Created: 8/18/1955

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Office of Current Intelligence



Office of Research and Reports CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY



This reportondensationetailed analysis of the production, refining, distribution, and consumption of crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products in Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII of the USSR.

Although the report contains only the data and informationa clear concept of the economic importance of the petroleumRegions IX, XI. and XII and its relation to the Soviet economy,results of the detailed study are available (see

This report is oneeries of regiona^analyses of the Soviet petroleum industry in thc postwar period.




Summary .

I. Introduction

II. Exploration and Production

A. Areas of Operation

Sakhalin Island (Economic Region

Siberia (Economic Regions IX and


2. Natural Gas



Natural Crude Oil Refineries 8. Synthetic Refineries . . . .

IV. Distribution

Region IX

Region XI

I. Flow of products to the. Flow of Products within the Region

Region .





of Products to thc

of Products within thc

of Refinery Production

of Products lo the

of products within thc

V. Civil


A, Communis'.



B- North

VIII. Capabilities, Vulnerabilities, and


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Appendix A. Refining and Processing Facilities

for Petroleum Products in Economic

Regions IX. XI, and XII of thc

Appendix B. Civil Consumption of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII

of the

Appendix C. Principal Petroleum Storage Facilities

and Pipelines in Economic Regions IX. XI.

and Xll of thc

Appendix D.

Appendix E. Gaps in

Appendix F Source


Production of Crude Oil on Sakhal in Island

in Economic Region XII of Ihc USSR.

Estimated Annual Civil Consumption ol petroleum

Products in Economic Regions IX. XI. and Xll

of the USSR.4

J. Estimated Petroleum Shipments to Communist Chin* through Economic Regions IX. XI. and Xll

of the USSR.

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and Distribution of Crude Oil in Economic

Regions IX, XI, and XII of the USSR. 4


and Distribution of PetroleumEconomic Regions IX, XI. and XII of the USSR.

Crude Oil Charges to Refineries

in Economic Region XII of the USSR.

Consumption of Petroleum Products-

in Economic Region XI of thc USSR. .


Estimated Civil Consumption of Petroleum Products in Primorskiy Kray in Economic Region.XJI of the USSR,

Crude Oil Storage Capacity onin Economic Region XII of the USSR

Identified Facilities for the Storage of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII of thc USSR .

Identified Crude Oil Pipelines in Economic Regions IX,

XI. and XII of the

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EconomicX. XI. and XII o( ihe USSR. Ihc economic divisions of Siberia and the Soviet Far East, are deficient in both crude oil resource* *nd refining capacity. More than three-fourth* of thc total petroleum requirements of these regions must befrom petroleum-producing centers in other parts of the USSR. The petroleum economy of the area is important, however, because the majority of Soviet exports of petroleum lo Communist China either originate in or past through ,t. Thus the Iransportation of petroleuma major problem in these eastern regions.

Commercial production of crude oil in Ihe area i* limited to Sakhalin Island, where piod'j.iion has increased fromillion metric6 lo aboulillion ton* Thisis small in corneal ison with thc increases in other petroleum-producing areas, for thc geologic siruclures of the oilfields arc not conducive to any significant or rapid increase in production.

Although there are great potentialorthern Siberia, the recent curtailment of oil exploration in several areas of Siberianlikely that any important new oil deposits will be developed

Thc estimates andn this report represent (he best judgment of ORR as

Thc term region in this reporl refers to the economic regions de -fined and numbered on CIASSR: Economic Regions

Tonnages areons throughout this report.

there in thc foreseeable future. Approximately half of the crude oil produced on Sakhalin is supplied to the two refineries in Region XII. The remainder is exported to Communist China, is consumed as fuel, or is processed in the small topping plant on Sakhalin.

