the Soviet Bloc is small. Measured3 US dollars and prices, the value of its output ia aboutillion dollars annually,ercent of the total nonferrous mining industry in the Bloc. The industry draws on the Bloc's labor force for only0 workers.

It ia misleading, however, to measure the Importance of antinomy in these terms. The USSB is concernedaa is anynationith tho maintenance of an adoquate supply of the metal. The reasons for this concern become evident on examination of the wide rango of uses of antimony alloys now employed in the L'SyH. Tlie actual specifications used by Soviet procurement agents, snd the uses to which the varied alloys are put ln the USSR,are presented inw

In addition to direct military uses ln aircraft engines, tanks, and naval vesaeLs of all types, antimony alloy bearings perform thousands of other important jobs. In rolling mills, machine tools, turbines, stationary stean engines, electric actors, generators, compressors, locoaotives, railway wagons, turbocon-pressors, dieselide variety of internal combustion engines, transmissions, miningrmature bearings, and La many ofior machines and types of power equimnent, antimony alloy

Footnote references in arabic numerals aro to sources listed


ollows on p. h. or additional uses soondn Appendix Km

Table 1

intLnony Alloy Specifications in the USSR


hrc 10









Antirrany(Percent >





Tin bronze; casting bronze;bronze.

rligh tin bronze.

Special acid-resistant bronze.


Leaded bronze; parts working under conditions of high rolling nlllvalve guides, aircrai't engine parts, and the like.

Copper-lead bearing nlloy.

High leaded tin bronzes;and bushings, especially for heavy-load andconditions.

Leaded tin bronse.

ftiosphor bronse; sprocket and gear wheels*

Tin bronze; shoet, strip, bars, wire, springs, scrapers for paper-making industry.

Gun metal; castings.

Leaded red brass; castand aalt-water steam fittings.

Leaded red braaa; tractor parts.

High lead red brass;metal.

Aluminum brass, cast} general and marine engineering parts.

n bronao made fromscrap.

forollows on p. 7-

- li -

Table 1

Antimony Alloy Specifications in tbe USSR ' (Continued)










Al-Fe-Mn bronze; cast nuts, hoavy worm gear3.

Hn-Fo brasaj propellers andblades; corrosionship fittings.

Hn-Ni-Fe brass; large castings for ship construction,valve parts, and the liko, of marine engines.

tiigh brass; water piping,and pipe fittings.

ardener alloy withC melting point.

Babbitt; lining bearings of petrol engines, machine tools, ventilation fans, ball mills, electric fansctfj and the like.

Babbitt; lining bearings.

babbitt; lining bearings ofmarine and stationary steam engines0 hp, portable stoma engines,-notors and locomotivesw, generators,and the like.

Babbitt; lining bearings ofengines.

Babbitt; lining bearings ofengines.

- >

Table 1

Antimony Alloy Specifications in the USSR (Continued)

Soviet Antimony

gtolining bearings of

high-power aircraft engines, steam turbines, turbocomprcs-sors, pumps, diesels, marine steam engines, electric motors, generators, and the00 . Babbitt (substitute;

lining bushings of internal combustion engines, stationary and mobile steam turbines, and the like.

ith an admixture of Nij

lining machine tool bearings.

tolining bearings of

railway wagons, wide andgauge.

tolining main and big-end

bearings of automobiles and tractors.

tometal for printing presses.


gacid-proof apparatus, and

in accumulator industry.

HRand wrought aluminum


MTs -hard solder; brasses and


tosolder for tinplate, iron,

brass, copper.

Table 1

Antimony Alloy Specifications in the USSR (Continued)



Soft solder for tinplate,radiators, instruments, radio apparatus.

Antimony solder.


bearings arc used. The vital characteristic ofard phase embeddedoft matrix, thus permitting the bearing to adjust itself to the pressure and strain of the rotating shaftexcessive friction, has made the antimony alloy bearing ancomponent of Soviet industry.

Storage batteries represent another important use of antimony. Tho battery plates of the conventional storage battery used in tanks, trucks, military and civilian vehicles of many kinds, and in the submarine fleet, containercent toercent antimony, which greatly increases their life and efficiency. In addition to the "starting" batteries are the stationary batteries for communications and emergency light and power facilities.

Tne Soviet Specifications also indicate the imoortant use cf antimony in solder and type metal. elatively low tonnages of antimony are consumed in solder, this useital one. Tne intricate wiring in radio, electronics, and telecommunications isith solder. Type metal, essential to mass written communication, isoderate thoiifr. stec^iy jser of antimony.

;iany other uses of antimony are not so easily categorized. Castings for ship construction and marine engineering parts, sprockets, Rear wheels, heavy worm gears, valve guides, propeller blades.

chemical plant equipment, and foundry facings use small but important amounts of antimony in the USSK. Cable sheathing and piping are less strategic, general utility uses.

The remaining important use of antimony in the USSR is in the antimonial lead bullet core filler in almost all small arms ammunition. 3/ Except where heavy armor piercing istandardercent lead toercent antimony filler is used.

The uses indicated innclude only the metallic uses of antinony. In addition to tiese metallic forms, there are many important antimony compounds which together consume moderate tonnages. The most important of the compounds aro antimony sulfide, used in making ammunition primers, glass, and red rubber products; sodium antimonate, used in making porcelains and enamels for metal ware; antimony tetroxide, used in refractory frits, ceramic enamels, and paint pigments; antimony trioxide, used as the tetroxide above and also in combination with chlorinated rubber or paraffin to make fabrics (such as canvas) flameproof"and fire-resistant; and antimony oxide, trichloride, and fluoride, used in making glass and in electroplating.

H. Description and Substitutes.

Antimonyluish-white metalrystalline, scale-like structure. Its symbol is Sb. Because it is neither malleable nor ductile, it is used only in alloys or in its chemical forms. It imparts hardnessmooth surface to soft metal alloys, makingey metal in the manufacture of the very large "white metal" bearing family. Alloys containing antimony expand onthis is the particular property that mokes it essential in type netal.

In considering possible substitutes for antimony, it must be remembered that antimonyature metal; its present position among the metals is based on long years of industrial research, on cost considerations, and on relative availability compared with the other metals. Much substitution has already taken place, andpatterns are well established in the metallic uses. In the bearing category, for example, it is unlikely that further significant substitution will take place. earing is made, in general, toarticular task. Hardness, smoothness, strength, heat resistance, and corrosion resistance cannot be

Dl i

maximized simultaneously. earing thus must representthese attributes, the direction of the compromisethe job to be done. This is the deciding factor inof the bearing alloy. The features desired, inamount of antimony (and other metals) to be used.

