REPORT OF THE IAC AD HOC GUIDED MISSILE INTELLIGENCE SURVEY COMMITTEE (W/ATTACH

Created: 11/25/1955

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INTELLIGENCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Report of the IAC Ad Hoc Guided Missile Intelligence Survey Committee

Reference*: 959tem 3

Attached is the report of the IAC Ad Hoc Guided Missile Intelligence Survey Committee.

This report has been placed on the agenda of the IAC meeting scheduled

Acting Secretary

Attachment:

APPPCVEB FOBATS: 6

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TirRODOCTIOH

The Ad Hoc Guided Klaalle. Intelligence Survey Committee was organized ln accordance withated Comadtteo members were nominated by each member agency of the Intelligence Advisory Comdttae, (IAC) with exception of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which stated it desired no regular representation* The National Security Agency (NSA) alsossmber upon Invitation extended by tha IAC.

The mission of the Ad Hoc Conrdttee, as stated In

"will be to survey and evaluate thethe U. S. intelligence oomminlty in the field

guided missile intelligence, to include the^

emphasis, guidance and status of coordinationj

existent In this field, andomprehensive report on the state of guided missile intelligence in thend in friendly foreign powers, together with recossaendations aa to IAC action."

In carrying out this mission general inquiry was made into the present status of guided missileinto the operations of guided missile intelligence-producing agencies, into functioning of information-collecting agencies, into the functioning of coordinating groupe and committees, and Into the necessity for increased emphasis on operations in these areas. Each area was reviewed with regard to coverage, emphasis, guidance and status of coordination.

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ach department,

a* Requirements

h_ Huiriaifii* tnrs

To acquaint the Committee with the comunity effort in the guided misslLe field, briefings were given by representatives of the *rny. Navy, Air Force, Joint Staff, CIA, NSA, FBI, State Department, and IAC Coraidtteea concerned. In addition, CIA representatives presented

agency and IAC Committee was asked to brief tho Survey Committee regarding its activities In the field of guided missiles with specific consideration of the following seven as appropriate:

Utilization of community assets

flow of intelligence information

research and analysis

production

In conducting the survey, the Committee was guided by the following Intelligence Directives as they relate to the duties and responsibilities of the various departments and agencies concerned:

national Security Council Intelligence Directiveational Security Council Intelligence Directiveational Security Council Intelligence Directiveational Security Council Intelligence Directiveational Security Council Intelligence Directive No.ational Security Council Intelligence Directive No.irector of Central Intelligence Directive No.irector of Central Intelligence Directiveirector of Central Intelligence- Directive!

Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn by the Committee and are herein presented. Recommendations based upon these conclusions are also submitted.

II. CONCLUSIONS

1* The critical requirements of the coowunity for guided missile intelligence are not at present being satisfied, primarily because of the inadequacy ofavailable.

2. The present collection efforts are inadequate to fulfill stated requirements for intelligence information.

Tu certain new technical methods Ihr collection haveignificant amount of the currently available direct information. This new information is of considerable value and further exploitation of these technical methods holds great promise.

ack of understanding and/or of effective working relationships continues to exist between collectors and consumers, with consequent impairment of both collection and production activities.

and Joint Staff abstain.

6. *A'duplication of effort between the Department of Defense and the CIA exists in the field of operational characteristics of guided missiles, which is contrary to the .provisions of NSCID No.SCID No.nd DC ID No. 3a<

" 7. The present organizational structure is adequate to coordinate the cowminity guided missile intelligence effort.

8. There are deficiencies in the coordination of" intelligence activities which can be rectified by increasing the competence and breadth of participation in the existing coordination mechanisms.

Guided missile intelligence is critically important to national security, and in accordance with NSCID No.esponsibility for this intelligence, in its entirety, must be snared by the entire intelligence ccisRunity.

The present organizational structure is not adequate for efficient and effective coordination and guidance of the community guided missile intelligence effort; this deficiency can most simply be rectified by establishmentoint mechanism with essentially the missions and functions delineated in Tab A.

Force abstains.