The only crude oil refineries in the eastern regions areKhabarovsk and Komsomol'sk, both in Region XII. Theseproduced betweenillion andillion tonB ofproductsbout twice8 production of less5 million tons. The increase in output is the result of ancontinuous supply of crude oil, made possible by thethe pipeline from Sakhalin to the mainland and by shipmentsUral-Volga area. In recent years the Komsomol'sk refineryon the production of Such important military productsjet fuel, aviation gasoline, and special diesel fuel for nuo UV"

In thc second halfynthetic liquidnear Irkutsk, began commercial production of motorkerosine, and diesel fuel. This plant was originallyto produce aviation gasoline. The apparent change-In"opera-may reflect the great deficit in civil requirements forthe region or may indicate that construction of all elements of*has not been completed. If this plant reaches the-typeoperation originally designed, it will contribute significantly'to the-capabilities of'

The total civil consumption of petroleum products InI. and XII increased from aboutillion tone0illion tons Approximatelyillion tons from other areas The USSR is eeeking-todeficit of petroleum products in Siberia byecond unit at Combinend the planningewinery at Irkutsk.

The Trans-Siberian Railroad is the principalfacility for-the-STippIy^ and distribution of petroleum to and within these reglona-as well'as to Communist China. The loss of the rail system-wool'd?comptetely/dieYupt

the petroleum economy of Siberia ami the Far Eaet. The oilfield* on Sakhalin and the refineries at Komsomol'sk and Khabarovsk alsoa major vulnerability. hange-over at Combineo theof aviation gasoline and increased production of jet fuel at the Komsomol'sk refinery, at the expense of other light products, could be an indication of Sino-Soviet Bloc military intentions.

I. Introduction.

This report is designed to present an integrated analysis of all. phases of the petroleum industry in Economic Regions DC (WestI (Eastnd XII (Far East) of the USSR in order to contribute to an accurate understanding of,ound basis for the evaluation of, tho Soviet petroleum industryhole.

Production of crude oil east of the Ural Mountains is limited to. Sakhalin Island, where4illion.tona, orercent of the total production of Ihe USSR. U* were produced. Two. crudo oil refineries are located in Region XII,"at Komsomol'sk4and. Khabarovsk,arge synthetic fuel installation at Irkutsk, The petroleum industry, in the industrial complex of the areahole, is very minor and cannot begin to supply the-area requirements for petroleum products, but the dependency of CommonietChina upon petroleum imports from the USSR, moat of which originate-In or pass through these regions,reat strategic importance to petroleum facilities of all kinds In Regions DC,nd XH.

icrially numbered source references, see Appendix-F.

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II. Exploration and Production.

A. Areas of Operation.

I. Sakhalin Island (Economic Region XII).

Thc production and exploration operations on Sakhalin Island arc under the direction of the Far East Oil Associationhich has its headquarters at Okha and is subordinate to the Chief Directorate of Crude Oil Production of Eastern Areas. 2/ Thc Association includes two production trusts thc Sakhalin Oil Trustnd the Katangli Oil Trust- and one explorationhe Far East Oil Prospecting- in addition to several auxiliary trusts and organizations for handling related operations. 6/ Thc Far East-Oil Association alsomall topping plant in Okha. which supplies some of thc fuel requirements of the Association and of other local consumers. 7/

All of the producing oilfieldsthe northeastern coast of the island. Thc largest group of fields, including Okha, Ekhabi, and Eastern Ekhabi, is under thc Sakhalin Oil Trust. 8/ The Katangli oilfield, which became the Katangli Oil Trust/ lies about

iles south of Okha. The productive formations do not lie at very great depth in any of the producing fields, usually less

meters.f Most of the important prospecting areas and new oilfields currcnlly under development arc located near the coast between Okha and Katangli.

At thc present time the Ekhabi and Eastern Ekhabiare the most important fields, not only because they produce most of thc Sakhalin crude oil. but also because of thc high quality of the Ekhabi crude oil. * Because of its high Quality. Ekhabi crude oil probably is nol consumed as fuel in the fields. Most of it is sent to the refinery atnd some is exported to Communist China. Ekhabi


* There is no knownan

Easlcrn Ekhabi crude oilpecific type, but there is frequent mention of Ekhabi crude oil. It is probably similar to Ekhabi crude oil and is nol handled separately in Appendix A.

crude oil is transported from Sakhalin to Komsomol'sk by pipeline as well as by barge. IZj The completionipeline to the mainland3 greatly facilitated thc transportation of crude oil. but thc pipeline operations are still slowed down in the winter.