In the battery category, significant substitution is not likely as long as the conventional lead-antimony storage battery continues in use. Although the cadmium-nickel battery is in limited use in the USSR, hf cost differentials and availabilities of the metals involved indicate continued dependence on the conventional storage battery.

Antimony has been used to make type metalears, and although plastics are considered to have some future in printing, significant substitution in this use appears unlikely. Type metal is not thrown away, but is melted and reused,coming only through melting losses which arc replaced. This obvious cost advantage, in addition to the technical ones mentioned, is an added reason why substitution in this use will be slow. The future use of antimony in solder also appears to be secure; extensive research in this important industrial material has resulted in great stability in the mixtures now used.

Patterns of consumption are much less stable in the non-metallic uses. There is much competition between the numerous metallic compounds in such uses as paint pigments and ceramic enamels. Because these uses are much newer than the metallic uses, changes in consumption can be expected. Some of these changes may actually increase the use of antimony. In plating, for example, antimony may replace other plating metals, such as chrome, where corrosion resistance is considered more important than resistance to scratching. $/

II. Supply.

A. Organization of the Industry.

In the USSR, the production o; antimony is under theof the Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy. The Ministry of Ferrous Metallurs', USSR, and the Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy, USSR, were formed as separate ministries by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, USSR, on. 6/ . Loranko

was appointed ot that tine as Minister of Nonferrous Metallurgy, USSR. 7/ Prior to thio time, both ferrous and nonferrous metals were under the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, USSR. The two important antimony combines, the intermediate subordination of which is not known, areanshay Hininc and Metallurgical Combine Lmeni Frunze,nd the Khaydarkan HLnLng and Metallurgical

Combine. 9/

In China, production of antimony is under the control of the Ministry of Heavy ore significant feature of mining control inthat many of the important mines aro under direct Soviet

Antimony production in East Germany ia under the general regulation and control of the Ministry for iiining and Smelting. thia Ministrylain Administration for Konfcrrous Metalswith one subdivision for mining and another for Tho head of the Ministryember of the Council of Ministers oT East

In Czechoslovakia, production of antimony is under two Main Administrations at different sta^on. "lining operations aro under the Main Administration of Hi-nfcrrous Motal Mines. The State Enterprise Stredocesko Rudno doly operates tho Pribram nines, and the StatoRudne Bane is Ln charge of the Chuchna mines. The smelting of antimony at both Vajskova' and Pribram is under the direction ofln Admlnlatretlon for the Working of Nonferrous

B. Facilities. 1. USSR.

The mine production of antimony in the USSR cornea fron seven locations andozenith the exception of Turgay, Ln the western part of Kazakh SSR (Economicnd Rnzdollnsk, close to the border between East and West Siberia at Krasnoyarsk (Economic Regionhe Soviet antimony Industry Is locatedelatively small area extending from north-central Kirghiz SSR through northern Tadzhlk SSR tc eastern Uzbek SSR (all

* properly "minesome with several mines. The term region in this report refers to the economic regions defined and numbered in CIA1 (First, USSR: Economic Regions.


in Economic Regionistance ofiles. The ores go to only tvo sneltor locationshe larger one at Kadaeahay, operated by the Frunze Combine in Kirghiz SdRthe other at The pattern of mine and smelter location is indicatod in Table

Kadamshay is tho largest, most important antimony operation in the The operation includes several largehich produce around one-third of the total ores milled and smelted by the smolter. Tho remainder is customith about half of the ores coming from the large mining operation at Khaydarksn,iles The ore reserves at these mines are sufficient for at least TOO years at the present rate ofhort distance north of the Rhaydarken minesmall mining operation at Kassan-say which sends its ore,ons annually, to tho Ktdamshay nmelter. gp/ Two small mines are located at Chavdar and Churek-sai in southeastern Uzbek SSR ln an isolated mountain aree. fining methods are primitive and the output snail. The ore from those mines also goes to the Kadovohayistance ofiles. There are two wall-known deposits of antimony at Chauvay, which is near the Kadamsliay smelter. Reserves are said to fie small,ons of antimonyut are sufficient to support the miningonsons of ore perorears. At Takfan, in Tadxhlk SSR, Is another deposit which appears to be of considerable importance in Soviet It was reportod in2arge antimony "enterprise" was planned for this location. There io no furUior evidence of activity at Takfan, but It is reasonable to assume that the deposits are being mined.

iles sway froc this group of minesaining operationzdolinsk. It is reported thatSoviet wneltcr at Turgay does not smelt ores other than its own. 2U/ It is assumed, therefore, that the sizeable quantities of antimony athich are concentrated there to reduce the balk oflpcents, must makeile trip to Kadamshay. Ihe size of the mining operation and tho distance fron Kadamshaln real needmelter at this location. On the basis of

ollows on

wt ustom smelter handles ores from other minea es well as local

this information, ths sources of ores for the Kadamshay smelter operation arc estinated in Table 3.

Table 3

Sources of Ores for the Kadaiashay Smelter in the USSR

Metric Tons

Kadamshayezrfolinsk Hassan-say, Chavdar, Cherck-soy, Chauvoy, Takfan


of Ore Sent to Kadamshay



Antimony Metal Equivalent a/


a. Basixi onof ore"en jf metal7 See 'input-methodology. Appendix B.

The other Soviet antimony snelter, at Turgay, Is partomplete operation, with its own nines, mills,ower station. As indicated above, Turgay doeselt ore from mines oi.her than its own. Descriptions ol* the facilities in use indicate an output ofons of metallic antimonyotal Soviet smelter summarized in*

7. Czechoslovakia.

Mine production of antimony in Czechoslovakia comesines and smelter productionmelters. These operations are outlined in


* ollows on

Table J|

Antinony Establishments in Czechoslovakia



Pribram Lead-Zinc-Silver T'.ino



1 E

N -Banska BystricaSlovakiaSlovakia



Mine and/

Large aine, major deposit, d/

Large mine,lead-zinc-silver ore, and larged/

Deposit, f/

Deposit, f/

most modern, perhaps the "largest plant of its kind in Europe, a/ b/ cf


Chechoslovakia, df

Antimony is minedyproduct, but this nine is the second largest source. It handles only its own ores, d/ e/

It is possible that smalltiavc been mined

Mining began'i9l el


'ihe largest mining operation and the major deposit is at Chuchma, in centraliie ores from this mine all go to the Vajskova' smelter at Banskahortaway.