JJSndorsed by Army, Joint Staff, NSA, AEC, andby the State Department, Navy, andrepresentatives, with this explanatorythe term "correlating" is interpretedidentification^ it is the opinion ofDepartment, Navy, and Air Forcein order to avoid any possibility ofthe word "identifying" should also beclearly define the area encorpasscd in theof how best to

pertinent to guided missile intelligence.

TH. KoYXMHEHDi

is recoimended that:

1. *The CIA direct its guided missile intelligence analysis efforts to'the field of basic science as* provided by NSC ID No.SCID No.nd DCXD No.

Intelligence on guided missiles^ being of critical importance to national security, be allocated as the production responsibility of all interested agencies, and that those portions ofn conflict therewith be rescinded.

Theuided Missile Intelligence Committeeith responsibility to the IAC for essentially the missions and functions delineated in Tab A.

3. Each agency of the intelligence community examine Its guided missile intelligence program to determine' that it, within the allocation of resources available, reflects the priority accorded this field byi

a. Assignment of adequate numbers of competent personnel to collection, analysis, and coordination, activities.

he GMIC be directed toajor part of its initial effort to actions designed to improve guidance to the collection effort and to the flow of collected information.

Ii. Each agency of the intelligence community, under guidance of GMIC, examine its guided missile intelligence program in the light of itsand, within the allocation of resources available, to determine that it reflects the priority accorded this field by:

a. Assignment of adequate numbers of competent personnel to collection, analysis, and coordination activities.

b. Provision of adequate logistic support to guided missile field collection activities.

Increased esphasis on the development and implementation of more effective techniques for collection of guided missile intelligence.

o. Increased emphasis on the development and Implementation of more effective techniques for the collection of guided missile intelligence.

"Joint Staff abstains.

by Army, Joint Staff, NSA, AEC, and CIA.by State Department, Navy, and Air Force representatives.

which era responsive to his specific need. Each consumer reported that heorsml list of general end specific re qui resents on this subject which gaTS sufficiently wide coverage to seat his needs. Due to the divergent missions of the respective consumers, their needs for Intelligence differ widely. For example, while the CIA requires intelligsnce on bsslc science related to guided missiles, the military consumers require detailed Intelligence on weapons design, performanceand operational estployment.

Each agency has developed within the limitations of Its resources, assets to fulfill its guided missile intelligence requirements. The stated guided missile intelligence requirements of the agendas of the intelligence community are not being fully satisfied at this tine.

examination of theae requirements in dstail to ascertain the completeness of coverage. Questioning of the representatives of the activities under survey by the Committee, however, elicited the fact that only in the most general sense was each activity knowledgeable of the requirements of tha others. This was considered significant in that the needs of the Individual activities varied widely, due to their primary missions and responsibilities, and considerable overlap of needs was indicated. Within tbe limitations of its resources and guided by individual interpretation as to its role in the overall scheme of activities, each activity is developing unilaterally assets to fulfill Its guided missile intelligence requirements. Even so,for guided missile intelligence are not being satisfied at this tims.

C. GUTDAvTE TO

General

Each intelligence production organisation determines its own requirements for intelligence information as needed to support its individual intelligence re qui re nan te and serves then on its own collectors as well as on the other Intelligence cossjunity collection sgencles.

The collection effort, to be strong, virile and effective, must be guidedignificant degree by statements of requirements by the consumers. Tbe complexity and scope of tbe U. S. Intelligence effort complicates the establishment of effective guidance in the guided missile field ss it was brought out to ths CoMnittee that there were at least) activities, with fairly well defined functions, now collecting, evaluating, collating or producing guided sdssile intelligence. Inasmuch as each intelligence

production organisation, having data mined its own needs, serves its reqaireaente on its own collectors as veil as on other Intelligence collectionetter defined coordinative process la required to keep froa confusing the collectors.