Okha crude oil, because it is of relatively inferior quality and because its production is decreasing, probably is utilized now largely as fuel in the oilfields or as charge for the topping unit at Okha. The Katangli production of crude oil.with the exception of the crude oil used by thc oilfield itself, is shipped to thc mainland to both ehe Komsomol'sk and the Khabarovsk refineries.* The shipping of Katangli crude oil is complicated by the shallowness of NabU' Bay. on which Katangli is located. Most of the Katangli crude oil goes by tanker to it is transferred to barges for further shipment up the Amur River. Because the transport of Katangli crude oil is wholly dependent upon sea transport. ovement is limited by the length of the navigation season. Tohutdown of wells between navigation seasons the storage facilities at Katangli must be adequate for storing the winter output of crude oil.

The great distance from the chief sources of supply of material and equipment has been one of the major handicaps in the development of the Sakhalin oilfields. The transportation factor not only ha* increased the cost of developing the Sakhalin oilfields but also has retarded the introduction of new types of equipment and modern technology. The fact that the ports of North Sakhalin are icebound during almost half of the year limits the shipment of the entire year's supplies to the Hhort navigation season. The supply problem is further increased by the poor local transportation facilities on North Sakhalin The most serious problems in the operations of the oilfields are thc result of the severe winter climate, which causes the freezing of wells and pipelines unless preventive measures are taken.

Although all the current production of crude oil sen: from Sakhalin comes from the four oilfields mentioned above, active exploratory

* See Appendix A.

drilling has been doneumber of other areas on North Sakhalin. At least one of these. Paromay. is believed to be ready for commercial production as soon as transport can be provided for its crude oil. Several others, such as Nutovo and Gilyako-Abunan, may begin produetion within the next few years, and many other potentially productive oil deposits where exploration is still in the preliminary stages have been determined.

2. Siberia (Economic Regions IX and XT).

The sedimentary basins where oil deposits may possibly

occurarge part of Siberia. Theyuge ring in the central part and. in general, occupy the basins of the great Siberian rivers, in addition, both the eastern and western coasts of Kamchatka may have oil-bearing deposits,ew indications of oil occur along the Pacific coast of Siberia. Prospecting in nearly all parts of Siberia is extremely difficult because of the isolation of prospecting sites, the absence of roads and railroads, the severity of the climate, and the permafrost conditions. The areas in which the USSR has been doing the most intensive prospecting are in the Khatanga-Nordvik area in the Arctic, in the basin of the Lena River and its tributaries in central Yakutsk, in the Irkutsk region northwest of Lake Baikal, and on both coasts of Kamchatka.

3 the prospecting operations in the far north of the Khatanga-Nordvik area werend in the last quartereveral of the prospecting expeditions innd inlso were liquidated. Although operations arein the latter two areas, they are evidentlyuch smaller scale. At least two reasons for the sudden cessation of much of the prospecting activity can be suggested. "First, the intensiveactivity ot the lastears has evidently discovered nolarge petroleum deposits which can be profitably exploited. Second, production ol crude oil in other parts of the USSR has been increasing rapidly, and the demand can be supplied from areas where drilling and production operations are considerably more economical. Apparently the present policy is to make up the petroleum deficit in Siberia and the Soviet Far East by improved ti ansport facilities from western USSR rather than by the development of new oilfields in Siberia.

Production. 1. Crude Oil.