The lead-zinc-silver mine at Pribram in central Bohemia is the second largest producer in In this operation, antimony is mined from Uie Pribram lead-zinc"-silver ores. Pribram smelts its ores close to the mine site and, in the case of antimony, turns out both metallic antimony and antimony compounds. The Pribram smelter does not handle ore from othor mines, kh/ Production of primary antimony3 ie estimatedetric tons

The other major mining operation is at Banska Bystrica, where modern equipment and methods are used. All its ores are smelted in the Vajskova

In addition toajor miningdditional deposits believed to be rained at Dubravy andboth in centralexact date when mining

operations began at Pezinok is not known but it was some time19k9l/ The ores from these two operations gorief summary of the mine-smelter pattern in central Slovakia, based on the above information, is given in Table 5-

Tabls 5

Sources of Ores for the Vajskova1 Smelter in Czechoslovakia:

Metric Tons

Estimate ofMetal a/



a. lias edons of oreon of metal. See input" methodology, Appendix B.


3. .

Antimony ia rained, milled, and smelted in the Ober-boeiimsdorf operation a* Schleiz in Thuringia. This operation is small, and its future appears uncertain because of its limited reserves, which appear sufficient to carry even this small operation only Before the smelting facilities were built the ore mined ot Oberboehmsdorf had to be sent to Czechoslovakia for 13 this operationotal of UI? tons of antimony; its annual production was almost identical in theears, possiblyeveling off at merendications of the new deposits which appear to be needed to furnish ore for this smelter Details of the Oberboehmsdorf operation are summarized in Table

h. Communist China.

Information on antimony inhina presents many complex problems. Reserves of antimony in the ground are extremely large, estimated'ietric tons of metal. JvVen under the highly improbable assumption that no added reserves will be discovered, this amount would lastears at present rates of extraction. Another nroblem lies in tne wide dispersion of deposits and mines throughout soven provinces. The live provinces with the largest reserves are shown in*

An additional complicating factor is the large number of mines, at least uO, scattered throughout the 7provinces.

Aboutf these mines are located in :lunan Province, which accounts for about four-fifths of total production, of these, the Ilsi-K'uang-Shan mines are the major producers. Although there is insufficient information to account for the ore output of the other individual.mines, group tonnages can be accounted for at the smelter level. Tne known .leposits and nines for all seven provinces are listed in Table

! I'?..

ollows on ollows On


Table 6

rimary Antinony at OberfcoeVi.iiseorfst

(Metric Tons)





UiO b/



A. mine, nill,

n/ i/ atneltingwere built


Reserves are small, even for this small metal output. Reserves3ons of antimony. The ore is,very hirji grade, h/

Source classifies the reserves ir.ons; possible,ons.


Table 7

Reserves oi" Antirony Comnunist China, by

ietric Tons of r'.otal

Total 6TJ7

A final factor thatntwony productionnanist China is Lhe rrea'v


Table 8

Antimony Mines and Deposits in Ccmunist China

K-iangsi a/ KweichoB a/

Mine or Deposit




















rl -

Torollow on

Table 8

Antimony Mines and Deposits in Communist China (Continued)

Yunnan a/ Kirin a/ Liaoning a/

or Deposit

Tu-pi and Koo-hua Hao-shan Ta-huang-kouo -ho-tsu Man-pao







b" '

TafeU 9

Estlnated SswlUr rroducllon orliaony ln CrsmiJiltt Cnine


KstUutod Ouiput (IMU-Ic Tons of .'letal)

0 JO' t

(Bs la-ins.)

j /sotnotcs forollow on

ifcrUiroa other

nines U 83 US

OWT->reported toons of nttal por South Snoltor, treating tho orre fron other itlneo, liascapacityons natal per nonUi, Doth mattersUielr Bffl power ptaata. a/


Table 9

fistijBtol SnnJtsr Production of Prlnary Ar>tln.,ny in Commnist Cliir


forty or fifty Scatteredsnelt- too province.

Wangling Ju-yuan


Output (Metric tons of Hetsl)

O b/ c/ d/

0 a/

OO ion-CC tona of mUI Ij lent to Um Soutti Sncitcr at Mil-Icang-ehan, Uiaro an nuni'nwa snail MMlUrs iftiich treat ora fron theisted inoeb, melton

artt jlri'.at'i-

sing the roasting and reduction procxati e/ and one sarlur ta lecstsd at TakanUnV -

1/ ft :

orLn operation prior0 nineH -

Om *ocond largestoperation lnnnnltcr was Inand anovtor

ISM. *po-er plant MS udeVin UM* */


Tabic 9

Estimated Sitflltot Production of Primary fntinony in Co-aaunist China


islin^tod Output, (lletric Tons .'i i

ft? si

Ovicrs Hwerous snail nmcIters

d/ (Ho-chili)


An up-to-'ij'cres iron Werea.

jour snail reduction furnaceslncatedtu in Li finingd/ CUior loa-Lians are net Uum,

Antimony production in Communist China in theears is capable ofevel ofons0 tons of, metal annually. Such development may ba prevented more by reasons of demand than of supply. Supplies in tha Soviet Dloc are now more than adequatemeasured against consumption0 tonsnd thorn has been no export market to absorb larger Under these circumstances, it ls unlikely that added resources will bo expended to increase production.


C. Production.

Estimated production of antimony in each of the fourcountries of the Soviet Blocthe USSR, Czechoslovakia, Sast Germany, and Communist Chinais given in

Table 10

Estimated Smelter Production of Primary Antimony in tho Soviet3


urgay a/





b/ Pribram b/










China d/





TO tal



footnotes for Tableollow on

- 2lj -

Table 10

Estimated Smelter Production of Prlaary Antimony in the SovietContinued)

Ranee of error: plus or minus"ercent. 3 figures are froa

page A, Estimates for earlier years are based on size, location,

reserves, and nature of mining and smelting

b. Range of errori plua or minusercent. 3 figures are from

Except8 production, whichublished

production for earlier years is based on information.

e. These figures are considered

d. roduction totalublished For thehe range of error is plus or minusercent?otals arc based on tho following projection of the National Resources

Metric Tons

Commission of Chinai

9 0 1 2

oo 0

Total rrom Others O0

0 0

tho NUC totals are changed as follows: roduction is Hatedublished figure for actual production. 9 is scaled downons0 tons, the estimate by the US Bureau of Mines for that year. Ih/ on overestimate iu also removed from? figures. The amounts for Hsi-lc'uang-shan, Ju-yuan, and "Total from Others" are the sane proportions projected by the KRC but applied to Ute rovised totals, except for the8 wiien no production ia attributed to Hsi-lc'uang-shan, which was under construction. 3 production ia based on Table 9.


