CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. c.
Mr. Oerard C.r. A.r Col. Goo. s. MoCord
flectionAtoMo Eueror) asUSSEj,
Section ofsa.ilt of m. mlaica ofdraft arig-Laallj dleWlbniodn.
It i> requested that any suggested changes be presented0 as possible solacuonloa aiaed at coordinating IMi JOS ai&it bagla ao orpril.
After coordination, ao edited draft will baby the Production Staff/osi,opj vlll be distributed. it la requested, that the attached draft and the DBcearbor draft be rotonmd to Ituclaar Enorgr Dlvlslai at that tine.
t ft- VciwAa
f. a. nun
CSocUooAtoxic EnergrJ 3
MsrelHtDary draft oftaer HIS Section, and should not bo reproduced.
73. Atonic biro
TSerelear evidence of Soviet reeearci Interest in atonic
dating hack to the discovery of tbe fleoJoo pnenccgiicn luring vex yeara, tea USE cocducted orpmised basic research la too field cf atonic crcrio*. Is5 the 'Tint Chief Directorate attached to tha Council of Mini atere"rganiied under Berlo to f'fH carry cut the USSR ataxic
he USSRajor in occupied ercaa to obtain eatariala, personnel, eod eeuipcent of potential value to en atomic esexc fCOf/UMM For eoupple, orec endoco of uranluzi cetal vera obtained in Geireay and Ceecboelnveala and xcvod to the USSR; Gercan and Austrian eclecUeeta were recruited for work la the OSSSj and pose-Inly ea nich ae one too or heavy vatervu confiscated free Cornea stocks. UraDiun ainiag operatiooa vera beaua la5eposlte la Chechoslovakia1 nd ahortly 'thereafter la Ceroany and Poland. Exploitation of Satellite urenius Increased rapidly uatil
Available evidence conoorninB Soviet espionage varrante the Inference that Soviet atonic energy research, plant design, construction and operation were carried out vith cooaidercbl* knowledge ofnd Canadian atonic energy proereca. Althcugbspionage asaieted tbe early Sovietby at leeet establishing guide line* for research, extensive independent research by tbo Soviet vas rcojiired to eccospliBh thler pro gran. Also, It le evident thatucber of ltpcrtsnt laatancea Soviet prectleee do not follov those of tbe vertorn ccuntrlei nentloned.
Early in the Soviet prcgraB, developaerrt wu undertaker.etboda or production of plntonius aad Be plutonnw paogran progressed core rapidly and vas the eource of the.first Soviet fleaionable notexts!.
prctTsm ond of tho voecaQ development prograc uas dcennstr&ted by the uoe of phitoniut in the nuclear weapon tested In
3 atonic eneiay
SSR unlertook en extensive reeenrcb prcgran on Isotope separation concurrently with research for tbe reactor prograa. Ceman scientists aMleted In this program and carried out specific projects relating, to the gaseous diffusion and eleetrcea^arUc prcceeaes aa well mm other issthods. Tne success of the proarea vas .irncastrated by the useeapon tested In. It la believed that tho first Sovietwasby the clectxce*goetie process atsecond Installation In the Urnls eat that facilities enploylng tbe gaseous diffusion process were constructed end brought into operation subsequentlyhird Urals site. 2. Crovth of the Progran
inceti<fl achievement of the production of platanlun sod the experimental test of the first nuclear weapon-
ith the rapid grovth of tbe-uranlua procurenent progren
tbe -Second Chief Directorate attached to the Council of sUnlstaxs" was organized to direct these activities. Production In East Oercany has beenat the very high levels reachednd production in tbe USS8 and in tbe other Satellites hoa continued to Increase. It Is estimated that
a total of apprarmatelytorn of uranium (in terns of recoverable nartel) was Blnod* InH and its Satellites, Including East Ceraany. utile this figure la subjectonsiderable uncertaintyesult cf the
Inconclusive mture of the evidence on Internal DSSt efforts, spproalcately
ons of this total ore counted to hare come fron Seat Cexaany,figure le eoaeldered to be subject to ea uncertainty of not sore thanminuser oentT
Major expansion of fissionable material production facilities at the Urals sites occurred. Two major osv atomic energy inetsllatlone have been built la Central Siberia, and It Is believed that these ere engaged innatcriols production.
Tbe expansion of plutonium product!os la tbo USSR has been revealedapid increaso in the total USSR reactor power levol. One Increase Ln power level has probably resulted fron so WMBJlSlon of tbe original reactor alte and the constructionew alto, fin growth of tho reel mice for production of heavy water, used la the construction of reactors, Is supporting evidence for lAcreased plutonlua production. Ihe heavy water facilities were greatly -expanded In lQhn-JO end hove continued to grow alnoo thnt Use.
Growth of uraalua Isotope separation activities is revealed by the OSSt procurement of materials for tbe construction of Isotope separation facilities and tbo continued Increase in tbe supply of electric powerat tbe isotope separation plants. Beginningnd continuing
be USSR purchased van large quantities of nickel wire ia Bast Cenuny. Thisla the fabrication ef barriers for
diffuBlon Isotope separstlan plants, Too Quantity of materialand the period during which it was procured are Indications of tbegrowth of tbe Isotope separation plants. Very large quantities of electric power are required for the operation of isotope separationon an industrial scale. quantity of electric power onilsbl* at the USSR laotopa sepsrotlcn sites has Increased zarsedlyndicating sn expansion of the isotope separeUon scttvltles. Xt is probablehird isotope separation facility baa been built, in eddition to tbo two ln tbe Qrals-
controlling organisational structure of the USSR atonic energy i, the first Chief Directoratetoe Second Chief IQxectente attached to the Council of Ministers, continued without substantial change0 until the downfall of Berlya Coincident with Berlys'e arrest, en or sanitation trove ee the Ministry of Medlus-Machine Bonding was organised, and shortly tbereefter HelysQeT.vae designated ss Binister in charge. Although the sctlvitles of this nlolstry nave not been publicly defined, It ia responsible for atert of tbe Soviet stonic energy progrsa end le probably reepooalble for the overall sdnlnletrstlon of tbe progren. tte adnlnletratlve changee following Bcrlya'a arrest do not appear to have adversely arretted the progress of tbe Soviet atonic energy nrogrca.
Tbe history of tbe construction of tbe flselooBble material production pleats, locsted in the Urals area and in Central Siberia, is generally clearariety of evidence^ However, laportant details reseda undetermined, and thoseee*ure Of uncertainty In toe eetlaotee of production. Berortheleae, Information on the availability of uraalua, tbo tiaetable of construction, the elie of facilities, the quantity of heavy water available for reactor use, tbe total reactor power level, tbe procurenent of nlcxel wire neah, and tbe power available at various sites, particularly those engaged In Isotope separation, provide consistent support of tbe eatlaates ofB fisslooable naterial atociplles to the endhich fcO-low:
ull-scale atomic energy prqajsaj In operationtovarde tec supporterxcaking potential. Thwa far, tale support baa been evidentre on nuclearoviet teats were Bade3 Bo clear evidence la available on Soviet efforta with respect to nilltary power or propulalon applications. However, In view of tbe Increasing else of Soviet fissionable seteriel stockpiles and enoouiced Interest in tbe nen-auUltary power applications of atonic energy, eone effort on military aspects of this pre* lea is undoubtedly being expended.
On tbe basis of laforaetioa now available, lt la concluded that tbe USSH la capable of producing nuclear weapons with explosive powers la tbe rangeew thousand toss of TVT to apprcxlBately one allllon tons of Trr.
furthermore, snail dlaneter, llght-welgbt types yieldingoUotoos for use In boobs or In warheads far weapons ether than bonbe are considered to be available. Within these technical capabilities ailltery reauirewnta will govern the allocation of available Soviet fissionable naterlal among various types and yield of weapons.
Based on Soviet tests. It Is believed that the IBS! will probably stockpile weapons of0 kiloicaeedina (Wbllotoos each) and snailseeh)_yleld. While there la no clear evidence which can eerveuide to an estlnata of the specific types and aucbera of each type that the USSB will actoally atockpUe, the weepons stcebpiled will, for the laoediate future, probably have tbe general characteristics and explosive powers of models tsated. -
ta> s> H* t
8. IfattuMan of tho OSffi Atonto foQTEV rrograsj
Tha Soviet atonlo scarry prograa fogaJUy started icttn tho fom-atlon ia, at* tbe Coord, eeln tha Urucuxa erotica attached to tha rrswrlitlsai ef the adany of Seleocea to fix tha subjects ofooearch work by Institntss of the IcadaBy of Sotenceo of the OSS Ia the field ef uraniaa reeaerotjrgaalso sa oxialnatlon of the sethoda of separating orrealua. isotopes and of rcoocrehao into tha oontrol of tha proesaoM of radlosotlvo dooayj and to effect ocordinattco snd gvnnrol guiaaoos of the scientific reeeerefc. verb ef the Icedeoy off the OSSfi on the oraalua preblsa. V.hlcpln of thoBadiMo van Ita firs* iTasi.ientj the other thirteen Barbara wore clearly reprc recitetivej* of those various laboratories expected to bootrtrUntors on (be prcblea.
Id lata lylj tbe ninth mpBOtorat* of the KTO was organised;?rolin'.jr.rr studios) In the fUld of tuoloar physics Uth special regardojaastloQ of atoadc eosrgv, laoraalua adass lo tbs
largaaa Valley area vers rswved fron Qui Juriodiction of tho ChiefPara Ms tOa, rials try of Hotwfsrrooarwesntaed aa Coetdne
re of the Baft Oraotorate, BSTD, with baadcaiarters at Ierrtnahad, BbvrtlngH*nth Diraotcreta ea-.traetod with over two hendrod Oeraaa and
Jaatrisa sclantlats to work la the USSR en atonic energy problanu at eeversl dsv laboratories Kbaetjaeatly- built for tola purpose.
HcacuhllOf Uhoratoriae,f tho Academy of Sciences ware oraanlaad as too central labcratcclae In the atoede energy prohran. Slnoa there is claar OTideoee of the collaboration ofith the ninth Directorate,ia cba selactlon of Corona solsntUte to work on atoms energyt is probsbla that tha aetivlttea of tho Aoadeny of Ssiascos and the SV3 in the field of atonic enerpy vera coordinatedortja la his capacity as irasLonat of the state bsfiscse Oosslttea. of tbo Council of mrdster* batwaond fepteaber
2* tJitahllehaent of top luvnl Olra;
a. SH First Chief ttraebarito attached to the Cooncll of tlnlotstrs
la October or'tbs nrot Chisf Dlrootorata attached to
Cornell of kraatarv (PCD) wi created nth tho leaponsloility of fnlfilling tho overall obJaotlvB of Ao Soviet otoooe energy program. Teedore of industry from voriwi* BlElftrloa vara broupht into tho new orEanlaattonj eon who, for thoparty retained their old Jobs oUoc with their sou responsibilities. For instance, Ooloool GspaaaJ. Dorio Lwrlch Vaanlkov who was appointed hood of tho FCD kept, for tho Om boinsj Mtppooltaoa os hood of tha ronistry of Agricultural raenine SuUdlag*
early* ratalaod oraraU direction of policy aa the rarrwcatble aeaber of Oto CareU of Hind*tors. dree into tha pro-rea tha higbeat political, adata.eefaalcalj and adanUflo las 1stebif of tha nation In order to achieve tho prosrsa oh Joe Uvea la thopeesibie Coo. In joan,Taaatker rc-si fined hi* peat mm bead of tho Himstry of Agricultural rachias BuUdlag In order to givo bio fall tiro to directing the affairs of the PCD*Houorer* othersomor position* while- cantlnulng to oervo the stoaie aaarcy project,hows tho struotare of tho Soviet oteodc ooarsj prograa ao it.
Quinshe PCS gradually took over the
reaponalhilt Maw of tha Uattt Dtreeiorata,inally, laoo ICnth arectarate readjusted the last of itsontrol of Carasn selantiats in tbe CS3B, to tbe PCD aad was at that tlao dissolves.
b. Creation of tbs Soccod Chief Idrootcrsba attached to tha CouncU of Hlaiatora
With the steady grovth of tho Sovietajor reorganisation took place iat whichecond Cbfttf ttreotoret* attached to tha Cornell of facdsters (SCO) was foraodV The new crasnlaeuon took over the prabloao of aloiocs concentrating and refining of urealua aa wall as the development of new crardaa deposite, Th* RD was thus free to concentrate It* efforts esriislvoly on the production of fl sal arable natarials aad the onaufecbjre of waapens. 3imltapcously, tha aipply* personal* aad other serricae held la oceaca wuro placedeparate body serving both the arst and the Secondaolorataav
Included la the organ! an ta on of both tto ixo aad the SCD and wag a
coUagJua occpoeod of senior efflcUXfl, Including cob hood of each chiefa and SCO) and U> oneuty, too chiefs of directorates and their dopuueDj andcinrs. These boards act eololy la advJ aery capacity on policy antlers to the heads of tho ICS and SCO. 3. Probable current crgnnliatioo
Durlas the rdidstsxial raoreaaliati-r. which began aftereath ia Kerch, u'lij, several of the old of direotcrutoe attached to the Council of HlaleterB ware truooXerred to the nlnlstries to which their function* properly belanredj aevaral others reamlned attached to the Council of Klnlatare. Tbo dUpoettloa of the Pint chief Mreotcrsta end the Oaccadector, t* la unknown, bat efaerw Si no roason forhaae* laat that tin*.
lat thef Bcrlya's arrest, the Ministry of hedlun haetdno BBlirttngfamed with T, A. !uOystoT aa its Jtniatar. later, vhen the fbrmtlcn of the Hlrdstrr was aaaouaoad, it ma ougcaated that KaJyahev had oueoeded Ssrlya as director of th* overall policy of the atonic energyalyaHev waa in foot raised to tho rank of Deputy Choi men of tho Council of Wrdatan inj, (a'peaitiea bo bad held prior to Stalin's death} thna strangtMng tbo boUeX that be night ba Darlya's successor in the field of etosao eoarty.
There ia not oufficient infcraatlon to dmfiao clearly tha tdBdaistretlvaof tbo prograa elnca Juno,, o Is oWdance that the Hlnistry of aodiuBi taeniaenvolved ia th* proGros, bat th* extent of it*otUeitfaer i* it known whether the fo end SCD still exist. There ie scan evidence that the crganlaaticc aar still b*tate of flux. There appears to haveentr*li nation of authority, and It is pocslblaogl* orv^ixlsnttco at the nlaistarlal loval now sxprolees the funotlone which were fcraoiOy lifted beteosn tho KS and* srutorical organisation of iha tc'j
The history of tbe cc-gaMnation prior to Jane,e fairly soil snows,anuy of the otrufltars and ronoUons Bay bo of valno, since th*
foncUees of tto eld orgardutlOQ sust atlli exist la tho now.
function of tb* PCD
Va/adXav'fi staff exercieed executive funetton* concerned With plane, lcdostrUl sod tachcloal control, and capital contraction. Th* ataffoard of consultant* In addition to personnel assigned apoolflo roaponalnllittaa. Liaiaon waabe tveon th* PCD and several laportaat organisations, including tha Nlrdetrioe of the Interior (wu) and of th* Chemical Industry as wall as th* KB.
direction of industrial oporatlood
Several of th* neat erankpv'u staff wore oXflcialaunction It was to direct field operations, and it It not onliaaly that heepot? for fiold operations. It wa* ic thi* Banner that TanidaBT oalnfcelacd contact with end control over field operation* which lcclnd* Industrialsuch aa oraolua naUllurglcsl plants, nuclear reactors, Isotope separation plants, and weapons fabrication Installations,srtain degree of control ewer Installations of otter KLnlstrlos vitally concerned ln the atonic *nersjr effort was possible because of the dualil ties of boob of the seniorer exaaple, as Minister of thendustry and Depe.tr Chalrasa of th* Council efvn-vuxnln wasto *apedit* to* necessary support presided by the cfceodcal industry and othere PCD dirsotion of capital eoo*tractlcn
Pernarly lieutenant General ivraanll Pavlorich Zaveoyagln, Deputy Hilda tor ofnd da facto Plrel Dapoty of tha PCD, was responsible for all PCD construction. Sot only did he control the activities of th*ne trio Hon engineers, but he also directed tho atonic energy construction project* of the Chief QUwctorat* of Xndnstrlal CoostrootionVD* Olavprocsiroy la an organisatlco sot up to carry oat heavy Industrial construction throoahoat thond ha* been the general contractor to constnot all atonic energy Installations. In addition to his roeporurinility for PCD Construotloa Zavenyagin apparently also retained control of th* Hath Direotorata until Its .