Island is the only area of crude oil production in Regions IX, XI, and XII. Thc production from the Sakhalin oilfields has, therefore, been of the greatest importance in the petroleum suppl of thc entire Soviet Far East. Although thin fact shouldreat incentive for the USSR to develop the Sakhalin oilfields as rapidly as possible the development of Sakhalin has progressed very slowly, and the production of crude oil is estimated to have been no more thanillion tons* The slow increase in production, whichis far behind Soviets primarily the result of many problems, such as supply, transportation, and severity of the climate. Because most of thc Sakhalin oil wells arc small producers, an increase in the number of wells drilled does not resultarge increase in The gross increase in productionfrom the development of new deposits is largely offsetecline in production caused by the depletion of old deposits.

or even

Althoughakhalin was reported to have at leastnown oil deposits with huge oil reserves, only one new field, Eastern Fbhabi. has actually begun to produce oil in commercial quantities since thc end of World War The rale of increase in production on Sakhalin will depend upon the rapidity with which neware developed. ew railroad along the coast of the island, completedas made the most favorable prospecting area* more accessible and undoubtedly will accelerate their development, lt is unlikely, however, that any of lhe pronpectn now underwill become as large or aa important as the present producing fields of Okha, Ekhabi, and Katangli. Only two prospects, Paromay and Nutovo, are expected lo begin production in the near future. These fields probably will increase thc total production, at least temporarily,y later offset lhe expected decline of the older oilfields. an intensive development of new fields, however, it is not believed Ihat the ( production of Sakhalin can be increased substantially,the present rate of increase may be expected to continue to temporarily accelerate.

* See Table I. p. below.

The estimated production of crude oil in the .Sakhalinduringeriod ia shown in Tablehe increase in

Table 1

Estimated Production of Crude Oil on Sakhalin Island in Economic Region XII of the*

Thousand Metric Tons




figures are rounded to5 and to thc.

difference between Total. Pfor the period endingproduction in Japanese concessions on Sakhalin..

production near the end of World War II was thc result of reopening Japanese oil wells after the USSR took over the The discovery of some new producingnd the rapid development of the Ekhabi field during thatlso resulted in increased production. 0 the increase in production has been the result of better transport facilities, which have permitted greater development of Katangli, and the year-round, transport of oil via the pipeline. ** The development of the new-Eastern Ekhabi oilfield is now an important factor in the increased, production.

2. Natural Gas.

The production of natural gas io entirely of local, itnppr-tance, as all gas produced is consumed in the oilfields or In theS.towns-of Okha and Data on the productionto make any accurate estimates of currentCis estimated that production of natural gas may have been0 tons Because of increased.localf natural gas, production of gas has been increasingore- rapids rate than production of crude oil. Therer-percenicrease in production of natural gas in thein, comparison with the production for the same period,whereas; the corresponding increase in production of crude oil was

ost of. the natural gas was produced atSouthern--Okha and at the Ekhabi It is believed that these fields-continue to produce most of the gas. Thearomay oilfield} and probably Nutovo, also will produce natural gas; whoa facilitlea.axe*

* The statement that Sakhalin production was "nearly douUedVVdtlrihgj, the war, which occurred several times in the.Soviet. lieved either to be an exaggeration or to have referred toells or area under exploitation, which did nearly doubleaking over the Japanese Appendix C.

J . Okha Topping Plant.

Okha crude oil is beliovcd io bc Ihe chief type used as charge (or the Far East Oil Association's topping unit, which Okha The capacity of this plant is not known, but it is estimated that1 il produced at leastons of motor gasoline for the use of thes well as an unknown additional amount for other local consumers. 9 it may have00 tons ot mazut or topped crude for use aa fuel in the There is no informationits current output, hut it probably supplies most of the local needs for motor gasoline and

in. Re fining and Processing. *

A. Natural Crude Oil Refineries.

The processing of crude oil in Regions^UC, XI. and XII is limited mainly to two refineries. Plantt Komsomol'sk and Plantt Khabarovsk, both in. The small topping plant at Okha on Sakhalinroducesortion of the

local needs. Plans have been under way3rude oil refinery in the vicinity of Irkutsk, but aclual construction is not believed to have begun by thc fallhere were several referencesefinery at Omsko information is available, however, which would indicate the operating status or capabilities of this plant.

The Khabarovskprimary distillation and

cracking facilities, is estimated to have charged0ons ot crude oil in it is now operating largely on Ural-Volga crude oil, from which it produces "sour" (high sulfur content) mazut. Other products produced at Khabarovsk include IJviation gasoline, motor gasoline, tractor kerosine. diesel fuel, nigrol. axln oil. bunker oil, and bitumen.