It was brought out that the foraulator of requlre-aants Is not always fully able to express requirements to collectors since he does not have an adequateof the collectors' capabilities and limitations. Communications between the analyst and the collector have often been less than required to produce an effective understanding of mutual problems, Intelligence objectives, detailed requirements for Information, priorities, etc.

it Is possible to formulate joint requirements, such formulation haa been performed' and coordinated by several existing organisations, such as:

The Guided Mlssils Working Group (CMWO) of the Joint Technical Intelligence Subcommittee (JTTS)|

the Scientific Estimates Committeehe Economic Intelligence Committeehe Interagency Priorities Committee

nd

It was brought out that there haveew cases where joint requirements have been formulated. Increased activity ln this area would measurably increase the effectiveness of guidance to the collector. Practically all of the joint guidance is contained ln the following examples. ntitled "Technical and Scientific Intelligence Collection" with an enclosure on "High Priority Guided Missile Intelligenceas issued. irst draft of this paper was formulated by joint efforts of CIA andF, and under direction and guidance of the Ouided Missile working Group (GMWO) of JTTS/jCS. Copies of the finished paper were forwarded to CIA and State Departamnt. There was no follow-up made by JTIS as to whether or not action was taken on this paper by the)

hoc TAC NIE post mortem committees.

(Amy, Nevy, Air Pores, Joint Staff, NSA)

AEC, CIA)

coverage of the Individual and Joint requirements, although not complete, has improved as the emphasis on the collection of guided missile intelligence relating

has

With but feu exceptions, the coordination of Joint requirements Is satisfactory.

As the situation now exists, lt is considered that tbe formulation of joint requirements la unsatlafaetory.

was brought out before the Committee that each collection organisation provides peroral and specific guidance to its own collectors. In addition, each specific request for information contains guidance to the collectors. The Armed Forces provide joint (mldsnce to their own and outside agency collectors through the mechanism of the GKUO of JTIS. An example of the coordinated guidance so provided is contained inaper on "Technical and Scientific Intelligence Collection" with an enclosure on "High Priority Guided Missile Intelligence Objectives," opy of this paper was forwarded to CIA and the State Department. Coordinated community puidanoe for collectors la effected through several mechanisms which include the SEC, EIC, USCTB, and tha Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee (JAETC).

It was stated to the Committee that sach organisation possessing assets in the collection field provides general and specific guidance to its own collectors. Furthermore, it was stated that individual agencies exercise the prerogstlve of placing soma of their requirements on the collection activities of other agencies. Also, aa illustrated above, there haveew cases where Joint requirements have been placed on collectors.

The fact as to whether the sum total of individual plus Joint requirements, as currently served on the collectors, completely cover all needs of the community for intelligence information,lear and unmistakable manner, was not proved to the satisfaction of the Minority. An examination into the specifies of theeeds and guidance based thereon to collectors is indicated as one of the first orders of businessuided Missile Intelligence Committee.

Thar* was criticism, expressed by the CIA to tbe effect that no single overall body is providing the control and direction from which eight be obtained better utilisation of collection resources. The organisational structure and authority delegated by lav to the governmental agencies of the U. S. intelligence eoBounity precludes the subordination of Individual agency Intelligence responsibilities to the control and directionupervisory coanlttee. Further, the responsibilities assigned to the, Armed Forces prohibits the military commander frets the dissipation of his Service intelligence assets through actionommittee which cannot share those responsibilities. Therefore, overall coordination is effected on an Informal and advisory basis.

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Existing guided missile committees and pantla * ara bellsTed potentially capable of fulfilling tha

raquirastants for intre-eommunity coordination onguided missile collection natters. Over-coordination

can well result in the dilution of collection projects

designed for specific purposes.

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Existing guided alaslie coord Insting committees and groups are not believed potentially capable of fulfilling tbe requirements for Intra-community coordination on guided missile collection matters unless the charter of one such group waa asendsd to give it essentially the functions and missions as delineated In Tab A.

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S. UTILIZATION OF* COMMUNITY ASSETS

Briefings presented to the CoBBlttee revealed that the allocation of intelligence assets' to tha field of guided missiles by the Air Force, NSA, and CIA reflects the priority accorded guided missiles. However, in comparison with the programs of the Air Force, NSA, and CIA, those of the Army and Navy are quite small and appear to be inadequate in the areas of evaluation and analysis.

collection services of each aeency have been shown to be responsive to requirements levied by the other membera of the intelligence community, and existing committees such as the JTIS, SEC, EIC, IPC represent focal points for coordination of the various facets of lntra-agency collection requirements.