3x1 chadco of Zareoyagtn for ouch appoeittoaoeicil oao* at one Use head of tbe liarllah Coablco and labor of tha SiathAa Deputy "daistor ofe vaVinV position to ensure on abasis the successful coaplotica of theoo true tl on projectsenergynocosoary daring the laoedleto
pont-war years toon heavy industrial enterprises were being built or reconstructed throughout tbead satorials sad nanpover veraroaiua*5. Scientific aad technological control by the RD
The) major roooarch efJTori Mooasaxy for tho ostabllabaant of toe Soviet atonic energy progron was coordinated by tho PCD and carried out in lnotallattena under the control of thu PCD, Acadary of Science S| and Various mat stories. Although tha details of the soauBiatrotioo of rasserch are not kaosa, certain personaliUos and organisations have been Identified alto portions of it* For exnaple, research for thenergy precraa In tbe lnstltutea of the Wnistry of tho Choaical Industry was coordinatedrvukhin in his dual capacity as Pirst Daputy to the head ofPCD and Klnister of tho Cheaical Industry. Zavenyaglnj in hie role ss Deputy tfinloter of tho fWD, directed tbe work of the Oeresn aad Austrian ooleatlate under -the ?th Director*to of tha WD, One PCD also worked aory closely with laboratories of the Aeaonay of Sciences in research cn final enable natorlal produotion and Other sclentlfio problane. KD ra&pcnsiaillttes for personnel and oseurity
Poroocnel and security Batters sere originally en'-rusted to HOB Lieutenant General Pavel Taknvlevica ftosbik, who was well experienced in intelligence and couatcr-intellJis background Included nany years in Soviet securityCOPJ, KTC, HMD, OTD, andat one tlao he waa tha People's Coatsiaaw of Internal Affairs (oKVD) of tba Ukrainian SSR, Heehikand in hiring iapcrtant epeclaliste aad aaaaaadgajag personnel to atomic oncrgy installationa, including those outside theo kopt tabs on all personnel through the Special Dlvieioo of toe PCD and ita aunorous Special Sections which peraoated the Chief Directorate and forced its Internal intelligence ortpinitation. .fee Special Diviaicnt was In fact an HQQ
organisation, but wa atUctod to the FCD and cporuti coolly subordinate to it. i'jwis roapanalblo .'or the aocarity ecocuntliis for all classified mtorial, whothor docjaerta, freight, or Installed ocjiipaint^Ko waa also responsible for theurlty of installations, lnaludlcg the soperviBlon of UOO craed guards and firs protection personnel. -
Uhcn tho SCO was ostihllshad, it le probablo that the responsibility for personnel and security natters was transferred fron tho PCDhird eld of dtrootoratfl responsible for adrdnlatratlon and servicefasctlODS' of th* Jc*
rrccarasnoi, transport, storage, and niintcnaaco of supplies andartcraastcrot* the rasponaihni ty of Xayor Oenerol Sestygov, Tho greater part of thass functions was acconpllsnad byerlalechnical Supply Directorateupervised by one of lostygovi* Babcrdinatas. "ioof mrpUr* and ecnlpaent which are sensitive fron tho security point of view, however, was deno by tho Technicaltton, supervised by another of Ecatyeov'* subordinates. In add!tier, to th*s* prlnarr tfjsrteraaster functions, XoBtynav also supervised such mlscollansona aetlvltios as notor pools, transport sirerof t, schools,nd printing
. tho sco woo established, it Is peobobln that thoso funoUona wero taken everhird chief directorate ren7onaibls :or adeflni strati on and aerrleoo. It io believed, howoror, thnt snail personnel and security* finance, and *applies offices wore located within tho H3 to Talntaln liaison with the Sarrlce* Cblaf Directorate and to deal with special fyofislWHttsa of th* BCD a* Oononu.
Originally, tho csvolopaont of now uronlun*ad ccooentratlCB of uraxdua ares were tho rerccnUbill Vdirectorate of tha First Chief Taraotoratez> latovlnvlch Antropov. Than in January or itebraaryh* raw haterial* lametorate, iatrcpcv'e directorate, of th* TOD uaa saparoted fron its parent organisation and famed into the Second Chief Directorate atUcbed to th*fV). Antropov waa rotalnsd to
bMd tb* om organisation, in eacineer anday training and forner Dsputy Pvcplsi*mr of Smtmrreem nartallurfy* b* ba* bad broad practical oxporiaoo* and enjoysacalXont profoeslaual reputation. ifcU* boad ofo senate! nsd close ocotaot with tbe RUdatry of Geology *nd probably directed certain of Ita actlTitioa of Interest to tbe atoodc energy proarafl. Whan tb* Htxdatry of Gaolec- andof Mineral*, la trope* vas asaed Kniater.
tm ergaaiaeiian and all of tbo previous functions of th* firstectors totially tb*acept for th* *li*naatlon offor ra* mterlals operatleo*. 3ns VsBsikov, Iwrvuxidn, Zsmrryagin, rtsahik, and Xoatrgor mmtfjaam to direct In the sphere* ehlcho Kostjgov oontancad to act for th* tso Chiafnd Heebtk appeared toesaurearity ever peracaswl end eec-jity emtUrs within both Chief Directorate** nhat this organlsaaanal wkanOyransition towardhird separate chief directorate concerned with pereconel, security, and logistic sepport. hief dlr*atorat* wooldho Firstectors to and tha second Chief Ittrectorate of tho wopcralballty of those service* held in coonoo and woold bo ccoalatent with
: vvl** OTgsnlBsttOn.
b. AdelntatraUvo fonotlco*
taff of tb* head of th* Second Cblsf IsrectoraU, Ilk* Vaornkov'aoardngi1 tantff.arnabchenko becacB Antropov'* priori pal deputy at th* tins of th* reorganlsatiOD. s known abcat bin but beaOlmd to havespnty sUzdstsr of Xnternel affair* (WD) of one of the Onioner**facfa*oko appeared to function principallysdef of Staff to antropov, and ia this poalttcc, be supervised tb* staff, tb* board of consultants, th* Partynd the secretariat. In addition, heponalbl* for tb* Directorate'a' own notwork of inforaars, for th*ection, forad for tb* Special Division and iceelal Sectional his relationshipMk la tieee Bettersot known.
17. SOD direction of sAntog operations
Vhila-was probably th* aost Isporaant of Aatropov'aknlal radcrovich ivaofcov was slaoeedtlon of grante appear* to bar* bean in charge of sanlng operatlen* ln tb*
CESR end also abroad. eriet Onion has rctaroed atocfc conpaaloo jointly owned witr. the satellites to tho Satellites with the exception ot the urealun rtrnng ceapanlea. Tea no* appear- to be ssuVrrdlnatB to the Chief Directorate of eoriet propertyJSDE)of theof Foreign Trade. Ia maitlon, Xvaskev eaorcdeed supervision ornr several teebnleel staff functlooa each aaconcerned with engineering, technical oocurlty, power supply aad capital conatzuotdon. Such research and dorelaeaect aa was done within or for the Second Chief Ctreetorate (byor easapla) eay have been soperrised by hla.
U). CCD perscnnel asWnistration
ra earaoraol ac'lm no heukd by fflJ Colcul irdra tlaofeyevlob OdcbkoT, reportedly foraar Deputy mnieter for Personnel of tbe Hialstry ef Internal Affairs (MTD) cf tha ckralrdan tec-jblic. Bis jurlediction la this capabtly say hare extended only to peraoonelith policy dlreotloa being ecppliecf by Gsrsahcsnafco thro nab Haetdk. Security dees not seen to hare cose under CWehkov, except perhaps in regard to personnel olaarancee, ibis section woe probably transferred ta the Services Chief Dlraoterste. However, personnel and security, finance, and snpplles offices would resela wi thin tha SCO to sain tain liaison with the Services Chief Dlrootorato and to deal with special pmbloon.
In* Ooelocicxl supervision by SCO
Geclo^cal natters vero the responsibility of Irssnitov, tie tncludea supervision of prospecting, liaison with the Hdalatry of Geology end Conservation ofnder which Cleli prospecting expeditions operate) analysis of biovn depoeite* andt nor aaouat of
- Be -
C. ollar Taluatlca of thear Soviet Atonic Ercrgy too Taluatlee of tbe fecgrca
c. tse volae, ln teres. dallars, of pest-wr eddi-tlcoa to Scrfet atonic energy focilltlea Is estlsated to approsasMrtoMill ono of dnllero- tbe valea of snausl opereting outlays4 le similarly eotlantedillion. Preocnt oeoncaie Intolllappoc lain parnlt no reliable esrttneiu of tho gbsoluto or relative resouroe coots Incurred ln tbo doveloppeiit, nalntenanct) end operation of tbo Soviet nucJntr energy plant, hile caeca sens? Holts nsy be readily oscrtbtd for the nuclear energy program ss beingo 3 parosnt of Soviet gross notional product, noa cv^' aro definitive dctoralnatlon or for oarrouing the etated mage.
b. ndin detail0 dollar miration.-,
of capital end operating outlay: for tbe Soviet ateede caorgy prcfjraa. They uero dart rod by0 D. S. dollsr capital value and cperaUrg coot ccofflclcnts to avallabla pbyalcel eatlcatos of the Soviet atonic plant. It aunt be noted, howavor, chat tha factor of two error inherent In tha physical oat Inn to, necessarily carries ovar into th* occsoule eaUaatca.
sss se| ac2
- C2 -
A SUMMARY DOLLARIST NUCLEAR EHERQYS CAPITAL AND OPERATING ACCOCOT0 COLLARS)
Annual Ope ratine Outlays
FOOTNOTES TOnd H
TABLE Ii * Too heavy Soviet labor inputs in Mining snd Milling Activities, botb Internally and in the Satellites are valued0 per nan/nonth. It Is to be noted that application or II.0 voce rates In0 range would balloon the valuation of the Soviet controlled sdninjt operation out of all proportion to the-balance of the rropran, 0 would at the sane tine, hardly corrosrond to tbs "real uage" values accruing to the sversre Soviet or East Geman miner.
2. deal Resource Ccstc
The difference betsecs effort sod eesxispllsaoont, ee on eesacaic ccoaopt, Is that between coot aad voice. The distinction Is oao of lnportaecc. raowo apberco of Sovieted dlcadvoatBQCo la atcntlc energy devolopueota la ccaparlsoa with the United Qtales otonic energy prograai lacludo:
doaartlc craalua ore resources available for Soviet orploltetloa are of relatively lew grade, and their refining involves hoarier resource ooate la cosjariscn with tha. prosn*a. Aa eddltional cost factor le the eeuoral lnnccccalbility of =eay ore dspoolta.
Access to the Zsst tarcjeaa Satellite ore resource- end to cheap labor in nena quantities oorves, however to^ponewhat orfoot those^'T^Tiptsu I
bu'den pieced cn tbe war-disturbed Soviet laoiurtry
In Traducing tha novel tod special quality Ingredients cad eaulparat reauired for an etoaic energy prcgresj vere douttliias aesvy by. Again, bowvor, tbe burden wee essed by mterlal left over froa too Separations Acccnnt as the Ecacs'of payaeat fo- tast Geraaa aad Aosirlaa goods, Lerd-Leaac uad general Satellite ernluitntiou.
(A) PinUly, tircugn isoessC- wvastBcat la jenotratioa aad espionage) the Seriateecaa of tbs benefits and avoided porta of the research atu^evclofsant costs Incurved by the Oedtcd States in the pioneering stages of isielear energy drvelopsaot.
b. essenehlocarencat of thcea cocporotlve advantages between the. aad the Sovlet-ccatrolled eccaonlee, le beyond our present economic intelligence capabilities. Banco the proportional resource costs of the soviet atonic energy prograa la relation to each oggregativo eetlaatee aa Orose Rational Iroduct, Dofeaae or Capitalzpendlturco,re subject to each wide asrglns of error so as to render the resells seanlngleco or even alt-leecing.
c. enviously, one Is not preoluood froa escribing causesto Soviet cutlsre for atonic energyowtsle percept2 parcent, Slsse suchere always fractional and deceptively avail, however,la
B. Scientificro xzr.
Die prepresso Soviet atonic energy orccr-us to date and ite continued eevoloanentojortrills physiclcte,o, oetillurQists,i.ura. 'this' training has boon largely carried out ia Soviot inatttatSB and univoraitioa. Moat Soviet university bulletins have Hated courses in nuclear physics although feu bayo given the do tai led contents of those courses* Soviot'toota in the Holds of nueloar physics.ich level of training at the University level ond in addition Inoy havo an active prosron to translate and distribute uaotern technical literature*
Although such of tho training of personneltottie eoergy presrca took place in lnetLcitea and universities, thors is evidonca that there was also training at the atonic energy cites* Junior scientific personnel havo bocn noted at cony of. tho atonicesearch and production sites, and lt ia known that ocoo Soviet personnel received training from Gonaan scientists at the Sufchuni Research Ccnples. In addition, it is believed that scao degrees froa certain institutes coy be tr-uited frca uork done at itoaic energy laboratories.
1. HBDpOMT osfcluato
ihe magnitude of too soviotnerry?rosraa has necessitated diversion to lb of largo proportions of nnnpouor, eepodally froa aaong scientific, enginoorlng and construction personnel. fououing. in the clasalflcatlono indicated, ia an estioate of tho pcrponncl directly connected uith the soviet atonic enrotprsn as ofh. "oils estlratc does not include tho personnel of other industries which supplied components for the progran.
'.end production activities
of nils total, approximately Jflf, are probably eaployed in the
construction of plants, shafte, .housing, roads, otc. directlywining- :
a. Sovietoatialy camaciad uith thotoaio energy prc?Traa. ot seat, of tho Soviet top-level, physical selsBtlete participated to earn degree even though they any not have been ulthin the atanlergardfattan per ee, however, the followingdees include theee preedneet lndlvldials known or preeuaed to have participated In the Soviet steads energy effort!