* For details of individual plants, see Appendix A.


The Komsomol'sk refinery has only primary distillationand operates principally on Ekhabi crude oil, which is particularly adaptable to processing in such facilities. It is estimated that this plant chargedons of crude oilhe output of the Komsomol'sk refinery consists primarily of products used in military operations. viation gasoline are produced by blending locally produced base stock with such components as iso-octane. alkyl benzol, and toluene, which are imported from other areas of the USSR. Komsomol'skfefineries in the USSR known to be producing jet Ekhabi crude oiligh content of distillate suitable for the production, and it is estimated that betweenndercent of jetould be producednit weight of Ekhabi crude, withproduction of other distillate products. Other productsat the Komsomol'sk refinery include summer-grade diesel fuel; special-grade diesel fuel, which is suitable for use in submarines; bunker fuel; and "sweet" (low sulfur content) heating mazut.

The total product output of the Khabarovsk and Komsomol'sk refineries4 is estimated to be betweenndercent of the crude oil chargeoons of products.

B. Synthetic Refineries.

ocated near Irkutsk, in the vicinity of thc town ofNs the only synthetic liquid fuel plant of potential significance to the petroleum industry in RegionB IX, XI, and XII. In addition to its size and plannedfor the production of aviation fuels, its location in the centerreat petroleum deficit area makes*-it of great strategic importance. Except forhe closest sources of refined petroleum products for Central Siberia are the Khabarovsk refinery,iles to the east, and the Ufa refinery,iles to the west.

Construction of Combineas scheduled to beginut there were no indications that thc plant had attained commercial production of liquid fuels until Originally the plant was designed to produce aviation gasoline. In the last halfowever,

Seen p.elow.

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significant quantities of motor gasoline, illuminating kerosine, and dieselre produced. On the basis of observed shipments the total of these products shippedonths4 probably wai not less0 tons. The absence of any reference to aviation gasoline, for which the plant was primarily designed, may indicate that construction of all elements of the plant has not been completed or that thc original plan of operation has been modified.

IV. Distribution.

Transportation facilitiesimiting factorajor problem in the distribution of petroleum products in Regions DC, XI. and XII. These regions are largely dependent upon the Trans-Siberian Railroad for the movement of petroleum through the southern reaches, where the major share of the population of the regions is concentrated. Distribution in the areas to the north is accomplished by river transportation, by tankers or the Far Eastern Merchant Fleet, and in the Arctic waters by ships serving the Northern Sea Route. During the winter months whenis suspended, theac northern areas are dependent upon vehicular transportation.

ons of petroleum products were shipped by tanker from the Black Sea lo Vladivostok and other Far Eastern ports. Before this time, practically all productsinto the regions moved over ihc Trans-Siberian Railroad and connecting branch lines. The Urbakh-Novosibirsk gasoline pipeline, which is still under construction, began partial operation in the latter part2 and is now operating as far east as Omsk. At Omsk the products are transferred to the railroad for further shipment east. Products are also shipped westward on-lhe Trans-Siberian Railroad from the refineries at Komsomol'sk *nd Khabarovsk.

A. Economic Region IX.

Available information on the distribution procedures in Region is insufficient to permit estimates of the flow of products into and withi the region. Because the region is located close to the large producing and refining centers in the Ural-Volga area, it is probable thatall of the requirements for Region IX. with the exception of thone lor some specialupplied by rail or pipeline from lhe Ural-Volga area.


B. Economic Region XI.

1 Flow of Products to the Region.

Region XI is principally dependent upon the Ural-Volga area for its supply of petroleum In addition, the coming-on stream of the synthetic liquid fuels plant.ear Irkutsk, byrovided Region XI with an intrinsic source of motor gasoline, diesel fuel, and lamp kerosine Howolume of these products Combineill be able to supply is not known. Another source of supply is the Komsomol'sk refinery, whichRegion XI with "sweet" heating maxut inther sources of petroleum products include Baku and Central-Asia, both of which supplied Region XIubstantial-volume of products