3. Trade.

In general terms the pattern of trado in antimony is quite simple-: Communist China and Czechoslovakia are exporters, the other countries of the Soviet Bloc are importers. Since Communist China's domestic demands takeegligible part of its output, almost all of its production is exported to theortions of which are reexported to the European Czechoslovakia appears to supply the othor European Satellites to tho extent that its exportable surplus ofons vlll allow. Thesego principally to East Germany, andesser extent, to Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and In addition.,small tonnages have been imported by tho SovictBloc from non-Bloc.

Imports of primary antimony by countries of the Soviet Bloc,re given innd exports of primary antimony by countries of the Soviet Bloc,ro given in It will bo noted that the USSR ia botb an Importer (from China) and an exporter (to the European Satellites). Available information la too fragmentary to permit acomplete Quantitative estimate of intra-Bloc trade.

S. Total Available Supply.

Estimates of the total available supply of antimony in each of the countries of tho Soviet Bloc for thean be made by combining estimates of production, imports, and exports. Czechoslovakia has producedons per year overear period, of whichons annually are exported to other European Satellites. East Germany, with no productionmported all of its supplies in With the beginning of East Gorman production, Imports appoar to have levoled off atonsivlng Eastotal supply of slightlyons per year1 AH of Poland's supply comes from imports, which have Increased froaons3one Hungary's supply is also imported,evel ofons The small tonnagesby Rumania, Bulgaria, and Albania, which together amount to no moreons, also must be imported.

a Tableollows on p.ableollows on


Table 11

Imports of Primary Antimony by Countries of tbe Soviet Bloc

Metric Tons









T. Range of error: plus or minusercent. Includes small ton-nages from Yugoslavia and Turkey.

?3 basBd

23 basedl.

23 based

estimated annual average forear period.

on Chinese exports. There is no evidence of shipmentsantimony to countries outside the Soviet Bloc.

Although production of primary antimony in the USjR has increased fromonsonshe "USSH has received increasingly larger quantities from Communism China each year. mports fron China are estimated to have beenons, but3 Uiey were0 tons.esult, the total available supply of primary antimony in the USSft bas more than tripled inear period. On the other hand, the total available supply of primary antimony in Coimunist China ismall fraction of its production, reflecting its low level of industrial development. Estimates of total available supply of primary antimony incountry in Uicoc,re presented in*

* Tableollows on


Tablo 12

Estimated Exports of Primary ftntimo.-r/ by Countrios of the Soviet Bloc J

Tlotric Tons




I'e-T Comnunist China b^ Czechoslovakia c/



or error: plus or minusercent.

on Chinese production.

?3 based

23 based

Taaie 1)

Totalaupplr of Prwij Antiaorwarn Country or Ut Sofltt Rloo a/

'Wt-le Tona

c-wkla Sci-aary u^ary Poland aoC KUma





0 Ul.OOO






i33 Ihe total availablo supply ofn tho European Satellites increasedonsiQ totons Because of numerous allusions to shortages of antimony in individual countries, it is concluded that antimony supplies did not exceed requirements during thisvailable supply, Iherofore, is equated with consumption for each of these years in the European Satellites.

Although the evidence indicates that available supply is equivalent to consumption in the European Satellites, tne same method cannot be applied to lhe USSR. or example,of antimony in the USSR is estimated to haveons. In addition, the USSR imported an0 ton3 from Communist China, of whichona were reexported to the European Satellites. The total available, supply of antimony ln the USSR, therefore,0 tons.* On the other hand, production estimates of antimony-containing productsutlined below, indicate an output much lower than that to bcfromconsumption0 tons of primary antL-ony. Tha possibility that tho USSR uses greater percent^ of antimony than the US or other countries is not borne outomparative Pnalycls of specifications for antimony alloys.

Inasmuch as the equationproduction plus imports minus exports equals consumptionis not considered applicable to the USSR, anthod was used to estimate consumption of primary antimony. For tne8roduction estimatesjosr products employing antimony bearings aro available for both'the LSSR and the Suropoan Satellites. Approximately three-fourths of those products consuming antimony are estimated to have


been produced in tho USSR inS3 Production Fitiaatcs of batteries are also available Tor both the USSR and the European Cf these, ou percent aro estimated to have been produced in ITte USSR. Tne production of miscellaneous items such aa solder, type ncUl, and cable sheathing is assigned the same ratio as the consumers or bearings, orercent and 25eighted average of those three major consuming categoriesbearings, batteries, and miscellaneous it ensvas then employed to obtain an over-all ratio between consumption of antinony in the European Satellites and the The ratio for osch of the years duringeriod was approximately the same, and the data indicate that the USSR consumedercent and tho European Satellitesercent of theonsumption of primary antimony in the Soviet Tho application of this ratio to63 supply data for Uie European(considered to be equivalent to their consumption)onsumption aeries for the USSR, based on its production of antimony' consuming products.

Although tha estimates for the USSR so derived include antimony in both metallic and nonaetallic uses, tho methodology does not account for antimony used in sna-ll-arms ammunition. estimates of such ammunition arc available for Uie USSR, and tho content of the standardore is known to be a

Estimates of production are available for olean locomotives,

machine tools, trucks, merchant ships, eloctrlc motors, turbines, tractors, mining locomotives, passenger cars, electric looonotivea, freight cars, railway passenger cars, and naval vessels. St/ Within this bearing category, because no logical weighting system could boimple arithmotlc avorage was employed to establish the proportions produced in the USSR and the European Satollitea.

On the basisloser sirallnrity to tho bearinglchider range of industrial production than the battery component. rc no direct production estimates available for components ofoup upon which independent estimates can be based. Weights employedn, respectively, theof consumption in Uie bearing, battery, and miscellaneous categories in the US

<HKHt It is believed that this ratio is sufficiently accurate to make unnecessary the considerationn of error inbased on it.


standardoead-antimony With these data it is

? the VoSll producedillion roundsillion rounds7 torn ammunition ounc5 pounds of antimony andTachroundhe total antimonysmall-arms ammunition would

(f - Probably no more thanercent of the totalemainder being reclaimed or secondaryPotion of munition consumed


stimated at the same level. For the

however, production of small-arms ammunition in the USSR is estimate

to have averagedillion roundsConsu^tiof

Sd; Gin the

iq> flS consumption of primary antam0ny in the USSRuhown in

U. Primary Antimony in tho US5D.

yJL^lf?? ofnony estinaxec to have been-n ammunition,

-la'nvt^Eoes intononmctallxc compounds such as antimony sulfide, trioxide In the US th. nonmetallicforercent of total consumption, tlonmetallic* rtrT* eaplojod in the US in consumer goods such as ses which are now compared to thefeS; Urparb figure for the USSR,rcbably sb3nfcWcent,

tern for thest ted in Tabletima,ed breakdown between me tame and

u^ammunition, and the probable breakdown within toe metal"?

atteries consur.edercent; solder, typo metal,cod cable sheathing,out

ollows on Tableollows or.