The OKWQ of JTTS serves ss the msohanisn for the informal coordination of guided missile intelligence within the intellipence community. Although organised within the JCS structure, the group supports the entire community through associate membership on the part of civilian agencies. At present CIA and NSA are so represented.

In addition, the GHVC serves ss the coordinating group in the preparation of scientific and technical estimates and studies in the guided missile field, under the guldence of JTIS. Although these estimates and studies areilitary nature, Intended for use of the Department of Defense, the vieva.of the civilian agenclea are considered during the preparation of the paper.

The collection services of each sgency have demonstrated more or leas satisfsctorily their responsiveness to requirements levied by the other members of the intelligence community. The responsibility for lntar-agency coordination of-these requirements is currently split between four groups;TISBC, EIC, snd IPC, as followst

The OMWG of JTIS is tbe only permanent lnter-servlce group whose responsibilities and functions lie wholly within tbe guided missile field. This is comprised of one member each from the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Membership from other IAC activities is not permitted under JCS regulations, and representatives from these eetivities attend OMWG nestings as observers only. It was stated to the Committee that this group had functioned satisfactorily in the past, and could continue In tbe future to furnish all necessary coordination and guidance required between all consumers and most all collectors. The minority Committee opinion, however, is that this group has very rarely attempted needed Jobs ofbut rather meets only ss an Informal group, with no fixed agenda, to discuss new evidence and what the evidence may mean. Even in this group, important

[Should the occasion arise wherein aor Btudy ie to be used ln the preparationEstimate and the civilian agency viewconsidered to the satisfaction of suchto have such view folly consideredthrough the mechanism of the SEC. and technical estimates or studiesuse are reviewed by that

esignates the Scientific Estimates >nmitteeermanent inter-departmental Committee 'tojihtegrate scientific and technical intelligenceaej' production of national Intelligence andtimulate and guide inter-agency liaison and such ^working-level conferences as may be appropriate. The FSEChas the specific authority to designate "such 'additional persons as may be* ether, jwlpi^qualified to discuss or.reportarticular ^subject under consideration by thend J

"asjaetually designated such persons on ad hoc basis ljto|deal with the subject of guided missile intelligence,

.The ETC recentlyuided missile forking group,rial basis, for the purpose of 'drawing up requirements and developing intelligence jrelative to the various economic implications ofd missile problem; .

*Ai'r Force abstains.

T

"The Committee believes there exists sooe 1cation of effort among members of the community. An example of this is the CIA, whereesources appear to have been diverted fromrimary responsibility in the field of basic science, and'applied to the CIA Guided Missiles Division.

not been

fully.snouxa aiso db noxsa 'that by charter this group is limited to the scientific and technical field/*and no-responsibility'is assigned nor implied for consideration or action in tbe.economic or or operational areas of missiles.

The SEC, formed by the IAC under DC IDa rather narrow charter. This, committeewith integrating departmental scientificintelligence for the production ofand with stimulating and guidingliaison and such working-level conferencesbe appropriate. This committee handlesguided missile scientific and technicala part of its overall responsibility. The SECspecific authority to designate "suchas may be technically and otherwisediscuss or reportarticular subjectby thend has ondesignated ad hoc groups to deal withand production of guided missile

The Economic Intelligence Committee (SIC) was formed by Directive9ith responsibility to the IAC for coordination and guidance in collection and production of intelligence in the economic area. On the basis of this responsibility, the ETC formed an ad hoc Guided Missile Working Group in the Spring This group did some preliminary constructive work in the economic area. Although its charter expiredix-month period, the group is still functioningrial basis.

The reoponflibilities assigned to this Division includeoperational aspects of guided mlssils Intelligence 'whichuplication of the assigned responsibilitieshe Department of Defense.

' "

Although some refinement in techniques and shift in emphasis Is desirable, the utilisation of existing community guided missile intelligence assets appears generally satisfactory and in consonance with tbe policies set forth in DCTD 3A.

T. LATERAL FLOW

The complex organisationalof allthe intelligence coamunity plus theby security considerations represent theto the complete and rapid lateral flowmissile intelligence and Intelligenceprocedures exist in the Tsrlous servicesfor tbe sanitisetion of sensitiveto general dissemination, there areinherent in such procedures. Thest times lossa some value through theprocess, although procedures are designedto keep such lossinimum.