OSritZXa, ileksxadr ll<lcb. Dr.tterael Lnglaeerlng Latere tory, Acedeey of Sciences, CSSB, Bee alee been aseodatod with the Ukrainian itysleo-Iechnical XneUtnte and ttarkov State University. Daecretlcal luclear Pbyalce. rreooently cellaberatse with rrawireni raitr
ALEI5AHDMV, Ana tolly retro-rich. Dr. mm Basted Heat sr. Aceoaay of Sciences, Directed Xaatltate of Physical Problsae lassd. Vavilov, Academy of Sciences, OSSfl, Specialty. HoJecaJar phynlcs and high polysers. Sscalvod Crder of
ALSJSAKatov, seam Petroviah, Professor.Moscow Institate far sen-ferrosa Metals and Oeld iaaal V, I. tallnln, Hosccw. tyi Mining Engineering.achrrlcsl advisor to the Soviet delegate. Atoalc Snergy CeauasiOB and an observer at Operation Crossroads. U
AUXSUEEOVTCH,aeoclated withaem L. T. Maarstsvsfcly, Tkraindac Acadaey of (byalcal Cfaeaistry. Sas worked cn isotope cheadstry,
separation of heavy water and separation of uranius isotopsa by tharaal
IsInstitute ef Physicallaeai. Tavllov,
Acadaey of ScianoSB, USSR, Spsclaltyi Los tasperatare physloe and auparcoDdueUvlty.
AUDUVOV, Abraa lasaanvleh. Dr.neater, Acaaaay ofB. laatitatB of Physics, Aceiioay ef fid ansae, Araardaa Dalievod torector of laboratory J,. Baa also bean associated withnd the Institute of Physical Probliaa load. Vavilov,
Acedesry of sconces,oscow. Specialty: nuclear physics and ocoade rays, frobably ono of tho key aolontlsts ln tho atonic energy precrnn. Awarded Stalinor work on tho physics of tho atomie oucloua and an Order of Lenin Brother to alikhanyan. i.
ALIIEAUIiH, artem Xssekewlcb, Dr.Correspondinscience a,ho was acadnatod bat not alec tod InstiBite, Aeadeery of Sciences, arseedan Bead offfaysiee Institute Isenl p. i. Lebedev, Acadetay of Sciences, Holderhair, Hoecow Mechanical Deputyof Laboratory 3with) and
the Instituto of Shysical Iroblono Icenl S. I. Vavilov of tho Acodaay of Sdencoa, USSR, Specialty! Buclear phyalcs and ccealc rays. Ho directs an active croup ef scientists doing coasde ray research on HU liases In Arconla. Brother to allsbancv. Born lSOB.
ALXBAZOT, Daltrly CecrglyswlehIswnJwjrad roi^ce-Tocbnlcal InaUtuta, leaden? of Scaencas, was acsociatad with the Cyclotron Laboratory of tho Eadiun Institute lasud v. G. tblocdn, Acadeny of Sciences, USSR, Specialty! accelerator research. Be was published on Isotope separation by linear eccelerator and tbonaal diffusion.
Lav androywvich, Dr.Sloe tod Kosher, Aeadsnr/ of Seioooeo,
u: Professor, itoocow 'ecbanlcsl. Atntce-Technical Institute, Acndeay of Sciences, CSSH, Also associated with research on lsotopo separation at Sioope. specialtyi Electron physics, baa workedreua trehlang, scattering of fast electrons and neutrons, sad electron optica. Be Is en lsportaet esn>erlaoQtalho haa definitely been associated with tho atonic enerEy prcgraa, Ba has received two orders of Lenin and an Order of tho Red Banner of Laborii).
1 u, Alckscy Rlaksandrovlcb, Dr.Hoabcr, Acadecy of Sciences, US3Ht Chief of Laboratory of Crganla Oatslyels of Institute of Organic Ohen-letry isenl v. D. Zallnskly, Acadeny of Sciences, OSSB,ft).
Htmoom State CMTcraity laard K.ouosn Specialty) Oreanle Cbcoaotry, Beery Mater. Scan ISyS.
BiSlEIETSni, V. B. Dr.Hoshai,aj Loneratcry, Ainwny of Sciences, Leningrad Phyaicc-Technical Institute, Acedeoy of feloness,u6). ^pOcialtTj Theoretical nnclror physlco, nuolear re-setiana. Bu published octLvoly from the Acadeny of ScieoceB* ftsooclated with Pccernrxftak and Landau.
BUCCHBATUV, Anatolly Arfcad'yerlcb, LU Oon. of Artillery.naober, iendear* of Sclccceo, USSR, ic uty Scientific Secretory of the Dopar taunt of Technical Scleocea, Acadeny of feloness, Pro a! dent, Acadeny of Artillery Director, Institute of Xacblne Studios, icadsay of Sciences, USES, special tyi Araoaento and special ueapons. Has been aiisecLated with the FCD* b,
BLCTJIIETSEY, Dadtrly Ivanovlch Dr.Correopcodine *wjrd>ar, Acsdoey of Sdoncos,ho was ncrdnated but not olectodJ. ProfosDOr, Itoecaw State CrdTorsity lccnl Eas been aaaoclatod with the iftynLco Instituto Inenl P. B. lebedew, Acadeioy of Sciences, CS.'E,od has Inspected research at Slncpe. Specialtyi ftoorotical oncloar physics, onanto anchanlcs. An lnportant scientist ln tbe atonic energy prcfroo who has dene rcvlsv work on.n fission.
BCBZSOv,krsinlanInstitute, Acsdeny ofS3, . Keener of Institute of pQrrousln Ukrainian rpoclUtyi Lxpori-
ncntal nuclear physlca. Cos worked on particle scattering and coin tor teehni-cue In low cccccntrnte analbut baa not puhllebed
BRODS-TT, Alekssncr Il'lcfa, Lr,Corrooocndinc na=bor of the Acsqdbb- of Scdencee OSS. ttroctor, Institute of ftyaicdl Cbsadatry, lacni L.adecy of fcianeee, Ckralndan ssa. Specialty! Physical Checdstry. Has dons work on eeeoratloc of hoary waUr. kroto) on uranlua isotope separation by tbsrnel dlffusion.
lltya II'tea. Dr.Fassber, Acadeny of Sciences,Ioatttute of Cencral oad Dinrgsnlc Cb*oistr7 laacif Selenoos, ESSJt, Ppsclaltyi InorganicryXa alao chief of Laboratory ofhord atry ofthe above Institute. Associated with isotopo
lion deroloraaaot. Saceivod Crder of.
kbjchh, mJoolay AUkscyovicfc, Dr.Physics Institute laetd P.eoedev, Acadoary of Scdeacos, Specialty! sucleor phyalce, cooaic reya. Delegate to the International Cenfereoce of theoretical rtrralce (Role of Electron "holla ln aadtoactlve tfaenonena)b.
JTJaCT, Ceorely SkolayovlchElected Corresponding Faaaber, Acadear/ of Sciences,i). Forecrlj associated with the Leedngred iVoice- lUchidcal Instituto, Acadeny of Sciences, DSSS. Specialty! Deperlaontal ncclear pbyslci. Surod Stalinith E. A. >etr*hak for tho discovery of spontanoous fission of uraalua lnO. Anonle energy rh yai cist with no publications
FCC, Vladieir Alaiaaaorovlcfc, Dr.ftcber, Acadaay of Sciences, USSB. rrofeaeor, lenlngrad State Ondveralty leant fewsber. Scientific Council, Physics Institate inert: P. K. Letectov, Acadeny of Scleecea, Dalegate to tho Hrat hungarlan Physics Ccnference, Budapest
Delecato to tbe First IJUngariao Ebysies Conference,poclaltyi Tieoretlcal physics. Bos done work an auantna secbanlcs, oLoctrodynyualca, relAtlvltj, and radio wavoa. received Stalin Prise? for theoretical work in ateede physic*.
rise9 for "ItLfXoaLon and Sbaroal Conductivity ln Chealcel Kinetics*. Klo recent popora have dealt with aatropbynical pr crises concerned with tha partllnttons of stars.
r.Laboratory of line tics ofeactLeos of the Institute of Cbeodcal rhyaics, Acadeay of iKdencoa, USPA,u9). hasoarse at tbe Kosccw nechanlcal
JRUruTIB, Alsfcsandr artuoovich, Or.Heater, Academy al* Sciences, OSSS.esigned bio last known pooltlon as Director, Institute of fhy steal Cberdstrr,f Sciences, Mescow, sod as Director, Scleotlflc research Institute of Fhyslcsl Cfceniatryra. Earpov, Hinlotry of Chonloal Industry PSSJi, Hoseow. Specialtyi Physical Cbordocry. He ia very oreounent scientist una has continued publishing since ISIS* Be Bight possibly be associated with heavy water research.
GAL'PEES, Kisson Il'Ichyrofossor of fSobino Construction, institute of One ChoBical bcbnelogy, ninlstry of Cheadcal Inetastry, rtoacowecialtyj Cheaical fcnglnaerlng. May be on edvisor to tha atoaio energyespecially on aanufactara of cheaical ocnlpaent.
OaHUJO, EHHi Karlovieb, Dr.Znatibita ef ifayslcal Prcolasts S. I. Tavilav, Aeadeey of Sciences, USSR, Associated with the Radius lost!tut* lacni V.sadeny of SdaooBs, CSSa, Specialty! Rodiochecdstry, goocheadatry, and nuclear physics. Eos stadle* the properties of radioaeUvo deposits and flBoro-uraniui compound:).
CJC, Vitality lasarcvlob. Dr.Elected Corresponding hash sr. Aeadeay of Seienoes, 8elent'-fle Council, Physios Institute lasni P. a. Uhedev, Academy of Sdenoes, USSR, ^axnalty> aeerotlcAl physics.ereatllo scientist who has puhliabed on radiation theory, nuclear physica, cosalc rays, low tosnernturo phyeicn and astrophysics.
krainian Prysico-axhnicol Iastibite, Aoadany of Sdenoes, Ukrainian ussr, Speeialtyi fcxperinanUl nuclear Physics, neutron physics. Das putaiabed little :
OOLDB.rcv, Tysacbeslav Alakaeyaeich,Elected Corroe: colic; rasaber, Aoadany of Sciencas, Director, Moscow Power Eaglneariag InsUtute laerdX. Molotev, Ministry of Higher Edacahlon, Attended WOrld Power Conference in Oalsrsito to Iatsraattoeal Power Conforonce, itio do Specialty: Power ccetnoortng. May be connocted with atonic power plant dsvnloaocnt. Born
OORSKTJCni, Vaoilly Ivanovich, Dp.Bead of tho Leper tsnut of tpscial Studisa (otdols Sectsrobot)of Science r, Specialty;
Cbealatry. Baa atudtod coop lux ccepounda of plat! nun group sotols. Born cly07.
CRxKBSiO, lleksandr AbraeoWcb, Dr.Onrreepondlng Hsstiji, Acadeay of Sciences, USSR. Leaincrad Technologicalerd Lenaovot, Hlnietry of Higher Muesli an Forosr Chief, Choelcal Mvisicn, Radical Institute lnenl V.lopLn, Acadeny of Gcioncos, OSSB. Specialty! kucloar Cberdatry.pecialist in cenplax cceeoonds who has not been publishing ro coolly.
GBIBSSW, Oecrgly .brsxevicb. Prof.Leningrad Polytechnic InstitatB lnenl K. I. Kalinin, Wain try of higher Education Leningrad rnyalco-fechnieal Institute, Acadeny oflr9). Specialty! Accelerator pbysica. Worked on electronic lnntruaante, coapoting devices, and particle accelerators, ilcceivedStalin Irieo Laureate.
GUES7ICH,rof.InstLtBta of fsysicel rrobleae Lseel S. X* VavlloT, Acsdday of Sclonces, USSR (lSii9). Specialtyi Uaclsar physics and neutron physics. eon or of the Radlunt Institute, be participated ln the early work ofroup on nuclear fission. Baa written on the reel dlffualonew reoent-papers on varitrans.
:om, Abroa Fedorovlch, Dr.Henber, Acadesy of Sciences, USSR, head of Laboratory of Seni-conduc tecs, Acadeay of Sciences,pecialty! Seni^ondactora, Chslresn of Cooclttee on Daad-ooneuctore, Acadesy of Sdonees, USSR Forsor Director, Leningrad Physica-Tecnaleal LnsO Bite, Acadeny of sciences,ho was one of the seat prceineut and fasous soviet aalenUsts before the bar.
IVAHSKO, Dnitrly Dad trlyevich. Prof. Dr.Professor, Dspartnant of Physics, KQaocw State University Isenl at. v. fecialtyi ihoorntlcal Uuclear physics and field theory. An active publisher who hasrise for work on theory of bi sestrehlung radiation and prablaas ofLa. Has also warksd on neaon theory.
and, ?etr leonidovlcb. Prof.eadoay of Sciences, OSSB. Headaboratory, institute of Physical 1aiaani. Tavilov, Academy of ^cocao,oscow QMttfcraer Director. farner Bead of tho BSSR atoaio Bseearch Cocodttoo (IQtaS). specialtyi ibytdco of Iom taraToratarao ood high nagnaOc fields.ayeaelet of latoroatlofBl reputation who worked atad has had extensive contacto with tha West. Ito is frequently reported to bo la disfiTorj however, ha received an Qrdar of tho Sad Baanar of-
aeama, Valentin Alokaayevich, Dr.Elected nesber of tha Academy of Chief of the Colloidal Chemistry laboratory, < c. teaoarch Inatttito of rhyslcal Checnatrya. Korpov, ftlniatry of Cheedoal Industry CSSt, Associated with Moscow Inatltuto for fine Chart.cal Technologyosoarch Instttuta for Plastics laecd. Frunae, both of the Waletry of Cheaicalpeeialtyi Physical chertLotry, high-polymeric and hl^-cx&ecular compounds.
KHARITCS, ruliy BorleoviobElected Member, Academy of ScieBces, Beadction. Institute of Cbonlcal rfayslcn, Acadaey of Seienos, to Council of Onions, Supreme Soviet* USSR, froa Specialty' theoretical peyalcs, particolarly aaploslves and chain reactions. Wrote on chain decocpoeltlon of uraniumad was the first to propoeo atosde pllB. Mas publiabod no thine sones. Probably laportant in wuapens phase of atonic energy program,
guk nonetantlnovleh. Dr.Elected neaber, loaosay of Sciences, Bolder of Chair, Moscow feehanieal Dspoty Director ofWW) and aaaeeiated with ith. Has been associated with research and taarbing in StercUovak leaported to be Interested ia Isotope separation developments, principally gaesous Baflsadamj at Agudseri and Slaepo. SpoolBltyi Solid stats phyalcs ond physics of notala. has published on galveneengnetic effect, pbetooagsetic of fact, sBrfccnducters, andjlow touperntures. Bollevod to bo key scientist ia gaseous diffusion developoant sewj .eaaibly ia the isotope soaaratloasproyaa. Fecedved Crder of
. Bern 1SC6.
lOTC'thXTm, Alnknrvirtr Dr.institute of Cboolcal Physics, Aco/lacy of 9clmcaa,icc-nKhmcal lneti fete, Aeadeny of Sciences,pecial tyi *Aoorotlcnl physics. Mas worked onnd recently on field theory snd sateen theory, barks with zeldtoricb. C.