Tabic IJ,

Estimated Consumption of Primary Antimony in the Soviet Bloc3


Satellites b/






in Communist China 'fs negligible and is not con-sidered in this table. Because estimates of consumption are based essentially on total supply (aBo.oth the do^ree and direction of error are determinod Generally by the range of orror in the estimates of total supply, b. Based on

0. Derived from the ratio botwoon antimony consumers in the European Satellites and tho USSR applied to consumption in the European Satellites, plus consumption of antimony in small-arms0 tons annuallyona annually2.

ercent; ammunition, ercent; ond antimony compounds, 9 Por the entire Soviet Bloc, itearted that3ons were consumed in metallic usesons inons inons in solder, type metal, and cableona in antimony compounds:ons in ammunition.

IV. Surplus.

There is no direct evidence to indicate Uie Quantities of antimony that were stockpiled ?or these years,otal of0 tona of antimony is estimated to have


Table 15

Estimated Consumption of Primary Antimony by Major Categories in the USSR







Ammunition a/




Based on Table li*.

of estimate: ercent of total antimony consumption,exclusive of ammunition. Range plus or minusercent.

of estimate: the consumption ration in the bearings, batteries, andcategories in the CS0 in metallic uses. Miscellaneous includes solder, type metal,collapsible tubes and foils. Range of error: plus or minusercent.

of estimate: ercent of total antimony consumption exclusive of ammunition. Range plus or minusercent.

of estimate: (small-arms ammunitionantimony content in bulletof error: plus or ninusercent. , an annual average.


been available to tho Soviet Bloc. During the some period,is estimated to have been0 tons. The exact status ofton surplus is, of course, not knovn. A3 indicated previously, there is evidence that the large Chinese output does not remain in China, but is absorbed by the It istherefore, that0 tons of antimony (allocating about one month's supply,ons, for consumers' stocks) has found its way into strategic stockpiles. Should Chinese supplies be lost to the Soviot Bloc in time oftockpile0 tons, added to production in the USSR and the European Satellites, would amount toear supply at current rates of If both China and the European Satellites were lost to thetockpile0 tons would lastears, wlion added to current Soviotith no Soviet production, this quantity would lastittleears at current rates of consumption. The magnitude of tba surplus of antimony is estimated in Table

V. Inputs.

Excopt for the number of workers at the Oborboehmsdorf antimony mine and smelterstimates of the various resources consumed by the antimony industry in the Soviet Bloc must be made largely by indirect methods. etailed explanation of the methods used for making estimates of required inputs of ore treated, coking coal, eloctric power, labor, and water is given in Appendix fl. required by tho Bloc for thoollow in

* Tableollows on* Tableollows on


Table 16

Estimated Supply, Consumption, end Surplus of Primary Antimony in the Soviet


Available Supplyb/ Surplus cj





b. Based on Table Iii. C. It is believed that because tho direction and decree of theerrornsvBptien estimates is determined generally by toe"JJ. ofupply estimates and because tlie ratio used to dotoLS?ho USSR is accurate within very narrow limits, toe

nSteUd0GSor .inun

Table 17

Bslvwtod f'-jjor Inputs> Mining and Sneltinc of Prinsiy Rntlnony in lhe Soviet aloe


Produciion of InUjnony (Hetrio Tons)

Or* Treated (Metric Tsns)

CoSl Oniric Tons)

Powr (Tftousaod Bfll)

labor (tin-Tears)

man Water (Thousand Tom)


Traduction OfiiMny {itotric Tona) a/

Ore Treated Citric


Electric Foot (Thousand HtSt)


:-TMn Water (nwusand Tone)


PwWucliori or rntuiony (Metric Tons) a/

OreMetric Tons)

Coal (itetric Tons)

Slectrir. hwer (Thousand illlH)

Later (rlOTi-Tsars)si

tater (Thousand Tons)


0 2O0 50

<t Xaotnotes ror Tabicollou Ctf

fable If

Estimated Jtajor Inputs in iho Mining anflof Pri/Liiy Antuuny In tho SovietS3 (ContLlued)



1 '* -1 SIS fcg

tas as as as ts ass

a. Based on

t. aanga or error: puss or ulssstercent. e

eras of Sonet standard feel eqamiuA0 BVb per pound, lange of MW ininosercent, e

of errori plus or nAnusortent. (Sec

of error: plus or minusS,'R end csech'akaa, and plus orpercent for Comualst Chine. Gernsn enpleyw-nt. figures ere boUeved to)

of erreri pies or nurse JO percent.

c n/




A)Y5 /TO ttlgljMgra

Table 18

Uses of Selected Anting A'iJoys in tne US

cf Alloy Romulus Mettle

Sn, Cu, Sb

Sn, Cu, HI, St> Sn, Cu, Ki, Sb Cu, Sn, Sb

Sn,Sn, Cu,0

rig Dearing; Srspho liafcoitt

itronia CLtioa

USX Acinpnt Hard Led:nloyt Arrow

fnoloft BabbittDabUttCr*3cont

qt IfcbMtt SoTofalcn fta'jbltt Docch Pti-7

or Table Id follovs on.


I i- plant equlpnont. Cnonloal equinnent. feAriaeaSolssr.

, r.;. ols* packing. Searings.

BcarlncB for electric mators, blnuors,pi velocity and presswr**.

marines for dieseleosspres-wn;doty, sil fcian* of Blocks and


Valve castings, mntfolds, cocks.

Valies. puaps, fittings

Aircraft engine linings.

Bearings for r- loads andpeeds, fans,

i tenon rushers, miningattira bearings, rasrlne turbine bearings. Bearings forlls and nines, bcavy leads.baarlaxs for rslllmt wills,


For ro lining railroad bearings.

Internal cosbusllon entlrto boarlnce.hells.

- VJ -

lafcio IB

Usesselected Anlinonj' Alloys lt tht' IB (Continued)



2 Cu)


0 5a)b) (Sb.



0 up

ase) no percentage Siven

Ballery cable tamtnals and lugs; resist* HjSO^.


Axle bearings.

liar in* bearing*.

and light-weight nacfii.-


aI insure.

Propeller Msl-.inga.

Hard tine bearings.

tight-juty bearings. Lipnt alloy parls.

Gas and cU;ar$tto Ughtort, sparine alloy. 3ronte bearings (sono).

parings not subjact to vibration or poundtae.

Table IS

Uses of Selected Aniinony Alloys in tlie US {Continued)

of Alloy Graph It* Metal

Graphallcy Babbitt

Type ItoUil lard lead

Navy Antifrictionrades:

((caring MetAls 'tela! or Ilie Cast

Bearings Packing, Piston

White 3ras?