(Amy, lavy, Air Force, Joint Staff. USA)

.av-;

^Established coordinating agencies (JTTS, SEC,BIC/ate.') guide tha lataral flov of guided missile Intelligence and Intelligence Info mat Ion and serve to expedite the processing and release of ridlsseminated-lnfornetion whenever tha availability such lnfonaation benown to the group.

AEC, CIA)

INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

The CoBDDittee recognises tbe fact that little direct lnfonnatlon is available, therefore, greater emphasis must be placed on the research and analysis of lov grade or secondary information. The AF, NSA, and CIA have recognised this need and Increased their analytical staff. The Army and Navy have adopted vary limited measures to increase exploitation of this secondary source.

analysis phase pr Intelligence production appears to be satisfactorily coordinated and directed within each agency. Desirable informal coordination between analysts takes placeontinuous operational processommunity-wide basis.

Present coordination between agencies is not of such Quality or completetveas that the community can be assured either that there is not undesirableor that all avenues of approach are being exploited. Other than through informal liaison and coordination, which, as primary means of guidance, are conaldered

(Agreed)

H. PRODUCTION

ABC, CIA)

unsatisfactory where so many agencies are involved, only the SEC and the EIC act to inform the community "as to activity in this field. The SEC publishes for the community an Annual Report of the Status of Scientific end Technical Productionhe EIC publishes an Annual Report of Internalxternal Economic Research Projects on the Sino-Sovist Bloc. Neither Commit tea, however, makes anyas to duplication in the community's overall guided missile program.

The production of guided missile Intelligence is below the minimum requirements of the community. For the nost part, this has resulted" from insufficient collection of information.

It should be noted that much or afi lnaivrauairoduction is designed to meet theof that agency only. Guidance and coordination are in such instances effected within the agency concerned. The degree of dissemination of this production to the community for its information was not established.

H The Committee believes that thisrpanliatloc la adequate and that no additional guiding or coordinating aechanlsa ia required.

fa the production of national estimates and studies guidance and coordination are effected through the SEC, ETC, JAE1C. The IAC and other agency representatives to the Board of National Estimates can also act to influence the product. It la believedingle, qualified community group could handle tha initial production aspects with greater ease and beetter position to more expertly advise the Board in the final discussion of the national estimate.

top secret]

TAB Is considered unnecessary in view of our Conclusion that the present organisational structure is ^adequate to coordinate the community guided missile effort.

DRAFT

Director of Central Intelligencestablishment of Guided TO33lie Intelligence ConroJttee

to the provisions of NSCID Nos. 1and for the purpose of strenghtening theintelligence structure andield critical to the nationalpermanent Guided Missile Intelligence Committeehereby established under the Intelligence The Committee shall be composed of onealternates from the CIAj The Department of Statej

the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Forcej The Joint Staff; The Atomic Energy Coamissionj the Federal Bureau of Investigation! and tho National Security .flgency.l/ Additionally, the Committee should include such ad hoc representation as may be required. The Chairman and Secretariat will be provided by CIA,

mission of the Committee will beguided missile intelligence. To thisresponsibilities of the GMIC will include

a. Providing recommendations for the over-all . coordinated guidance and support to the

to MSA acceptance of an IAC invitation

(army, sttvy, air force, joint staff, nsa)

at* 1

tab a

abc, cia) .

('

guided missile intelligence effort andxercise such guidance as is authorized by the iac;

b* recommending new techniques for the collection and analysis of guided missile intelligence;

continuing, coordinated ments to the collectors;

the means to be establishedavailable to the participating agencies

ll guided missile intelligence information;

. ev planning and coordinating intelligence research'according to the ccwmunityts capabilities and '. needsj

t: review and coordination of intelligence on guided missiles produced to serve aaut ions to national intelligence estimates "and national intelligence surveys;

production of coordinated intelligencen guided missiles to be published under gmic rubric;

roviding staff support when required by the iac with respect to international conferences and planning in guided missile intelligence.

.3^ the ghic, jafjc, the sec, the eic, and the ipc* shall mutually assist each other in the accomplishment of their respective missions.

portion represents the only change in the document.

Original document.

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