X0RSDIQS3vfdri ah. Dr.Identified with the Ihar'kov Pnlyteohnle Institute lasol. beadectioa, Okrsdaian Phyfdco.tbchnlo.il Institute, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR, Specialty. EaparlceotAl ouclaar physics, has done work onef mss spectrographs, ion sources, and high voltsss problens. Born ci9oo-
OtOZHTLIB, Ceorgiy WkltichfiXectod Cerresneneann Maaber, Aeadeny of Selsncse, Dirialan Chisf, Pino XastrsBent Laboratory
(Laboratoryj). merge ties Inatltuto Irani XraMshanevskly, Aeadeny of Sciences,u9)> Hryaics. Export on beat
transfer and hollar Installations. Say be concerned with nt clear powor oppll ca tl ons.
OICBllDT, Boris VaaU'yarlehIdentified with th* Deportnsot of
Pbysdoo-retbenottcal Seienoes, Aeadeny of Selancas, Headection. Laboratoryeadeny of Sciences, Chief of the laboratory of Electric Conductivity of SeniconductorB, ieolngrad Fbysioo-lecbnical Institute, icadaay of Sciences, USSR Specialty: experimental nuclaar physicist. Has done work on noutron scattering and ssmfecoonctors but has not been ponllsbdns;. rconger brother of Igor.
z'j.7v, Igor TaaU'yerlch, Dr.Nxabor, Academy of Sciences, OSSJf. Moobcr of the Praeaidlua, Aeadeny of Sciences, Chief Laboratory of Unclear Reactions, lenlngrad Pnyslce-rsahnlcal Instltato, Academy of Scieneae, Director ofa5). Has also been associated with Laboratory 3s Deputy to the Council of Cm ons, aasreae Soviet, DSSS, froai). Specialty! Buelaor physics.op notch nuclear phyolclot
who directedirst Soviet nrcup which studied nuclear fission in Lealngradi9io. Probably key sclantist Corseting reaoarch on rsactore and
weapons far tho atonic enorgy prograa* Acknowledged In tho Gnat Soriataa inportant In the aeetOopneot ofome boob. Received Order of Lenin
UsTXlJ, L'yev Davyoevlcb, Dr.Heater, Academy of rcieacsi,of tho Dapartnent of Iheoretloal Fbyslco, las'A tuto. TavHov, Acaseey ofoscow IbooroUcal fanouo end eeroatlle nbyaLelst who has
worked particularly on low teaperohure physics andyalcs. He has been publishinguantum olectrodynaaioa. (forks closely withgroup.
LABOe, Pridrlkh l;hnlcal Institute, Ukrainian Academy of 3cleaoee, nar'kev Was with the restitute during World Var II. Former Gopain engineer turned rfiystclot. Specialty* Export am tai physics. Ecdgrated to OSSS Hea dene work In field of particle acceleration.
Ceergly Cod triyavleh. Dr.Koedaboratory of thoJtiysico-Technicalod associate nncber of Ukrainian Academy of Science3. Speeialtyi Experinentxl nuclear physics. Baa dene snob work on nuclear redUtLone/ particularly gaane radlatlona. Bora
UZaRLY, BorU OeorglyevlchProf. Pbysicc-nsdBrleal Icetitits, Ukrainian Acadeoy of feloness, Iharkov, Speeialtyi Cryophysics. Leader of ao active school of low temperature reeearoh. Davaleped aoDaod for ooneen testing Oery Ilium.
UBECST, Sergey Aleksoywvich, Dr.ElectedAcaSsny of Sciences, Director, Instltate of Precision Kechenles and CeapuUnQ Ttocb-oology, Academy of feloness, USSR, Hose Solderhair, Koacew nr/alcc-technical. Speeialtyi computers. Designed and constructed first Soviet high-speed aathematical eonputor.
UtrQaVDI, Alaheandr Il'lchAssociated with the Leningrad Phynlco-TOchnlcal Inatltuto, Academy of Sciaaceo,eadepartment.
Physic* Imtibile, Acaoavsy of Sclencea, Ukrainianb8), DlrecUr ol research, Jth Directorate of the MVD untild Director of research at ttoinakaye until clSSC oacov addreee through lSSa. Special tyi lasperlecntal ouclesr phyaica. bis uoot reoont papers dealt vith neutronend nuclear fissionU. He la reported to have suparvlead all Gerean research for thecede energy preerosu Worked on redlatlon and accelerator resoareh at Ctcdnakayo en til his tranafor because of tho reported failure of Ms reaeorehi
tepan Hr'evich, Dr.Headivision, Fin* Iiistrueent laboratory (laboratoryoacow (I'M). Speeieltyi ittyelco. Publishad on scrilconductorsnd nothing aLnco.
rofessor, Dr.Sleeted Ccmeoondlng Meaner of the leaden? of institate of Physic* laocd Iebedev, Acadeny of Sciences, DSSS, Spoclaltyi Aeoroclcal nuolaar physic,*. Haaunber of papera on aucloar tcroes, field theory.
MEaaraTlBTT, ^Uhall Crlgoraviefa, Dr.sleeted Corresponding Keefasr ef the Acadeay of Sdoncer, DSSS Chief of the Special laboratory.
Speelaltyi Ssperlnantel nuclear physice. Haa done considerable work with cyclotrons and haa worked ln fields of neutron physios and hellun isotopes but baa not been publishing recently, beechnical expert to Soviet representative oa DM Cocci salon for Control of Aussie Energy (lyt6)
and an observer at Crossroads. Vleited US for
HODlX, Arkadiy Benyusovlebsleeted Corresponding ftaber of the Aeeoeny of Sclsnsec,hyele* Institute laocd. Iebedev, Academy ef Identified with the Leningrad itryeicc-aKhnical Inetltote, Acadeny of Sciences,3oaner of the InatiQit* of Ttryalcal rrobless lnenl S. I. Vavllov, acadeay of 3cleneoo, OS0B, Moscow, (lSi5). oscow addressb. Spoclaltyi lbeoretAcal nuclear pbyalne. Has cane conalderablc work en eoeeic rays, but ha* published little recently. Bon clAc,
MOaTJZOV, Pavel Xatveevlch, la-.Beadl rial on. Fine Instrument
laboratory (Laboratory Speelaltyt Fhystce. paper* have dealt with secondary alec treehe has suhllebed nothing
MTCrt, a. It. mm Padlna loetttate leant T.hleoln, Aoaeeey of Sciences OSSR, Speeialtyi The orephysics. Has written on eoperetten of lootepea by thermal dtffusion and by the cyclotron and Linear accelerator, Ro has been publishing little recently.
HEVOOV, Leonid KjhhaylovichHeSa spectroscopy Laboratory, Leningrad itiyslco-loehnlcAl Inatttuto, Academy of seLacoos,. Division Chief, Dpecialtri Mass spectrceeopy. UtUe is known of his current work since he has rnbliabori nothing
leksanrtr bcUaUayevlcb, QaPre aidant of the iendeay ofirector of the Institute of Oresno Claiental Ceapeonda, Acadaey of cieaecs,eaber of the Council of the lalon, Supreee Sovietleeter of thePeaceas been throe tor of Ioetitato of Organic Cheoistry, Moecowj Mootera1 nlstrut!cn Office of Dapartaont of ChocScal Sdoncea; end Hector of .'ioooov State University inonl H.u8). Specialty! Organic chemistry. Specialises in aetalle-arganlc and caaacntcMn-ganlo chealstry.
mn SK, Sercey XakovleTleb, Dr.Identified with Dapertnent of Physlco-HatheaeUcal Edences, Aeadeny of Sciences, InoUtate of Physical Problene Inonl. Vavilov, Accdecy of Sciences,oacoe ad>lressb. Special^ 1 naclear physics, has done work In field of coenle rays withroup,
mrjCM, Tasili PetrovicbProfeeaori DoctorMeaner of the Prealdaua of Aoadany of Speeialtyi Slectro-etscbanlcs. has done considerable work on electric voiding. As acting Secretary of Prealdlua be controls operation of institutes, hae Jarisdictica over special projects sectioca and generally controla asdgnaent of personnel.
"', Laotad CorrocpcndAnc Henber, Academy of Solano*i, Scientific Council of th* Baeaun Inatihite, Acodeny of Sclaacoaeningrad address) Specialty! Radiocheciatry. Spoolallaaa In theoretical anditre etigatlon of Ion oxcnonco. Slnoa bo haa pubUsbod vary little, nost of Ma work baa probably baan aserot.
sOTISOT,eeled Corresponding liecber, Aoadasr/ of Selaoces,oscowSQ. Speelaltyi ocapotora.
KOTDSELOTA, Aleksandra Varal'ovnaHooted Ccrroopondlng Haafcer, Acadeay of Sciences, Moscow Stat* University lnenl Special tyi Bsrylllon crania try. received Stalin prise Inor rare elessanta. Kan publlahod little.
GbRIOXCV, Ivan VasU'yovlcb, Dr.Correspending Kosher of tho Acadeay of re eceesho was neednatsd bat not else ted to fulltaldorhoir, Moscow Mechanical Institute, 'tLnlBtry of Higher Education Chief of the Optical Uborntory, Inatitite of Organic cheedstry lnenl H. c. Zelinsfcly, Acadeay ofSSR,f Scdenttfic Council of Instituto of Physical ircbleaa,u8), henbor of Sedeottfic Coandl of Institute of Crystallography, specialty! aeoretical pbyslca, cceadstry. Has done valnable work In optics and phyalce of crystals. k.
PlilFILOV,anbor of the Badlue Institute iaenl V.hloplu, AcadeaynceB, USSR, lerdnfirad. Spealallyi Eapcriaontil nuclear pbyBlca. In particular has dene research In tbeof photographic mtorials for the detection of olenentary partioles and uranlun i'iodon fragncnta.
PITR2KAS, Eonatentin AntcnoriebSenior scientific associate of tbe Badaoe Institute lrerd V.lopin, Acsdsay of Sclencea USSR, Has also been asreclated with Lerdnrrad Hrysico-lochnleal Institute, specialty! unjerlnentel physics, kotable for hie early work on spontaneous fission of urardun for which be hasrise wifli 0. Plarov. Has published nothing since l.
POKnOvS'.IT,osifowlchKaJ.yjnsuri nc technical
Heeber, Acedany of Wtillery Academy Imenlnstitute of myeiealof feloness, ussr, Moscow Spoetsliyi Blast offeotsexplosions. Has written several art-cles bstwean i subjects as effects of etenlc explosions, carocticaal atonicnuclear propulsion.
PCXP*xaxt leak Takavlevleb, Dr.Elected Corresponding Meaner, Academy of Sclaaoee, PrefeSfor, Mesoaw Meohanical Institute, mniecry of BSgfasr Education, Handector, Ibaraal awdnoering laboratory, Aeadeny ofSSR, Speeialtyi Theoretical nnclaar physios. Leader of an active croup publl dilng in tble field, which is closely allied to Landau's group. Has worked on neutron physics, coerde rays, accelerators, and nuclear reactions.
POaTZOVSIIi,o speelflo crca.nl aa tlao known. 3 wee at the State optical Institute-, speeialtyi neutron pbyslca, and fleelec products of uranium. Eaa bean concerned primarily with structure of isotope,. Currently writes for Prlroda on nuclear physios.
RAEGR,nstitute of Chemical .hysics, Academy of Sdenoee, USSR, Speeialtyi eoetaietloo and dstcnatloo. Has written on detonations, shock vavoe and photographini; ezplosicn waves. Has worked with Knariton and Pokroakiy.
KEiasXH, stnon Zalaanovich, Dr.Ccrrsspcndlng Meaner of the Acedoay of Sciences, USSR, bolderhair, Ibscow Institute of Chemical Raohine Elding, maistry of Higbor BducatioB Chief of the Kekel Catalysis Section, laboratory of Structure of Surface Films, Institute ef Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, OSSK, hysical Chemistry. Specialises in catalysis sbidies and hstsrocaneous reacHoaa. Has written on the eatslytio action of ntclal and sine oxide on hydrogen and deotariun.
RJSINOT, Lo Il'lcn,nlngred rtyslcs-lecbnicsl Institute, Academy of Sciences, Ioantlflod with the Radium Institute iasnl V. 0.
BX3 To-Sec 73
Anionic, Acadeny of Seleneea, USSR,M). special tyi asperiecntal
nocleor phyciCG. Interested la nuclear lecoerisn. Boo worked with (Arena tor.
SaDOVIVJJ,respendiOB Jfeber, Acadeny of SolsooloslOAl institute, Acadeny of ScienceDlrootoT of Scdsntifio part of tho Institute ofi7), Previously Head of Lnvielon of
Special -ork of tha sane Inetitas*. had heacow addroaa UPSli). apocleltyi Blast effects. talin Priseor eotorwlnlric safe distances of Installations fron explosions.
SAIBAROT, Andrey ledtriyvyvleh. Dr.Use ted hncrMr of Academy of Scleoces, *rysies Institute inoni P. V. lecedev, Acadeay of Scionoss, OSSB, specialtyi aanea-jsantal nuclear pfayalca. Has written on coseic raya, pair production and haa puhllahsd review articleon nuclear physics. Bo publications -'
HLkolay Bikolnyevlchheater of the Acadeny ofK. LUreotor of the Institute of ChonLcal Physics, Acadeny of Sciences, USSR, Kosher of the Duresu of the DspartBont of Ches&col Sciences, Aoadeny of Sdeaces, Bpeelsltyi fhyeieal cheadetry. Wall sjvcui for Boric ln chemical kiaotics and>fJuli reactions. Kaa done meek on ccetustlon and detonations.
SuMlLYT,onlncradecbnjcsl InsUtute, Acadeay of Soaencee, Associated with Meoelated with tho Ukrainianechnical Specialty' Metallurgy and low teaporaturo physlca. lias apparently loft Lshoratory 7.
lakoufdr IosLfoviob, Dr.Corrospondirw; Mooter, Aoadeay of Sciences, USSR, who was noniaatad but hot elected ^rofeeeor of Moocnv state University lnenl H. T. Chiefaboratory. Institute of rhysical troelsns lean*. Tavilov, Acadeay ofR, Chief of Lsbcratcry of Mnleeolar ^ryslcs of Instituto of Chemical fhyaieo, tcaoeny of Sciences, US Speclaltyi tnperinental physlca. Baa spociallted In low tessorature work and superconductlT!*;
WBaUIB,lected Corresponding Ikuber of tho Academy of Institate of Cbenioel rhysiea, Acadeny ofUSSR,. Spedaltyi CoBtouotlco sodj detonation of gaso*. Has published little In recant Tears*
SilCH.-itSAXOV, D. I. Fleeted Hasher of the Acadaoy of
and Acsdeniclaa Secretary of the leportaant ofaceprenblc
Sciences, Acadeny of Sciencea, VSSR* Headivloion, Institute of
OeclOKloal Scl*nc*s, Acadaoy of Scieneoa, USSR, President, Cceedsaion on Problem of tb* Berth, Acedasy of Sciences,pecialty! Oeocbacdstry. Specialise* la the eooIoqt,ecchcedetry of rare olonents. ber of the Ccendeeica on the Uranium Prcblon of tho Academy of Sciences,h0). Bas not been publishing. Received Order of.
SUBSIDY, Alnkaoy Vaail'yorlcfc, Dr.Faceted Hoober, Aitaany of Sciencea,irwtor, Inatltut* of Crystallography, Acadeay of Sciencea,rofessor, floscow State UMsoraity lnenl H.aputy Academician Secretary, Daparhacet of fhyslec-afethaaov.calcadeay of Sciencea,pecialty. Crystalleeraphy, physios of crystals* InternoUccally known* it eel red Order of Lenin
SfOOBKD, Dardl LosdebDivision Chief, Pine Ioetronant laboratory Associated with tb* Institute of rbymlos of ftstals, Urals Affiliate of the Acadeny of Sciences, USSR.. Specialty! Fnyalcs. Bas worked on naos spectrosraphs, noloculoar beaas and the physics of natals, bat has published little.