Light Aircraft andParts Pattern Alloys Plar-He iletal Pyro'phoric Alloy

Content (Percent)


Graph Itewith Pb base

o Lfi.O

9.5 5

00 Pb} up1




Cr-jcibles, lubricants,pencils. Foundry facings, electric brush carbons.

Bearings, electrical brusnea.

Talvea, eocKf, cabla-snaa thing. Vclvea, cocas,

Antifriction metal, becrlnga, autonotlro engine bnjrlngsfor noilnratoly aevare service. DabblU octal, aircraft engine bearings, tarl bacbl'.t,or saderately beary

;Urd bearingsor heavy pressure55 Sn.

PlectricrlngBlev preeeureB and hliJi apneas.

Cheap aaebiltor light service.


lard, tout

KcUlUc packing.

Karine arrt outonobila barings, alloys.


r gas *loveS, cigarette lighters;aparta.

Table 19

Uses of Selected /ntlaxKiy alloyi in the (J3 (Continued)

of Alloy Queensriit Alloy "crno Jletal


wteiti Type vui

Xatyntifriction Mrtal.l

r.enun Itvycunu later Mela) Anode :mUlPlatea Plnfcua Irani ConuVnstr foil Ch ten lorChlmi Speculi-a

1 tM'WS

ifilteSanleiaallC jrwuc


Antimony Content (Percent)








(linstly copper,

u.UO Sb) ll!est*ly copper,


Resists tarnishing.

Acid valves, cocks, fiances, chemical apparatus. Ship parts, chonical iiidus-.ry, Hglit fixtures.

Resists sea-wster corrosion. ?erne plalo, roofing, gasoline and oil tsnVa.

Corrosion resisting.

rtilibltt service, bearings.

tir"S" Sii;Jiso. Oernan (upnlastic Searings. Special fi-uralty bearlr.fiS Tor heavy lo^ns. Special fiuniralty hearlftuS for under-vi tar.

attery plates, platu.

Starlngi, fuaea. Kirrsn,iHn

Bearings for dlOMlarine*.

Son bronao boarlncs,boarlnj:.

toter-punp mpt'Llors. buhlnga, oil-Unas,lirt

- U2 -

c 18

Jses of seiocitd Antlnany Alloys in the us

of Alloy

Babbitt Tnbulll


for Largs *td Lignt Service

ivw rings ror Light Vrelee


fl? luteal) Atnburry ileta!

Antiitony Content (Percent)


o d. 5



Aircraft engine liners., air=rartlr.ers.

Hearings, pewter, tahlevan Vablewsrc, utertslls.

TaSle 19

Cooparison of Uses of Antinomy Alleys Lid the


valve guides. Aircraft engine parts.

Heavy load, high tcopsrature bearinea and -uplines,

* footnote for Tableollows on p. Lb,

iluavy dutyer rolling nilla, pap nil!a.

Valve castings, nardfolds, cocks. Aircraft engine bearings. Propeller bushings.

- ii3 -

Table 19

Conpsrison of Uses of Antimony flloys* USSR and:JS [Continjad i

engineering parti.

Lining bearings of petrol engines of Bftin sad big-end tacrinei of auto*Dtlies and tractor*.

Lining bearings of tarblnee, marine andjlcan enginee over IfOO hp, portable stcati ongLnes, electric no torn, loconotlvcs.

Linings and binnings for nacMne tools.

Lining burnings of internal ccobaatlon engine*.

l-inlng bearings of aircraft engine* and ticb-

pswer aircraft mginea. Lining bearing* of railway wagons, wide and


-.r urbine bearings. Bearing* for tie*elaoVd tin breatao bearings and Uiahings

for 'lie* icperaLuret. Special ecii-

ronse. Lining aeld-proof apparatus, and ln

accumulator industry.

Type nolal for printing.

Soft solder for tinplate, iron, brtet,

copper, aircraft radiators, instnancal*,

radio apparatus. Cast andun mm Alloys.

iiarlne turbine bearlngn, narlnoairalty bearings for under water. Sutonotlee engine bearings, auto bearings.

:iarine bearings, idatlraity bearing* far under water.

Xae-iino tool bearings.

Internal eonbustlon engine scaringa.

i.lrcraft engine bearings.

freight and peeaEnger cars.

Idconotivo bearings. Journal bo> bearings. : '- irl

Bearings far dtesol engines. 2riR50

Cr.anlcal plant equlpnont, accuiulators.

l for printing. Slider for tinplaU, electrical Industry, radio, electronics, etc.

Light alloy portfl.


Indirect methods of estimation have been used to supplement basic intelligence reports and are an integral part of estimates of consumption and input factors; they arc less critical in estimates of production. In general terms the following nethods have been employed.

Aggregates for producing countries, with the exception of East Germany, are not available, even in the form of percentagesrevious time period. Production aggregates arc based, instead, on the summation of estimated production of individual smelters. Where possible, the quantities of ores coming to the smelters from mines hove boor, estimated. In all instances, except for East Germany, these aggregates have been reconciled wild data on production

lhe first step in estimating aggregate consumption of antimony in the Soviet Bloc countries uas to derive estimates of consumption in the European Satellites. Second, lhe ratio of consumption in the European Satellites to consumption in the USSH was computed on the basis of the distribution of antimony consumers within these On the basis of Uiis ratio, consumption in lhe USSR was derived from consumption in the European Satellites, to rfilch uasstimates of primary antiuony used in manufacturing small-arms ammunition.

3- Inputs.

liothods used in estimating resources consigned by the antimony mining industryxplained in detail below. In general,re based on Soviet 3lochoro available, for example, employment in antimony mining in East Germany and water requirements in China. Wherever direct data, such as electric power requirements, arc not available, estimates are based on US experience.

- IiS -

a. Estimates of the Amount _of Ore Treated.

The antimony content of the ore mined in the USSR has boen estimated toercent, though some as lowercent is believed to have been Three percent is also assumed to bo the average content of the ores mined in Czechoslovakia and East Germany. In the milling of theseecovery ofercent is estimatod for thend this percentage also is applied to Czechoslovakia and East Germany, ecovery ofercent at the smelting level was estimatedi6 in the USSR, andercent is stated to be the smelting recovery coefficient at the Vasjova smelter ln Because the information concerning Vasjova is based on on-the-spot observation, and because there is no reason why recent soviet smelting should be lower at this time, the smelter recovery coefficient ofercent is used for the USSR, and also for East Germany, 'ith these coefficients3 percent ore,ercent milling recovery, andercent smelter recoverythe following foraula is, used for these three countries;

Tons of ores of antimony metal


For the USSa, ior example, for the

Tons of ore


cr-ton basis, aboutona of ore must be treated toon of antimony metal.