X KnT, Xlrill DaltrlyeTleb, Dr. AcUts seeber of the Academy ofkrainian SSR who waa nonlnated tat not elected cecbar, Acadeny of Sciences, Injector, Ukrainian Phyaico-Iecbnical IneUtate, Acadeny of Sciencea, Ukrainian SSa, Bolderhair, ahar'snv State UnlTcralty laeafl. A. H. Ocr'kly, Ukrainian Specialtyi Esperiaantal pbyslce. Has dene *rbinaiVB
expo risen tal work an lie construction end uso of particle lie hao net beene boatidied in Englandan Lngliah wife. Born
SOBaXTsni, Dattrly Vladiadrovlca, Dr.Kaabor, Acadeay of Sciences, USSR, Director, Physics Instituto IbsutL P. H. Lcbedev, Acadeary of Sdoneso, CS3R, Moscow State UalTarai? laacA K. T.eputy to Council ofreoo Soviet) end neater of Foreign Eolatlonohslrasn, IntOrTjaUonal Stalin Pnaco Price Coanlttee. Head of Soviet delegation to the loteroatlon Conference on.Tryst eo (Bole of Eectron Sheila ln RadioacUve Speclalto'i tasntal nuclears. Particularly cosalea well as being an leper tant scientist, be has been chief Soviet ecientlet lnvclred in lnteroaUocal discuaslons of atonic ensrsr In his positions ss Technical Adviser to Crony xo and Soviet Bepresentative on Seientiflc and Technical Coanlttae of OH nocedved Stalin0 for work in eesnio rays and aa Order of Lenink.
SOTCD-aSCII, lokov Abrenevlcb,r.Dlrlalen Chief, Fins Instruanota Laboratory Instituto of Ptr/slcalcademy offt, Knsccwv. .. Spedaltyi Jneorctlcel nuclear physics, cuantun aochsnlcs. Has been concerned with particle scattering ando topic shift. Has onlyew papers ln recent years.
SCeOLiV, Sergey Lvovich, Dr.Henber of tlie Acadosy ofR| Kosher ef tbe Mechanics Division, Mathematics InstlOate isenlA. steklov, Acadeny of Sciences, USSR, Chiaf of Sectornd reported DLreotor. Specialty) Hathcmtlcs, differential eeuatlona of physics. ery proeinect and active mathematician. Recelvad Order of Lenin (lySt). o.
K, loelf nvseyovlch. Dr.Corresponding Mentor of the Academy of Sclancea, USSR Mho was ncaflmtod hot not elected necbor Deputy
Director, Radloa Institute iscol T. C. rhinpin, lea Way of Sciences, QSS8slaltyi Radlccheaiotiy and ceocbcaistry. ' tten on the occurence of rudlooctivo elessnts, but has published noullac Was at Unit i.fl and returned to CSSB In rtd-oSJa. SftSUCOV,rofInstdoite of Cynical Problems/ Academy of
Ezporianatal low tcaperntnro
physics. Has published very littla, but appears to bo concerned with thermometry and engineering at low tsmperaeiroa. Occupied post of laseotar,
Soviet Purchasing.. froa, touno
SIREN, slsov UvorlchCorresponding 'ember of the Iof Chief of the Laboratory of tha structure of fetter, ScdonCfloof Physical Chorals try lnaai L.rpov, "Artistry Speeialtyi Physical cheafistry. Itoortad tawith heavy water. Ha. done work in field of noleculor
Igor Tevgen'yovlch, Dr.Elected aaobar ofoany of Sciences, heedivision, Physies Institute lacrd P. a. labedov, Academy of rciancea, Holderhoir, Kescew Mechanics Institute, Ministry of higher Education Speeialtyi nuclear physics. Has published occasional recent papers on quantua theory and cowrie rays. Deceived Order of "ecln.
Petrorlch, Dr.LB. roe tor of an observation
station concerned with natural radioactive phencnana and high-eltltude ccecdc rays located near Sochln, Holder of the Chair of Physics, Hoeoew State University Inonl H. T. fpecialtyi lheorotural pbyslOB, Has written papers on the betatron and euantaa mechanics. Eas dons theoretical work on Induction accelerutars and the origin of cossdc rays.
HH06HUK, Ealtrlyfiviaicn Chief, Pino Ioitruaeota laboratory 'eracrly assodatsd with the Okrsialan hyslco-Tbchnleal InBtttute, Academy of Sdenoes, Ukrainian SSa,uM.
USSR,lft). Had Hosccwb. Speeialtyi Phydcs. Has apart all roday photography of explosion and detonation processes. Use published no thinefi.
VAL' DS,rlovlch, Dr.Hesbor, Aeadeny of Snlenoes, Ukraidan
ssr who was nondoated but not elected amber of tho Acideay of -Cputy Director of the Ukrainian rcysdeo-aKhnieal Institute, Aoadaey of Scienees, Ukrainian SSE, balderhoir, Khar'kov state UnlTarsitr iaanl A, K.peeialtyi Expo rlnon tai nuclear physloe. Has done work on high voltage particle accelerators but has published nothing
TASILi TaT, %lhail PsoeroTich, IT.Lt- Ocn of Artillery. Hoohor, Aoarkssy of Artillery Sciences, Chief of Acuity of Aaaunltlon, Artillery Aoadany ineni F. E. Ceerthinskly,W). Spodallyi' Ordnacse. Interested in theory of ananants.
VEE3LEB, TXsdlrrir loeUorieh, Dr.Corresponding Hasher of the Aceeeay of Sciences, USSR who wae nososated but net electedeadaboratory. Physios InsUtite iaeni. Isbedsv, AcaaVny of Sdenoes, USSR, Holderhair, Moscow Stats University laenl K. Ess Hosccw and Leningrad addresses, ffcecleltyi Leperlaantai rsiclear physics. Spedalises in accelerators and coeude rays and le noted for the dflvelecanat of the aynchrotroo. has been publishing little.
ViRWOv, s. Dr.Elected Corresponding Meaner of the Acodoay of Sdenoes,) Phydcs laetitate lead P. M. Lebedsv, Aeadeny ef Sdeneee, CSSS,U9). Professor, Moscow State Cdverdty iaeni M. v.L0). speeialtyi Muolear phyaica, cosalo rays. Active in oosrdo ray oxpedtlona to the Psatre. StalinW) for cosalo ray
nVXOBADST, Alaksandr PaYlcvicU, Or.doc tod iwtor, Acadoay Director, Instituto of Goocbenlotry and AnalyU col
CbealBtr/ local Varcadakly, Acadeny of Sciencea, PSSB, Soaccv holderheir, Kceccw Steto Ocdwrsity lnenl X. Depot/ Acodoniclan Secretary, Cop^rlaoot of Cbeadcal Sciences, AMdoay of .sciencea, Spacdeltyi Oecchandatry. "an specialised ln the gaoebenlstry of rare olenenta andtalin) forof rere sin dispersed Cbosncel alecasnts In thend an Order offt). Elected to Bureau of tha Departeeot of Choalcjl Sciences
in the field of ai clear energy.
ZAV0TSK1T, nrrgeruily KonstaatlnovichElected Ccxieeponeiae; rtosber of tha Acadosy of Sciences, Dinsien Chief, Pine Instruacnte
I-aboratoryi lasan State Unlreraitypeoialtyi Physlca, psreaaunxtlssh Has not published
DOVICH, Taker Borlaovich, Dr.Corresponding Keener, Acadeay
of Sclencesa USSR, aha vas needcated but not elected Bead of
a avlsioo, Instituto of Chenlcal rnysiao, Acadeay of Sciences, USSR, "claltyi Physical chonlatiy and theoraticol physlca. bell known
for work on theory of flan* propagation and dalcoatloa ln gases snd axploeives.
Marked with Rhariton9n chain rose lions In uxenlua and haa
been puhllahLng recently on theoretical nuclear physics, . ZHDANOV, Aleksandr Pavlovlchftadlua Institate ineni. Khlopln,
Acaosary of Sciencea, USSD, spedsltyi Laaperiaontol nuclear
physlca, cosndc rays. Ksjor interest ln nuclear flaslon In ooaslc rays, see
dene sneon rosoarch by no ana of photonothod. 3. Daceasad Scientists
ass following. Ei so tan eciantlata listed ln the prevlcu* ITS, died
en the dates Indicatodi
saiialy, Leo Ylaaladrovleh
A Tran Alsksandjovich
prarlcusis tadernea scientlsta whid. ware thought to ba working aa tbe -ovia atoaio snore prograa. It la oew thought that these Saraaa eclaQtlata have bean renewed froa any work pertaining to the prograa and are now awaiting their returnouny. Many of the PV sclent/ sta and techoiclana have been raturned- Ouster Barte has been returned to last Oeraeny and the other scientist! are expecting to roturn In tho near future.
r. mmmrth lacilitiea
tte dovjnlopnent of tbo soviet atonic enorcy progruB boo been based on
a oajor Soviet roccurch effort in aany Coles of science and eneineorlnE. "Mlory ccapLex effort which hoe been carried out atlarca nuobor of installations protectedisbof oecurlty. Aeresult, although thereroat deal of lnforaaUco ralatlnj to certain phaooa of the roecarch precran, out laiovladao of tho prosroahalo la eevoroly United.
noeeoreh for the early devvdoeessot ef the prncraa was carried out lo the Acadeny of Sciencea of tho USSR, flrat In tho onjor inoUtntee end later priourily In three avecial labcratorlaa eatobllDhed aapoclally for atcoia energy development. Additional specific research projects for tho otocfio energy prccran wore carrlud out ot alx lnotallat'.onj otiffod by Co roan aclontiota and at aunercus faotcriaa and lsstitutoo cubcrdlnate to the various moleteriee. Aa ouoire roaoorch altos booano available at najor ateede onorgy Installations, tho coat critical rcoaarch won probably noved to trese si tea. Srla gradual trsnefer was acceorwnrledorresponding oOeroase ln lnfarmtiob on Soviet racaarch far tho otcedo energy proeroa.
More ie known about ivaoarch co leotopo aaporatleo for the Soviet atcson cnersr pracran than aboot sny other pbese of ntecce energy roaearch. Sovoral Ins tl hi tea uore engagedojor effort to dorolop variousof
was eacnrently conoontrated atith aany other Inetllutei contributing roaoorchpecial projects. As on emnpl* of tho slae of tbe effort. It la iDtcreatLng that at least six installations,'.i, Slnope, Agydtori, Chapaevsk, and the institute of aenornl and Inorganic Chccdntryrnakov participated ln development of anrriors for tho rAsoous difPaoion process. Ccnoldorably less is known about Soviet reoeeroh en reactors, end it is only poo si bio to identify soon of the enjor lnatAbitee and individuals angaeed ln reeotor development. nd tho Radius) Inatdtuto sppeor to have been Key raaoarch instillations in the early oevelopacnt of tho reactor prcvpremj and wa knew that Oomira at Obninakeye and Zaall also werkod on problons related to plutonlua production. UcuovoTi there Is little lnfcrontion on nero advanced phases of reactor
research, aoofoioo of the extraordinaryUicro lo practically no lnforaniicn on Cortot research on atoaio weapons, although It la poo al bio to dOtcrnine aoao of tha peraonaal andwhich nay havo acotributcd to early weapons Oanolapaent.
Special laboratories of the icertany of Sciences Laboratory l> Khar'kov
n Is known about tola laboratory which le etaffod froa
the Ukrainian Acadany of Selcnces> Baforo the war, rhar'kor ranked with Leningradanter of aiclcar physicsothe labcratcry oootlaaeo its nuclear physics tradition, Laboratoryoscow
Laboratoryhich if located in newly built fscdUUee went of Serebrlann 8or roilrcod station in Eorthwost Hoecsw, was probably the key laboratory In tho early dovslopacnt of the Sovist atonic energy pregraa. It was directed by I. V* lurcbatov inand its staff Includes oono very prorcnent Teviet nuclear physlclste. It has been concemod with Soviet reactor oovolopoant ana was probably tho key laboratory In the devolspaent of gaseous diffusion Isotope noparsUon* It nay have worked cn olnetrcoagnotlo isotope separation and is ruocrod to be ecncorasd with the nuclear physics of atoaio weapons. It has bad connections with cosnie ray re search and with the laboratoriss at Sukhuai. ay now be known as the lino iBfltrunsnt Laboratory.
as originally in Cbereauabhi in southern Hosccw. It is renewed to have been heeded by A. I. ilikbeeryen priornd through bin to have bad caxwtctione with the coedcearch at Heent Aligns In the CasVaaaaaa
2, laboratories Subordinate to the Itinlatry of Median Machine Building
His institute, located Just south off the Acadsay of Sciences, Is responsible for developing the processes oooneotod
& Sec 73
tho concentration of oranlunron all types of oro bodies and with tho extraction of pure ureniuB salt* froa these concentrates. It le also responsible for developing and laileoeatin,': tne analyticil control of prccasess in the oxtroctlon of uroniua ores* Possibly io coacornod with analytical central proesdurso at later stageo la the pre-rse*.
Beeearoh Laboratories feraerly oncer the Bath Directorate of
*ass laboratories were tarned over to tha PCD upon the
dissolution of the Biatb Directorate. Maittle or no information on their role in thoeriod, but in view of focHltios metalled at these laboratories0 It Is probable that they conduct tbe ease lines of research instituted at then la le anop near Sukhunl
this Laboratory, whose Oeraan chief was Baron Manfred Von irooono, was devoted to isotope separation research. Porous nlehal berrler for useaseous diffusion proosss was devsloped bore. Work was dono.cn developing as ion source for the eleotroasgaelic aothod of Isotope eeparaUcni end ortenaive ciTrelopoant was aeon on the war Has Ceraen ultra osntrlfugs for separation of ursnlua isotopes. Ihe laboratory also developed, and helped pat into production, units for production of fine nickel powder hp be used in tho porous barrier by the carbenyl Bathed. SlEniflcaat research at this laboratory has apparently ceased, and its Carman/staff la anticipating en early return to East Oerceny. .
AQid&orl near BDltaanf
axis laboratory, whose Cktraaa chief was Professor Doctor Onatav herbs, worked both on isstape separation and on mstruaonts for the analytical oontrol of production isotope separation facllittoa. orta tly unsuccessful research was aenoiffusion sefhsd involvinc and flucrocsrbans. An apparatus designed to draw air froa opsritiag gsaseus diffusion cascades wao devoloped hersf rasoareb was conductedontinuous aothod of forveng barrier for gaseous diffusion plantsis thought to hove sines boon pat Into production] and ones spectronotcrs and radiation
counters for tho analytical control of isotope separation plantsbero ana later placed Into proonetlos, Significant researchlaboratory has apparently ceased, ana ita reraan atoffeturn to East
axle lrartallatico located acaelias southwest of ftoecow, mob eogegod la reaearch on naclsir reactor probleaa under ita Qaraan chief. Dr. Heine Pose. Mark was alto done hero on tho nuoloar charao tori sties of both graphite and beiylllun oxlca uoderotoro. Apparently neaaureoente vero also node of the dofermntion cauaod In various subataaoos opoa IrroaiaUon la no clear reactors. Die full scope of tha wort of this laboratory Is not known, k nektrestol
ails laboratory, originally headed by tho Ooraon national. Dr. gkoleusbi, salved6 tho problem of produelnc adequately pure and dense uranium total. robably worked on the problem of producing super-purity uraniua salts. Work was also done an the production of see fie to fluorescent tutorials for caUtode ray tubea and probably on othor types or Detallurglcol rosoarch ia tho atoaio energy prograa. Ccoatoarablo rceearch and oevolc-xasnt on gassous diffaalon barriers vae carried out atriagui
Ms laboratory near tbe teens of Eaeli and Syshtym was not
started until late tt started to work en tho health physios piebloas resulting froa the irradiation of Urine Hoa* by neutrons and goosa ruys. work was also proceedingethed for separating rare earths, probably in connection with tho areolae of separating uranlcoi from the various fission products itoducod In nuclear reactors* It le possible that this laboratory has taken over the work of the preparation of radioactive Isotopes extensively usedesearch tool in2 bat its activities nay have changed with the removal of most of the Corsans. Sorebayanoy bee-It is knowaeroen research group under the loaderonlp of Dr. Saa Volasr was located In theres ond was working on ons
of tbo onthoda of producing boor/ oater. Littlo alasoon bbout eltatr
thie croup op ita focSlltaoo.
Facilities at Operating teaca
Each eporatina base or eccblne of tho rtlnlotr/ of icdiun chine Building, If it In of as?at all, pcesesaoa laboratory fscllltloe need ln cccnectlan with tho analytical control of the oporatlono of the contain*, Theeo lahoratcrloa also porfora acce rosoarcJi on local piccOona, hot cannot bo considered najor rosoarch ladlltlcB.
3. olloMlDc are Instituto* which are known to haws carried out specific roaoorch problena for tbe atonic energy Frngrao, It le to be noted that thie rosoarch not only ft to into tbe noronl work of those institute* but that Omaarch problooa dotoctnd noroolly encagedonll part of the total facllitloe and personnel available to thea) Inatltutes of the scaossr/ of Sc**neea
1* cningrad ^Jr/alcc-^chnioal Instituto, Acadeny of Sciences, CCfTi,1 teahie lnatltat* is coo of tha oldest and originally boat^aulpped physical leesorch ore&nitaUon In the USSR sod did cuob of tho orignol Soviet work on nuclear fission, Ibclsar phyalcsojor field of interest at the Inetltut*. IAyiilotronnsbor of snail eleetrovtatio generators, end la staffedarge nlabor of eUlo thooroUcal aod esporinental physicist*.
ci'j lastltnto, Aendony of feloness, USSR,UliteaenlncradEstablishedho liadiun Institute conduct* rooeorch on problenoo the production of fissile aetnrlela, laclurtjoc the dstoctlco of rodioactivo area,work with rndlo-eaoneute, and aapecte of plutonjius cberdstry. until at5 this was tbe only institute ln OSo DM posaeaalnc an operable cyclotron, end thio hao been ln contlauoua us* efoco that tans.
Ihe Institute of Fbyeleanbedsv, Academy of Sciences, litsnbscowIneUbit*ne of tho nor* iaportant pert ci pen to in tho re soo reft propria en stcaic onergy.
tat Laboratory ol* tbo Atonic Uucioufl is wbcc-dlnate to this Institute.
1m nstituts ofrcblane, Acadenyf. *ntn was foruurly uoler
tbs> direction of tbo fssnos physicist Potr L. lanitaa sad concentrated principally upon low tsnpeietnrend high-Intensity sagnetla fields. It has outetanding workers both la theoretical nuclear physdos and low tanporatur*and1 it was associated with, ijaenenysn'e Ctnclcal ooando ray croup. Its eescciaUcn* sdtb the Institute of Chceleal Hiyoico andnd ita continued proninence in the Soviet ecleotlf lo scene *agresl* tbat It oay bare and* significantlo the proerasw
5s ower ZBa^neering (or 2narfottes) Ioetitute leeni
inaUibenorsldy, icadany ofSSa,oscowIn addition to sore ordinary line* of work, theengaged in research onsoirees of enerar* sad la alsooc/ilpnont for particle accelerators and confuting apparatus. wellert ln the deal go of cnclsar reaotcrs for the produotlon
ee ineatote of Cheadcal Pcysics, Acadeay ofSSB, Torobvaraknye Shoos*eecowIbis Institute haaontapujng In lore at In the theory of eaploslTB chain roactlocs and has. cooperated with theif Physinsl rroblese In their espcriesntelthe first papers on the theory of nualeer chain reactions published ln th* OSffl ware written at this Instituto9 by apt. B. "hai-iton and others, fen* of it* aosraru haw been publishing reoontly en tauleartossible that Inpertant research for tb* project ln physical cbssdatry and ln weapon design nay be carried out here*
7s Institute of General and inorganic Cheniatry Isenl
E cadaoy ofH, Bol'fhoyB Kolnthaaay*Koecew.Ihe Kornakov Institute any be expected to centime tocontribution in aany fUHa of conventional cheedetry related to
atomic energy program, 7 it was reported to havo tested barrior
oauerials for Laboratory
8. Inatltuto of Physios! Chore airy, Academy of Seienoes, OSSfl, Bsi'cfcaya gslusheksya, disssoscowIbis Instttnte,, was known aa the Colled.do^Slectr^Cheoicol Institute. It ia engaged in tha otudy of spoolal eorroelen protleas> and sey also havo worked ao ieotopo-ooporntlon processes.
?. lbs InstltitB of Physical Cbeniotry iaeni L. V. Pisaransvskia Ukrainian Academy of sciences, Zlov'tie. inatitnte was concerned in tbo very early Soviet Majorca on iaotcpo separation and was important in aevolcping the Soviet heavy water progTon, Its staff, under A* i. Bredskij specialised for ssvcrsl years prior to the war in tbs otady of stable Isotopes and methoda of separating then. Sal' first known prodocUon of heavy water in the OSss vac carried cut by this InetLtata at the tkarprt has pabliehed ancb since the var on the^ iheaicsl rooctden rates of dsutorton-ocntaining compounds.
Iff. ale Fnyslcc-nwabalcal Inatltito, Dkrolnian Academy ofoBBaovsky Sipik Kar'kor 2b 3d* Institute spoeiallied before tbs war In tho nbynica of low tetsponbares andvoltages,uabar of pox tide sceslsratora dad did seen ro search on neutron physic e. Evacuation to Alma-Ata during tbs warislocation of this activity, butS the Institute baa been ra-Btoffed and re-so^ped. It has continued post war roeaareh in mallear snd low tempera lure physics.
Us Ihe Institute of Ceocloaletry and Analytical CbesdaOy iaeni
I* Vorncdakiy, Academy of SedeaoM, Dssn, starcnonstny,
nstttabs wae formed from the Ceocbamloal Lobcaetory inonl,
7ornadskiyt works on prcblsse of the origin ond occurrence of
radloBotive slenents, and has pioneered, .in noss-speatroscepy toebniouos for
oateraining tbe conditions of formatton of oro deposits.
(b) Institutes eabordlnote to Klnlatrioa.
oecou Engineering rhyalos Instituts (probable new naao
of Moscow Mechanical ZosUtute) Dittos, Kirovs ZXt H,
hbscov. Ihe ftawttaa of this pennloglcal Xastttite, which is oubordinato to ae MoiBtry of Cultnre, Is not kncwo predsely bat It Is oooaldered significantsi*faok of loading scloatista known to be working for the AG program were nominated for election to tbo Acadeay of Sciencea laas prefer bops at tblfl Institute. nstitute isleb-ored* training center forbat research la oonductod* at leastmall oegrae, In connect:or. with the fulfillment of degree criteria*
2* ihe Pouor englBeorloc (Lacrcotaxo) Inotttat* InenL Molotov areaockasasaannsya ulitathoecow ivision of responsibility between thie lnstltote and the Suaidehanovoky Dastibit* la not knows* lbs Holotov Instlbite ia roported to be working on atonic energy prcblcna.
3. She Pryslcc>Chaodeal Institute local L. To* Karpov, Ministry of Chemical Industry, Obukbaoscow5hls Inatitabj has done work en the onrlcbnent of deutcriaa ln water by saveral astbodscebinatloaleotrolyala and catalytic exchange notticd*
J.. Stats Institute for Harebpolcv Pereulokoocow. This institute conducts roooorch on concentration of rare natal ores and production of me metals, laoludlns thorium and possibly uranium. Much of tho work of this Instituto In the poetaar period has had applleatioa lnoedc energy program*
(cj tie following are design crgiuiisa'lona tblch have beenAZ
1* Stats Instltaba forrogca Entorprieefl, Cbkslovataocou'7boufih the detailed activities of this Institato are not known, it io certain it designed those laree-ecale heavy water production installations locatedutter^arnlbatio altroson plants la th* DSSB* 2, state ll-.iututa fee Plannisv: Pare hotels Undertaking o,a'afaaya CbeskassksyaA? ^rowyka, hoocowThie Institate, known ooonigaa alnos end concentrating plants for production of far* metals, including thorium sad cranium* >.
VariousoX the Cbaolcal
Kachine Drtlfling IndustryAt lust three cf these scientific research institutes era known toa Moscow, oca-in lonlngrad sad one ia Daerkc-r. ubarfr function is apparent^ tbo assign of non-eUadord *iUpaant for tha orardcsl industry, and sa snoba saosaad to bo of la the engineering phases of the Sorlatenergy prograa.
0, toft atrial Sagport
1* Industrial Progress
in industrial prograa of tboalso of tha atomic energy project in tho United States or inH requires extensive and aloes ooordination of tha activitiesorgs cross section of tho industrial of the nation. One listing of tbs inonstrial fires raaug appreciable contributions to the hanbattan PiaJ^ oantaiaedass and. eith bat faar saeeotions, participation in thie project was confined to the United States.
ao Sen-lets, however, vara able to draw aa the resources of Western ocuntriOD,,injadditl.oe to Eentom Cernany and the satellite nations. AlthoBjjs the flow froa tbe Vest ban Since been greatly earteilad, the Soviets ware able toonsiderable aoount ofo rial boforo offoctiwe restrloUona were ispoaaaVStill, taking into account all these contributions free the outside, tbe/jsffeet on Soviet doaastlo industry of supplying the demands of the atwAc aoorg? program nast have been such greater than the effect on induatry in tbs Doited States. Support for this sasnaptLon appears to exist, pertioularly in Ties of tho great difference in the industrial capabilities of tbe two nations* 2. Eapipeent Supply '
Ihe bulk: of the Of-ieaent rscnired in the production ofis standard and could be supplied by anyargo nuabor ofUSSR, hash of the obeaioal eooinaant has produced by plantothe Ministry of hachina and instrument Building, Examples of suchas
Orals Cbeadcal KacbaM'Balloing Factoryshne. Isebskly, near Sverdlovsk,
Chlrchik Cheaical Machine .Boiloang .aotory iaeni Prunse, Chirebah,
Bolshevik rsnyt'-iil hsWhjagFactory, Kiev,
Krosny Cktyabr Cheaical Kacfalne Building Factory, ahstov,
Jrucae Cbecdcal Machine Building Factory, Suay,
Borste Puap Isetory,
la additdon, the fcllowixfrfirna are capable of'-aelOng a
aallnin Haoniae-nuilciag Factory, Hoeoowanoautaflture* special puaps end precisian instruments,
^ctrc-Turbine runt, Snobstar'kwBanufecturee powerentral esnlpnent, relays, ate*
Vrels Electricaloaeinosokes aiacollanecus hesTj electrical ocfiipnent and ewitcb gear,
aaearbroslla Zarod, Lenlneredsakas larce eagnetb, beery electrical eaulpoonU
nenatrisl Ceotrlbution free wltbout tbe USSR
-be foil owing are enrolee of tbo utilisation of Industry outside ef theOSSSi
It le probably that neat of the nickel wire wash for use la gaseous diffusion separation plant was, until tbs endroouced by Bast Oarssn factories* lbs nickel wire for tbs aforeaenUoned screens, as well as the loons used to wears it, are also products of East Gorans Ores.
lbs. Jarbsn Plant at BUterfold, now called tbe Elektre-chosaochos losccaat, Btttarfeld, baaarge fraction ef tbe ealeiea used la the reduoUon of ursaina to astal for use In the piles*
It la else bellsred that aucb of the aoat for tbe isotope separation prograa has been obtained froa the satellite countries and possibly Swltaeriend,
B. Sources sad Product Icq of 3aelc Katerlals 1. Uranlua Supply
CurtfBi Internal alrilag operations provide about one third of tbe eetlcatad ensue! uraalua production available to tbe USSR. Too reeelaiag tvo tfifii sr* obtained fron Gercacy, Ciccacatorwria, Sulgsrls, ftcenala, Poland, sod Chine. Of these latterOerosay sad Ciacaoelovafcla are outstanding la teat they provide0 per cent of the total produced outalde tbe USSR.
Proa geological studies it la eattantcd that tha ursnluu or*
reaervoi available to the Soviet Bloc will support the present production rote forears If only noderate grade ores ore utilised and foreare if lov-grads oros ouch as sbsles and phosphorites ore utilised. At presentsall part of tbe total production la fron the lov-grade resources. Koet of the reserves lie vithin theandarge part of the node rate grade reeerves within the USSit main undiscovered. Continued productionigh rate for cany yeare will depend oa the eootloualloo of the Intecalve prospecting prcgraa engaged la heretofore by tbe Soviet atonic energy progrea, as well as research into efficient .recovery oethods for low-grede crea.
Exceptew select loestlcca such aa these in Oeraany, Czecbcelcvaxia, and southwestern Siberia, aeay of tbe uraniun deposits available to th* So-rteta are unecooonlcal by Acer lean standards, lo terns of ore grade or ln terns of accessibility. By extensive exploitation of tbe aore'fsvorsble deposits, however, the Sovieta have succeeded la producing sufficient uranlua toarge Steele energy procraa. Production In appreciable quantitiesIncreased0 when the extensiveand developoent or the known uraniun ore deposits and research on ureal us extraction began to ahow results, a. OSSB Sources
(1) Ore depceitaI*nrlag thee uraalua ore was being nlned for recovery of radios In the Fergana Valley, Southweatera Siberia. Baring World War II uranlua rdalng in the Fergana valley waa asperate! fron other noo-ferrous alnlnj activities by the org-nljetlc* of Coabiae 6. In
oablae 6placed under tbe control of the newly foraed Plrst Chief rnreetorete sttacbei to the Council of tUolsters, which wee undo responsible for tbe Soviet otcnic energy pro*ran. An extensive uraniun prospecting progrou nlao eterted In; end ecfcraced all porta Of the OSS), under that preeraa, the Fergana expedition discovered nuoeroua addltlocal radioactive deposits in southwestern Siberia, and subsequent expeditions found other deposits at Other locations ln tbe USSR.
At the present tine, the Pereses valley end western Tien Shan Mountain area Is believed to be the only highly uraniferous province In the 0end is the noot lnportant produclna regloa. Tbe Fergana Valley lnclndsa laportant alntng locations such as: Fergana,a, Ulsnr-Sal, Hatly-Su, Cbust, scd Got. Ad>cent to thie eras is tbe tare Kssar Pange vhere uranlui deposits ere being exploited at eltes such as Tabcehar, Adraaean, and aannal. The sources la the Feroana Valley cone lot of Tyuyeeusalta and carnotlte deposits slallar to those of the Colorado Plateau, vhereas the Ear Keaar depoalts or* of the palyeetollic flaaue-veln type In which prlnory and secondary uranlua ninerala ore aoacclated vith other nlnereis. perstloes have expanded several tines ln these two erees and other, slallar, areas nearby have bees developed by the OOBSnUBl vith tbe result that production haa continually increased These deposits will cODtlnus to be inportant producersuabar of years.