For Communist China, different coefficients must be used, ihc Dalboar field team, retained by the national Resources Com-rission of China, on tho basis of theirf antimony mining and EMelting in Chinarrived at tneade ofercents; mill recovery,ercent; rneltor recovery,ercent, iising these coefficients ir. the saoe icrmiila, Chinese production30 tons of antimony would the treatmenton^ of ore, or aboutons of oro for each ton of metal. This ratio is used to compute orefor Coraaunist China.

SoMVTIiiinese ore is much richer, l> percent toercent antimony content not being


Estimates of Coking Coal Consumed in Antimony Sraelting

ofercent in tho blast furnaceecovery of

oke percent chargeercent in roasting andercent in snelting,oke-Lo-coal conversion factorlus aboutercent for refining and miscellaneous. The ratioons of coal per ton of metal is used for Co.-nunist China as well as for the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany,the slightly higher smelter recovery which is attributed to Communist China. Thus it is estimated thatroductionons of antinony metal in the USSR required the treatmentons of ore.

c Estiiwtes of Electric Power .Consumption.

Consumption of electric power in the mining of antimony in Lhe Soviet Bloc probably varies greatly according to method of mining, amount of water to be pumped fron the nine, characteristics of the deposits, and many other factors. "Because there is noon theough estinato ofilowatt-hours per ton of ore mined is used as an average nining requirement throuphout the Soviet Bloc.

In milling, one US mining companyower requirement ofilowatt-hours per ton for millshort tons ocr day by/ butilowatt-hoursore commonigure for larger ratlls in tho US. Because it is believed that concentrating mills in the Soviet Eloc are generally small, especially -when weighted heavily by the numerous snail Chinese operations, an estimate ofilowatt-hours per ton of ore is used for power requirements ir, milling throughout the Bloc.

Electric power inputs in the snelting of antimony are not published even in the US. Power inputs in lead snelting, similar to antimony smelting, however, arc million/ wore used in smelting andonsHort tons) ofn Lhe absence of better information, electric power inputs in the refining of lead in the IS7 are used as the estimate for electric powervi-.l ]

- li? -

Combining tho powor requirements for mining, milling, and smeltingor-ton-of-oreotal ofilowatt-hours arc required toon of nctal. This figure is used to estimate powor requlrenents in the Soviet Bloc. On this basis, production0 tons of antimony in Communist China3 required approximatelyilowatt-hours of electric power.

of Labor Requlrenents.

Labor roquirosonts for production of antimony in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and Communist Chins are based on the labor-output ratio for the antimony operation at Oberboehmadorf, East Germany, adjusted on the basi3 of site of operations involved in the other countries and other pertinent factors. At Oborboehrandorf, lliO laborers were required toons of antimony/ore required taonn/ This amounts5 tons of metal per worker perecause the mining and smelting operation in East Germany is very5 tons per mar. is probably too low for the USSR and Chechoslovakia where economics of scale, especially in milling and concentrating, have become operative. loser ratio for those two countries, as an ovor-all average,5 tons of motal per worker.

Metal production per worker in CuoMunlst China ia considered to be significantly lower than in East Germany. Although some mines and smelters are largo, much of the mining, even in Hunan Province, is ertrcmely primltivo, with ore being carriod by hand from mines to mills', and even between mills and/ Because of such primitive mining methods, it Is unlikely that the output of metal in China exceedsons per worker pel' year. eportaborers were employedtuchi mino, wherewas planned toons, supports/ Using this ton-man ratio, the production0 tons of antimony3abor force of

of Freshquireaents.

The amount of water required for the concentration ofore ir. the Soviet Dloc is based on an astijute made for Concunist China for the/ This0 tons of fresh water per ton of ore,applied to the est ironies of tho amounts of ore treated in each country of the Bloc. On this basis, tho treatmentons of ore ir. Comunist China3 requiredons of water.



A minor metal such as antimony, understandably, is the subject of less information and less frequent reports than better known materials produced, consumed, and traded by the Soviet Bloc in greater quantities. The major deficiencies in information aro as follows.

The most troublesome gap in intelligence that must be filled with regard to production is in data on country aggregates. Except for East Germanywhere there is only one antimonyingle figure representing an. aggregate has been foundi3 for any period of time for any country of the Soviet Bloc. !iotercentage changerevious period of time has been found.

Information on shipments between the countries of the Soviet Bloc is fragmentary, tore information is needed to check estimates which havo been made. Antimony, be it metal or content in ores or concentrates,omogeneous coumodity and is not plagued by "unit" difficulties as are items with variations in size and quality, (tore accurate measurement of the volume of trade should be possible.

3.. Consumption.

Reports of quantities of antimony consumed in pertinentaro, of course, not available. Although consumption in broad categories can be estimatedair degree of accuracy, an occasional actual figureategory of consumption would be an invaluable benchicark which would increase the accuracy of estimates on consumption by other categories ond of annual aggregates.

- Ji9 -

Eiicept for East Germany, information on employment is very scanty. Knployment by individual mines and smelters is needed to sharpen those estimates. reports or. other input factors are almost totally lacking, and estimates of such factors must therefore be based on indirect methods.

5. Ceneral.

u. Information on production, consumption, and trade is poorerore fragmentary for Communist China Uian for any other country of the Soviet Bloc. PriorS the antimony mining industry had unusually good coverage.iS there is little but silence on antimony mining in China.

b. The development and present ^totc of recovery of secondary antinonyn area on which there, is little information. Knowledge of the amounts of secondary metal recovered and available to the Soviet Sloe wouldore precise measurement of requirements for the prir.ary metal.




Evaluation of Sources, a. USSR.

;4ich of the information on nines and smelters of the USSR, their sice, location, and facilities, isy SX's. These reports havo the limitation of beingrears old, but are considered generally reliable. There are virtually no current Intelligence reports to bring the SX information up to date vith any high degree of certainty.

Kucn of the critical information on antimony mining in Czechoslovakia is available from open sources, written by Western observers uho inspected these facilities as lato These sources are considcrod completely reliable. Tne Military Attache systemave furnished occasional ropcrts wiiich are considcrod reliable and bring earlier information up to


Intelligence reports an East Germany aro the typos of reports desired for other countries of the Soviet Bloc. The information, mostly in CS's ana SO's, is specific and reliable, in contrast to Uie fragments coming out of tho other countries.