Other urealuc deposits la the OSS being exploited by tbe Scrieta
rare Tau Areathese ore snail oxidised deposits of ml dot laportaxce. Productloo, which startedao Increased rapidly.
Latcala-SlaouiThe uraalua la La con la and aroundeningrad Oblaat, USSft, la contained lo the Plctyoneca ehala, which undarllee the oil-rich Kuherelte shale. The uranlua content of tbe shale is very lowj et leasttceo of shale Bust be processed to produceoons of uranlua. The Soviets began operations in Estoniaut production. If any, did not start until the last half Actual
production eppoaro to be quite snail and little pressure baa been placed on tbe project. However, tbe uronluB reserves lactyonena ebsle Is large, and production couldew hundred tons ofear If greet effort end coet vere expeaded.
Orel MountainsSuaeroue pegmatites .In the Urals ere stlnsd for bcryl, feldspar, and tantalus-slob Ion nlnersle. Snail pockets end fissures containing uranium minerals are often found In the pegnatltes, end recovery of the uranium minerals may be by band-sorting or by oagnetlc or electrostatic separation. Uranium ore production at the Ti-rlch iron ore mines of Mgmltka say be by separation of lairdltc. Production of ureolun ore, vblcb say havelo the Uralsl mot great, but could continueery lev rate for many years.
Karelia and Sola PeninsulasUranium minerals associatedhe pegnatltes and alksllc Igneous rocks la these areas vetch ray be recoveredy-product from the feldspar Industry, some direct aiming of eaall depcelts for the ureal in ore nsy also be under way: The prcexetloo rale fron such areas Is very snail aad of minor Inportance.
CaucasusLittle is hnovn about specific uranium deposits in this area, which eayildly uraalferous province: vranlun is reportedariety of deposits. Including solyaatalllc veins of tbe oorthern Caueeeue and carootlte depoeita la the soutbera Caucesus. roccaslng plant has beeo identified at Mlneralnyevblcb hoodies local ores.
A Soviot geological expedition explored tbe Caucasus for uranium deposits In6 and early : rarvelopmeai work at eoae of the depoeita waa etarted7 and uraalum ore production amy have started by the sod of the year. Urenluaoperations have been reported at Pyatigorsk, at Erevan, and In the vicinity of Mount Elbrus. Tho present production ret* from Csuessue oree Is not believed to fce lerge and may lncreaee only slightly In the future.
Eastern SiberiaUranium Is being producednber of areas Is eastern Siberia. Many of the urenlua depoeita were located in or near existing mlnee, but eone have been re sealed by post-worldroepectlng expeditions. Some of tbe depoeita are in tbe "Daletroy" goId-producing
tb* Kolyma Hirer; another deposit lie. Justof Aldan;other* ore on the Chukotsi Peninsula in for north eastern Siberia. It is believed that intensive exploitation of these depoalta began inand that, although anus production aay have oceurred that year, the slaLeg
TraasbaikalSoviet alulae operations for uraniun began in tho Traoobelhal area ln nld-loVf. ProgreoB wbo slov ond it la believed that there vaa aucb production The production rote io acderote, and probably vlU not Iscresae In tbe future. Uttle le known of theee depceita, although It le suopected that they are pcdyaetaUlc velne.
Klnuslnak baa in and Tannu TuvaISaeloectlve depceita have been known In the Hlouelnek Baaln alnceb. The reeervea are large, but principally lo very lew-grade depceita which ere probably not being mined for urealuo. Uttle le known of the tannu Tura depceita; It la auepected they coeelat of low-grade eamdetoca*type orea. Production aay hare begun lahere la little evidence that thi* eree baa developed Into an Important aource of uraaluu aucb aa tbe Fergana region.
- Other locatloaa in the USSR vhere uranlua proa pec ting nd alalcg have been reported are: the Ukraine; the Tayrtyr Peolceulai Soveroaye Zealya; tbe rectors River Baa la; th* Uxv^anda area; Lame Balkhash; and tbe^ Altai Foothllla. Very little le known about tbe rate of production of uranlua
ore from theeeut few of thea are likely to be la port ant produce ra
Ln view of tbe low grade and small reserves. An eaceptioo to this la tbe
Pechora Baaln, la vblch the depceita aay be moderate grade eamdetoaea or
possibly polyaetalllc veins.
U) Operationsery little la known or the baadllng,
concentration, and grade of uraniun ore at mining locations ln the USSR. All indications are that uranlue mlolng operations are somewhat slallar to theee eaployed lo Germany; counter -sort leg Of rich lelD-ora lato boxes at tbe cine; and chemical or cecbanlcal concentration nearbyrade ofercent uranlua before being shippedefining plant.
1). Gcmon Source o
dqoilliImpoeltsbe Soviet 2oee efel present tbe aeet productive wurct of uranium being exploitedSoviets. It le estimated that this source provldad aboutortbe estimated total Soviet uranlun Urenluala eaotern Germany vera begun by tbe Soviet* la Octoberflrot, tbey were eoaflned to tbe grsgeblrge, la Saxcey, around tbeJobsnngeorgenstadt, Oberacblena, Bledsrecbleaa, Scfcnetbcrg,Mnrtonberg, Scbwarienberg, Freiberg, and broaden. Tbeeoatlsually expended and* tbe area around Auerbach,andndeer Cere,Sorgo Setteocorf where large quant it las of low-grade ore areoperations nova been conducted In all possible areas. all auelltles has been oineda fairly large aaouat of high-gradevery great sac ants of low-grade ore. Tbe greatest portico cffroa Geraaoy le In tbe for* of so called high-grade ore withU-aetol content of0 per cent (obtained by band aad
Based upon the present extent of operatlec, lt la estimated that urenlua production inwill continue at tbe preeent level for at least three or four pore yearn before gradually declining.
Soviet uranlun mining operationsare under the controlovlet-Cereaa coapany called "Vlasat
S. D.. BiBBUt, formed Ina needed by NVD Major Central Alexel Matveyevlcb Bogatov. Subordinate units of Wlsnut ere called "Objekte" and,ule, are organisedpecific purpose: soma are sdaBusf, combinesumber of aloe shaftsocal area; sone are mine development projects which build fee ill ties, sink new shafts, extend drifts,ox* are concentrating plants; acne are engaged in naming machinery end tools.
Vlsaajt has opened and developed apprexinatoly LOO shafts ln Ccrnanyrations accan In IS06. Tbo iraUvidual araf ta, ox ndsoa, are too nur-oroua to lint In tola tost, but tbo rain ninias
objects ore aa
ojc re oro taat
Wlsaut has nlnod solely for uramun. Until recently, thoro una no stlerpt node to uttllxe tho Oliver, cobalt, blsnuth, alckel, and other ores which wore nlncd alone ulth uraniua, oroj theso other ores uoro all thrown on hujo mate pilna.
Wnlng rxrthoda which are fairly etandard for working hard rock vein-typo depoeitB aro uced ty wiaoari. he oro la BUltablo for dlroct ahlpocnt to the lISoS,rcat doal of the caterlals ia of such low erode that this la lasractlcablc. This latter oaterlal oust be concentratedrode of ater cent or acre uranlua cotal before bolnc shipped. Irlasnit baa, at present, einht conein- plants which process lov-craco oro. These plants arei t Lancenfeldjt Taonanbcrgnthal; lactoryft Gitleraoc/lfreadeni rectoryft Froital/pjecdon; t JeJionnECorcenatadtj Factoryf Objectt Obexschlcaa;, at Aue; and, et IvUxan/'Cresaca.
orkers aro ennloyod by Iflacutj at looater cent of then Ccrtana. Eocoueo production baa Increased atoadlly through the years, it ln tellovod that Vlaaut la currently producing ot ita peak, Production will probably continue at the present level for the next three or four years before declininc slowly.
(1) Ore ceposttoThe uraniua deposits In Chechoslovakia are important source of Soviet uranism. The present output ia abouter cent of tho total estimated production by-the QjSBu. Unlike East Cenrany and the other Satellites, ndrdr,'- and supervision is performed by the Csoohs. Tho Soviets are continuing to rake crest efforts to increase this output and have initiated extensive prospecting and dovolojnent programs. Prospecting oporatloro havo extended throughout Csccheolovakie.
Tne Soviets took over tho uranium mines la CMchoolovakda before At thatecret agracrant was node botwecn the Soviet Covernmoct and tbe Czech Prlao Stinistcr Flerlinger vheroby the Soviet Government would supervise the exploitation of tho ijohegjsn uranlun nance and tako tho entire output, returning to Czechoslovakia port or ell of tho recovered radium. Operations were started in tho old uranlun nines of JaChymov, located on tbo Czech side of tho Ersgobirge. Tho orploltstion was soon extended to tho surreurding area and now includes the towns of Vejpriy, Abertosy, Potucky, Soify, Eesi Dcr, Durricrg, Kariacrlasrun, andmore. esult of vary intensive exploration programs, now uranium ndnlng areas at Pribram, Borni-Slavkov, ISarianste Lasno, Drnoul Trutnov,umber of onallcr areas have been opened up inolovakia.
Corporation11. That orgsnisation, at least at tlie higher levels, is Jointly administered. The Soviets, however, have virtually ccerplote control of tho corporation as most of the Oxecb officials aero chosen
asis of thoir cccperation uitbB and ccccunlal party taambcr-sbip. Tho individual renins areas are under tho control of separate enterprises collod "Inspectorates". The following arc the knownwith their area of operation i
I and II eren the area around Jachjaov. These areaecond sent Important producer. The principal mines Innd II ara tha hratrstvl,ndvornoBt,ndsrlanaka, Eduard, aobunll, Barbara, Era, and Uevno.
Inapeotorate VI la locatad at torn! Klevkov. At present, this Inspectorate la the largest producer la Csechoalovukia. The principal nines in this Inspectorate ara Frokop, Barbara, Svetoplei, Leeelce, Zdar But, Minesa,
a located ot Prlbraa, Itnail aaount
Tbet Trutnov Is still In production. Probably aostly low-grade aatarlal la handled here froa eedlseatery deposits.
Other Inspectorates about which little la known and which are probably ssmOI produeere are tbe Inspectorate et Merleaeka Lasae aad the Inspectorate at ZTolen.
Tha aethod of elnlag and handling tbe ore In CaechoaloTakla la nearly tha sane aa In Cornany. rticb of the higher grade ore Is sent to tho Vykmnncv and tfjedek oollactlon and shipping depot where It Is crushed, sampled, blended, and pack ad for ablpaant to the OSS P. The lev-grade ore le sent to concentrating pleats located et the Bratrstvl and the'.na* In Jachyaov. All these plantseceaalcel coBcactratloa aethod oaly. At the present tiae, thereo be so chemical concentration pleat In operation by tbe Jachyaov Mines aatloaal Corporation. Tbe aecbanloal proceeding aethod used Is alnllar to'that followed by Ulsaut. Tbe grads of the ccnoentratMleer oeot uranlun natal, Aa developaont and production IccreeJs, otherplants say be established la the torn) Slavkov and Pribram areas.
It Is aetlaated that00 persons are engaged In uraaiua alnlng operations In Csechoalovakla. lga Hiortion of the laborers are Caeca political prisoners.
d. Bulgarian Sources
(1) Ore depositsThe uranlun depoalts In Bulgaria are of alnor laportanoe and,roduced5 per cent of the estimated
total UTaalua obtained by tbe USSR In that year. The deposits beingthis tlae are composed eostly of secondary uraalua alnerala whichaa thin coatings along fissures or ere disseminated throughoutertain snoont of deep mining Bay cow be taking place froa the
Tb*aportant uraalua deposit In Bulgaria Is located la tbe old leed alnlng area or Co tan Peak, near tbe sonestary of Bubovo, northeast of Sofia. Iahe Soviets ccatleued tbe feraer German exploitation of thie area, later, exploitation of other areas, such as thoss ln the vicinity of Streleha and Ihtlean, was begun. Prospeotlng operations and alnlng are also undarvayuebar of other locations.
(2) OperationsThe uranlua alnlng operations lo Bulgariaby tbe Soviet-BUlgarlan Hialag Ccmpany. Hast of the ore novla low grade and Is concentrated before being shipped to theis only one well-known ore concentrating plant In Bulgaria whichat tha site of the bubovo mine. The or* Is cbeBleallyaa acid lead. Same of the ore la reported to be band-sorted aad doesfurther concentration before being sent to the OSSR, but it ismost of It lo quite low grade and la first oonoantrsted by tha Tha eoneentrate produced probably containser centla satlaatad that0 persons ars engaged laope rati ore io
c. follsh Sourceo
( Ore depositsThe uraalua deposit- in Lower Sllsela In Poland are of minor Importanceoviet source of uranium, sad constituteder cant of the total produced by Lb* Soviet*
Soviet uranium mining operations ware Initiated la Poland isut lntanslve developnent did not really begin until Tbe initial development was in the Sbvary area (tbe old Sebaledeberg area exploited by tbe Germans) where uranium was produoed before the war, and activities have spread to areasround Jslsea Ceraaedalaakanlenae Coraldeeberg) Stroaie Slaskletc.
Explorationlso ondtnn* Id other areas, batill seems to be tbe sain producing area.
Tbe aruciua deposits la Poland are smell fissure veins oonslstlng. In see* eases, of mertiUe Iron ore with associated pitchblende. Other veins contain barlte and aolonlte with sosie arenJun minerals. The extent of the olnerelioatlon appears to bs ace>evbat limited but tbe thoroughness with which tbe Soviets exploit th* deposits, reaardless of cost, maymall quantity for aeveral yean. Tbe quality of tbe ore produced le not definitely known but la aaauned to be the sane aa that produced In bast Geraany.
(2) OperationsThe Soviet uraniumf operations in Poland are similar ta those in seat Caraany. Coceemtratlmg plants are believed to ba operating at Mledalaaka and Ogoraaleeori bach). Tbe type or procaes used In thaae plants is not definitely known, although lt Is reported that the plant near Ogorsalsoechanical separation process.
The uranium mining operations in Poland are administered by tbe Lower SUealan Mines, levary. This is believed toover organisatloo alailar to Wlamut, In Last Geraany,uch saaller ecale. It Is estiaated thatoorkers are engaged in tbe uranium mining activities In Poland.
f. nVsniilan sources
depositsTbs uranium deposits of Roaanla2 per cent of tbe total produced by the Soviet*a.
Soviet uranium aiming operation, were Initiated inn let* Mining Is presently being carried out in tbe Bala dao Bait* region and probably also at Bala Sprle, Bala Mare, Turou Sevorln and the Calatl
The nramlua depoeita la Boaaala ere email fissure veins ef polyaatallle ainerale with associated pitchblende. Tbe quality of th* ore produced le not known. Probably some of lt is bend sortedlnlsun gradeer cent uranium beforeipped to the USSR.
The Soviet uranlun mining operation. Isprobably similar to those In other satellite countries, although no
Ison th* existence of any concentration plants.