Fortunately, information on antimony fining% in Com-unlst Ciiina is very good,esult of several surveys by US field teams. This fairly recent on-the-spot Informationsomnmat the paucity of information on current mining and smelting operations.

2. Sources.

Evaluations, following the classification entry and designatedave the following significance:

Source of


Confirmed by other sources



Probably true



Possibly true





usually reliable

Probably false



Cannot be judged


be judged

refers to original documents of foreignand organizations; copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or information extracted from such documentstaff officer, all of which may carry the field evaluation

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this report. HH" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

llinistry of the Coal Industry,,orPetals, Part II.C% tH Eval. Doc.


3. Arqy, "auphietiovoreigneasons and Squipment, Vol. X, "Amunition." S.



CIA FDD,f the iiiniatry of JleUllurgicol Industry,9b, citing Pravda,b. C. Eval. R3IA FDD, Summary, "Organltation of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry,9b, citing FBIS0b. C Eval. TinIA FDD, Sumary, "Organixation of the Artistry of !ictallurgical Industry,9L, citing Sovct3kaya Xirgislya, C. Eval. RR. ClA FDD, Summaryb, "Organisation of tho Ministry of Metallurgical industry,b, citing Sovetsknya C. Eval. RR 2.



CIA CS, S. Bral.

CIA CS, S. Eval. CIA SO, S. Eval. Xt 2.

Army, S. Eval. RRrmy, 5. Eval. BR 2.

Amy,p. cit.

Army, c7 Evxl..

p. cit.

13. CIAb,ho Khaydarken Itcrcury and -'- c. rv-:.

TrOv, S. Eval. RR 2.

CSS, S. Eval. BJt 2.

CIA SO, S. Eval. RR 3.

Stalinabad, U. .


p. cit.



Anay,g. ciT7


Army,p. ext.

CIAU, op."cTt.

OSS,7 S. ai. R3 2.

CIA SO, S. Eval. RR 3.


3U. Army,p. cit.

Army, SDSp. Amy, USFA, S. Eval, RR 2.

Technical Data Plgost, Vol. Oil, Ho.5i9,

R 2.

Magazine, U. Eval. RR 1.

39. CIA S. Eval. RR Mining Magasino,. 9. U. Eval. RRO. Army, NR. Prague, Report6. C. Eval. RR 3.

III. Army, C. Eval. RR CIA SID, op. Ibid.

ilining :Vigazine,it. Ui. CIA SID,it.

Army,it. Navy/Air, Tochnlcal Data Digest, op. cit. 'lining Ha ga sine,J

Army, HA 7rTguo, Reportp. cit. CIA. S. Eval. RR 3.

U7. CIA. S. Eval. RR 3.

Army,n- CIA CS. Doc.

State, US POLAD,,. U. Eval. RR 3.

CS, S. Sval.CS, S. Eval. Doc.

CU FDD Reportep WS3- C. Evil. Doc. CIA CS, S. Eval. Doc.

Pal, Geological Survey of China, Special Report No. 7,

U. Eval. RR 2.

9 S. Eval. Doc.

53- CIA SO, RR 2.

5u. CIA CS, S. Eval. Doc.

CIA FX Reportp. cit.

U;t, C. Eval. RR CIA CS, S. Sval. Doe.


59- State, US POLAD,, op. CC. Pal, Geological purvey ofeclal. TT' Sval. R1 2.

61. . Hou, Geological Survey of China, SpecialU. Eval."

6?. CIA ORE,urvey of tho World Antijaony. Eval. WCT.

63. uoting report of the National Resources

Commission of China. C. Eval. Doc.b. C. Eval. RR 3.

. C. Eval. roc tw


C. Eval. RR 3.


CIAU,Army,p. cIC OSS,ep 5. Syal. RRUilir.abud, op. cit. CIA SO, S. Eval. RRrmy,, C. Eval. RR 2.

US Bureau of Mines, Minerals.

U. Eval. RR 2.

p.Magazine,p_.USFA, op_.Technical Data Digest, op.Magazine,i^T

Army, KA Prague, Reportp. cit. S. Eval. RRrmy,, op. cit.

CS,. Eval.CS,.portit.

CTA CS, S. Eval. Interior, US Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, op. cit. 7b. Ibid.

75- CIA SO, C, . -nl. RR 3-

CIA CO, C, " RR 3.

S. Eval.RRSO, S. Eval. RR 2.

CIA SO, S. Eval.. CIA SO,i9. S. Bral. RRIA SO, S. BMl.. CU CO, S. Eval. RRIA SC. ii S. Eval. ItR 2. Despatch,. BMl. RRBerlin,. Eval. RROC, S. Eval. RR 2.

73. CIA S. Eval.U SO,i3. S. Eval. RRIA S. Eval.U SO, S. Eval.. State, Berlin Despatch, op. cit.0 S. Eval. RRU S. Eval. RR CU SO,iay S. Eval.-


State, Ankara Despatch U. Eval. RRtate, Prague Despatch, op. cit. CU SO, S. rival. RRtate, Ankara Despatchp. cit. Imperial Institute, TheU-rtry of the ITltish S'-pire, Statistical,' val. URtate, Prague Despatch, op. cit. CU S. tate, Berlin Darpatch, op. cit.0 S. anada, Trade Of Canada,Z. 'J. Krai. RR 2.

ay ST l.RRSO, S. Eval. RS 2.

CU SO, S. mi.. CU. SC,. S. Xval. RRU SO, S. tal.. CU CC, S. Eval. RRU S. Eval. RR 2.


CU CS,R 3-

'Ui. l, EConoHicr>lbook. Statist-leal

y, S. Ibid. "

96. Trw,p. cit.


AC of, Project, Summary of Intelligence



Eval. RR 1.

Pamphletp. CIA/RR, op. cit.

90. CIAR 3-

CIA CO, . Eval. RR 3.

91- CIA SO, RR 2.

Amy, reus, IRp. CIA SO,R 2.

93- Army, REUR,,xt.



9u. . Woldman, Engineering HTcyu, American Society forval. RR. Shiakin,ey to Soviet Power, U. Eval. RR Ibid

WTRendt, "AntkoonyMetal Industry. U. Eval. RR l.


National Resources Commission of China, Preliminary Report by Uehre Dolbear and Company, New York and Los U. Eval. RR 2.


CR. (layward. An Outline of Metallurgical Practico, 3rd

Edition, New Eval.. LLdell,jandbook of Konlcrrous. Eval. RR 1.

Engineering Company, Metallurgical bulletin,

Lake U. Bval. WT".

Census of. Eval. RR American J'etal Market,ow York,

W52. U. 2val. RR 1.


Amy, .ISIR,, op. cit.


sourcoa Comnission of China, on. cit.

Original document.

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