Th* uranium mining operations In komenla are *daini stared by th* Sovruaquarts Company. This la believed to he aorganisation sinller to Wlaaut, In East Oornanj. It Is estimated that0 workers are ongeged In the uranium nlnlrur activities In RcoMuaia.
(1) Or*irad*ag Prorlaee le almllar to tbe sdjaeent Fergana uranlforouJ area of tberanlun deposits of similar variety ande expected la the sandstoaas,nd th* rein deposits of tha mountain* bordering Tail* Hasan Basin. Terr low-grade ores are round in small amounts In pegmatites near ualchoag, Llaotung Province, and aay occur la the tin-tungsten mining region of south China. It Is unlikely that any extensive high-grade depoeita exist In China outside of SI ski eng.
(2} OperationsThe only known uranloe miming operations occur in Slnklang Province. The earliest uranium alnlng began7 under Soviet direction la tbe paanaUte ores or the eastern Altai. Intensive prospecting aadolopekent of tbe red-bed deposits flanking tbe Tien Sena Moumtsins began0 under tbe direction oro-Sovlet Joint stock eoapaayRare Metals Developmentnasebl. 1 low to moderate grade or* was being produced at aa ankaowa rate near Aosu, Druachl, wqsu, Altai, and lasagar.
In4 lt was anaounoed that the Soviet share of all th* Sine-Soviet Joint atock eonxealea will be transferred tohe value of the share to be cnepensated by supplying to th* USSR goods which are Items of usual export from the Chinese Peoples Republic. This action is unlike that in the reet of tbe satellites. In which all Joint stock conpanlee except those mining aremlun were returned to th* oontrol of tbe respective
2. Uranium Metal
Th* first uranium mstalt Klektroetel, near
Koaoow,aboratory scale. Subsequentlywas constructed at
or urealub metal production onseal* using ores
ud otwatn.Ua iron too setsuitt asaa iron toe
productionantlj after tha uranlaa alnlng em-anslon which beganll tha uranlua consumed la tho soviet ateailo energy program cane freer elektrostal. owever, no axpensloa of the qaktrostal uraalua refinery baa been reported, aad it-is"-reported uraalua or* la ahlpped to acvoslblrsk for refli, .
1 large processing pleat at lord imbed, operated by coeblnerobably produces blah-grade concentrates, and *ay be eoulpeed teranlua salt free local ore*. it la doubtful, however, that uraniun natal la produced by coablne 6. f the process used at elektrostal ere not definitely hnovo;
hydrofluoric acid, euro calclun, and oxalic acid hava been sent to thin
factory, froa which It aay ba assused that an oxalic acid cooceriiretioe
or purification process Is used followadonversion to uraalua telrafluorlde
and reduction to uranluB aelal by tha calclun procaaa. Pur* oalclun for this
reduction waa produced at Blttarfald, Ine paragraph
ad aay now be producedledlar plant ln the USSR, thereo evidence
that uranlua extraction with organic solvent* le se-aloyed In the BSS.1.
Little la knowninternal Soviet operation* concerned with alnlng or processing ores of these eleaents. Hovevar, tho first active Interest lnrimary ore of thoriim containing ooae urenlun, van noted in5 when Auer CesaUachaft stocks vere removed fron Garoauy te tbe USSR, an aoUvo snadU progroai was believed to bave startedad euboequrntly lcleoae xocaslte silnjng under unuoual security was noted et sou* Vacuo aonasltv depoalts. In fiorthoaf known as tb* loeatloo of rich BOnsslU placers, node rate acaailt* ainlaf be ranot* rial flednd ceatleued at Mae locations through the Tortaa ear to the present tin*. The seoaslte is chipped to thead nothlnf Isone em In* processing of the ore. It la believed, on th*of Horth 'eraan activities, that tbe l'3SB ha: ecciaaulntedstocks of cnnasltc or Ha product*.
borylllua ccmpoundo have several important applications In aa Steele
energy program, including reactors, swtaUurgical refractories and weapons,
There lo evidence fron Soviet ore processing activities which usy be Interpreted sj Indicating atonic energy lntereat ln beryllluat however, partlculsr utilisation of this Baterlal has not boon established. In any cant, eurreot Sovietof beryllium appears to be sufficient to support rcs.onacie rcqulrcoenla for atomic energy purposes. Ihe bcryllion industry in the OSSB startad, and, es an Indication of Its developseot. It le fcrcvn that oaaslderabls Soviet effort In research has been exnended Id attempting to eliminate or lessen tbe health ha sard- connected with it. airly Lire beryllium plant le located at rnl'cbuglno, Tlsdlnirakaya Otlast. At nines ln the Orals, aboutlles north
or Sverdlovsk, emeralds axe aquamarine* are found In tbe beryl ore. There ere eight large elnn la thij regloa end bardrods of scall ores. All of toco* wines have doaps which probably contain largoof low-grade berylon-Eoa quality. Beryl also occurs ia vidcapreed cepsatltes in the Altai, Pamirs, and TSea Shan eouaUlns. Aa Important oeposlt ia located in the trona-uaiJcal area atora whore boryl is produced in quantity. Beryllium production ofan be expected to exceedons annually and tbe rWOTvOi can be assumed to be very
Utilising aeUllurglcel processes developedyin the USSR, the Soviet* at least0 need high puritythe preparation of pile grade natallle urenlua. Between the springC whee production was discontinued, large Quantities of+ pure) andure) calcium were procured In' last Germany foratomic energy progrnr-. There la also evidence which Indicates thatnay havealolua distillation plant operation within thethere Is no direct evidence of the specific Rotallurglca
procoas in use in the USSR sloes the termination of Coman calolua production. It la noted thnt tbo distilled calcium do at from this source would be sufficient to support the Sovirt plutoslum production prorrac prior lo
The quantities of raw ami distilled onlciuoromRfBH I*
There naveew low-grade reportsltterfeld that the USSR pinna to change froa calcium lo aagaeslum for tho reduotloa of uranium to natal. It seems unlikely that thena reports are correct In their Indication an the Soviets already have an Industry and tho industrial "know how" for the use of calcium.
Tbe Soviets currentlyarge synthetic graphite Industry. During -orld Var II andlx* afterward the CSJR, laportod substantia- quantities or fraphitaho Vest. Informntlom on Soviet research, moreover, Indicate*
b Ceo 73
e capability to produce reactor-grade graphite. Thero le also reason to believe that Ifo highestnoun erode of Sovietfrephlte ucildatlifaetorya zoderstor end that substantial quantities of thisare available. heavy Water
heavy water (DpO, dsaterian orfde) Is highly effleleat sod*rateruclear reactor. Prior to the war, the OSS* conducted receerch on heavyas did every other major power. ormlsilon on Heavy Water was eatabllahed in the Academy of Sciences (later nxpanded to the Coenlsnlonaotopeo). nit under the Msarshevsl Institute of Physical Chenjatry at Dnepropetrovsk Installed'-ilpeent, to produce heavy water by electrolysisery snail scale, ot the &nnpr ban.
At the Conference on Isotopes Int which tha program for the Ace on/ciences In the field of atoele energy wou determined, it wad decided to build at the Chirealk nitrogen Plant nearilot plant capable of producing epproxlaatelyg of pure DsO per year, aa aacunt sufficient only for la bo rater; capcrlaentatlon. A. I. Prods VI1 wrote4 that this pilot pleat wax not yet la operation. l the rlsarshovskl Institute at laiepropetrovak was overrun by thend the scientists, together with suae si nor equipment, were evacuated. Toward the end of tho.eputy chief engineer of the ChlrcMk flltrofen Coablne, with the aid Of engineers ofariation on the >ieaag hydrogen eleotrolyser apwclfloally for producing by-produet heavy water. Slnulteneoualy, work uaa done on the ohyalcal chonlstry of eleotrolylle hydrogen cello et the Institute of Physicalnl L, Is. karpov In Moscow.
Following the war tbo Soviets snowed conildersbLe Interest In Cerunn research In the production of heavy water. Tbo principal Cemnn pilot plant was located In the leuna Vorki at Xerseburg. Innder the auspices of theumber of Individuals specialising In heavy water were atseablod et Leuna under thef Dr. Bcrold. This group drafted tho preliminary plana of an tljS-KyO exchange plant capable of producing five toss of heavy weter per year. Vpon tbe conpletlon of these plans, the Lcuna croup was evacuated to
tha USSR on nerold end hie topere housed In the veil town of Bebjschkln noar J'oscov. Tbeae people worked at the Institute of Physical Cheaietry liseni L. la. Farpov untilhen they wore sent to Kubo-.haote ln tha Ukraine. It Is believed that at this Una theuncen with the Soviet heavy water projeet vou teralnuted and that it uaa detailed lo do engineering work or. the construction of th" Uoiahatisk Kltrogen Plsnt. Whether or not the Soviet constructed anxchange plant Is unknown.
Ia the aseatlae, the Soviets adopted the sotbod of obtaining heavy watery-product fron the synthetic aassonla Industry. Tha electrolytic cells at the Chlrchik Nitroeea Ccohine were refitted end the planthole expanded. Electrolytic hydro fer. units were installed at tbe 'lrovikan, lawprodsershlask, ard Cerlovka Kitrogeo plaats. Famufscture of eleotrolyicrs for these units ecesaanccd In6 at toe Orals Chealcal Hschine Factory near Sverdlovsk. It Is thought that the Chlrchik Nitrogen Mast slartod to produce heavy water eoaetlaout the other plants wore not put into oporotlon until0 or' It la believedapacity of at leastons par year baa been achieved. 9. Llthiuu
The quantities of llthlua available to ths Sovlats are very likely sufficient to supply all of their needs, lacludlng that required for ctcele energy purposes. The principal plant isR for raw llthlua production Is located at Xovoslblrak in the Central Slberlaa Area (see frontispiece asp).
The heavy aanda also contain air can. Therefore, the exploitation of heavy sand deposits say be an indication of Soviet plana for the useecalls
asstructural material for reenters, particularly for power types. The sircomioa oontent of the heavy sard deposits belrE worked le large, end recovered ZrOj ae ofmj be el much0 Other Hetarlels
It Is not possible frosi eotlseteeJTJf the-eWwnlc resouress of the soviet Onion to define the quantities of various Msontlsl materials ublob are allocated for atonic energy pnrpoeee. It Is believed, however, that qaa&tltlea of basic materials such as structural and-Stalnlsss steal, alualnuB, nickel, chaalcals aad the like required for atomic energy purposes would representnail percentage of the total Soviet capacity for producing such naterlala and would not Ispose any burden on the basic Soviet economy, for eaaaple, lt la not considered likely that any unusual difficulty would be encountered In supplying tbe quantity of acid required to process tbong recovered.
I. lxc^actlca ofMaterials
1. Soviet pluteolun production
The USSR bee produced two foraa of^issicoablo notorial In quantity. One la tbe Isotope of uraalua baring an etoalc weight.
end the other le the eyathetic element plutcnlun Theplutoniu* progrea nrogee-
eed ease rapidly than therogrea eo ttat plutonlun vea the first neelooable anterlal produced ln the HOT.
Xnforaatlon on tbe availability of uraniun, tbe tine tablo oftbe else of faciutlee, total reactor power level, end tbe quantity of heavy water available for reactor use provide the baale for th* following Of the cuaelatlve Soviet plutooluo stockpile: pate
H undertook an erteoalv* reeeerch prcexeai on Isotope separation concurrently with research for tbe reactor prograa, Corson scientists assisted in this progrea and carried out specific pro>eta relating to tb* gaseoussad eiectrcoeanetic preceasco as well as ether aetbeds. Thef the progran was denoostratad by the useeapon tested lnee also esailoyed In weapon teeted during3* test Production of urealas probably first accoapllshed by tbe eleetrcesupaetlc setbod of Isotope separation. Production by th* gaseous diffusion netbod followed later.
Information co Soviet research oe specific Isotope seperetlccthe tine table of oe-velopaeota indicated Cy tests sad site coostruetlce,
estimated availability of electric power st approprlato alto*,sod tbe sstlceted production of nickel wire aeah provide the basis for the following estimates Of the cunulatlve Soviettockpile.
j. ftppll cations
It la obvious from tho series ol atonic weapons toots3 and lSSti, that tho aajor objective of tho Soviet atonicoe ran has hewn sod continues to ba tbs build-up ofarga_str<kplleasdly of atonic bcasxa as quickly aa possible.
It Is considered" aost unlikely that the Soviets would try to produce rediosctlve Isotopes forwarfare' as Oils would Dot be tbe neat ef fectlve ndlitary use of their uranium resources* However, there is evidence frifli Soviet scientific literature that radioactive isotopes havo boon produced for bracer and for nodical purpose. Mhlle It is poesibla to make these Isotopes with particle Accelerators, it is ouch sjapler to oaks than asof ails operation and it Is presoaed that these aaterlals are such by-products.
subaarinos and planes wccld add Iiiiiii piibMj to the
USSR nllitary potential, and research along these lines has been noted* No ovidsnos of definite acccapliahmonto in tha develcpsientower reactor havon other than tho0 KW industrial power reactor to which More political than technical significance has been attached.
Conu-Zi'iJ on Sources
fhacb at too Infcmvrtico oo welU tela Sectionbooed boa bees obtained frca tbo following typee or sources:
1. ficturaed Gercan uad Japanese POtfa;
and Satellite directors;
4. Opencleatiflc publications as well as newspaper* andotates I* j
J. ent loco, principal lj egoloat Satellite uraniun nloing enterprisaa;
6. Trip reports by Xabasey perscssoel and other US travelers.
It ohould aloo be noted that tbs tnovledge of tacv successful tbe OSSB bas been ln oepioooen eeoinsttbe Wert has base an iojxartent factor la eatlaatlns tbe status of tbe Soviet atonic energy progism- Tbe Facts' dioclosuroa Indicated the Soviota were folly aware,3 of tbe United Statoo-Onited alnbste-Ceacdlaa operations in atomic energy, end bad emdo plaaii for penetration. Information frets tbe Canadian investigations, tbe Pucbo' disclosures, end all tbo other knowD eoplonoge caaoo, has contributed eiaiiificaetly to our eatlxate of Sorlet knowladga la thlo field.
Inforrotlon collected by the above raratloced acaoa is subject to error and alsinterpretation. Although the information on tha uranlua oltaction in tbe L'atclllUra is based on reasooably detailed end accurate iafornatloo, tbe description* of tbe activities of tbe atonic energy program within tbe USSR are often tbe result of rather breed deductions baaedarge quantity of available peripheral Infontatioe. "
Tee Soviet atomic vca;oeo teste, carried oat3ave provided us vita wryeen of lntelldanoee conoeralae the soviet atonle energy prctfroa. With t'once focto oa hand nuch of the peripheral loforaatloD aad deductions drawe there froa full
lear picture of too course of developanot being folloved ia the Soviet Dnioa. The iaforsatloa concerning these teatsobtained by moans of scientific ectectloe vaich operates at Ions range and against vaica ccuDtea-neeeurcs era difficult. Tbs details of theee lxtcods coae under tho provlsiona of the Atonic Energy Act This scientific eurvetllance iso
IiiforastlOD on Soviet atonic onorey actlvtttes becoaoo sore difficult to obtain, asd nay be coeaioerod of Increasing Importance, es one peeoeo froaactivity throughproduction cf flooionable eaterlals, researchroduct! jo of paapeca, details end types of eemposa stochplled, delivery capabilities, eed intentions.
- It? -Original document.