Flow of products within the Keg

he distribution of petroleum products to consumers in Region XI was effected through six Oil Saleswhich controlled delivery of petroleum products within the territorial administrative subdivisions of the region. The locations of the headquarters of these Oil Sales Directorates and thesubdivisions of Region XI for which they were responsible were as:

Chita. Chita Oblast

Ulan-Ude. Buryai-Mongol ASSR

Irkutsk. IrkulBk ObJasi

Yakutsk. Yakutsk ASSR

Krasnoyarsk. Krasnoyarskiy Kray

Kyzyl, Tuva Autonomoufi Oblast

Ineorganization of the administration of petroleum product deliveries in Region XI took place. At that time the Irkutsk Oil Sales Directorate became responsible forof delivery operations in Irkutsk Oblast. Chita Oblast.

I) -

the Buryat-Mongol ASSR. and Yakutsk Thc Krasnoyarsk Oil Sales Directorate was not involved ir. thc merger. Afterherefore, there were two major Oil Sales Directoratesfor the distribution of petroleum products in Region XI the Irkutsk Directorate and the Krasnoyarsk Directorate.

Region XII.

Region XII consists of two separate and distinct parts. Khabarovskiy Kray and Primorskiy Kray. Since the distribution patterns and problems in these two areas differ widely, they will be Ircated separately.

1. Khabarovskiy Kray..

of Products to the Kray.

The petroleum products consumed in Khabarovskiy Kray are supplied in part by the local refinerieV and in part by rail shipment from refining centers in western areas at leastiles away. ons of petroleum products wereby rail for distribution, of which approximatelyercent came from the Ural-Volga area.ercent came from Central Asia, and the balanceboutercentame from thein Region XII. ons of petroleum products were received by rail, ofercent came from the Ural-Volga areaercent came from Central Asia and other regie The amount supplied by the refineries in Region XII increased toercent.


of Products within the Kray.

ndependent Oil Sales Directorates existed in Khabarovskiy Kray.t Blagoveshchensk serving Amur Oblastt Khabarovsk serving the remainder of the4 these Oil Sales Directorates were combined into onewith headquarters at Khabarovsk. 5T/ The new directorate includes the southern areas which can be supplied primarily by rail

. -1

or by* shipments on the Amur The Sales Bases atndrelo the Khabarovsk Directorate.

c. Distribution of Refinery Production.

In addition lo distributing DetroIeum_products towithin the kray, the Khabarovsk Oil Sales Directorate is responsible for distributing the output of the refineries. Plantt Khabarovsk and Plantt Part of the refinery output is distributed within Khabarovskiy Kray, and the remainder is distributed to Primorskiy Kray, to other directorates along the Trans-Siberian Railroad as far west as Omsk, and to military consumers and is exported to other-eountries, primarily Communist China and North Korea. It is estimated that9ons of petroleum products were shipped fromefineries. Approximatelyercent of the total wau distributed within Khabarov-skiy Kray, and aboutercent was dentined_for military consumers and for export. The remainingercent was divided about equally between shipments to Primorskiy Kray and shipments westward along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. It is estimated thatons of products were shipped by rail from the two refineriesboutercent was distributed within Khabarovskiy Kray. andto military consumers and for export representedf the total. Shipments to Primorskiy Kray amounted to aboutercent, and She remainder was shipped westward.

The large increase in shipments to military consumers and for export reflects not only the increased production at thebut also the emphasis on the output of such products as aviation gasoline and jet fuel at the Komsomol'sk refinery. It is estimated that3 and40 tons of aviation gasoline and jet fuel were exported from the Komsomol'sk refinery to Communist China and North Korea. 3 the total was estimated to consist of about

petroleum requirements of the Dal'stroy operationshe northern eas of Khabarovskiy Kray are supplied by sea shipments from Vladivostc The creation of Magadanarge part of this northern area from Khabarovskiy Kray.

ons ol aviation gasolineonii of jet fuel. 4 the total was estimated at0 tons of aviation gasoline0 tons of jet fuel. It seems probable that theseare intended toegular part of the distribution pattern from the Komsomol'sk refinery.

2. Primornkiy Kray.

a. Flow of Products to the Kray.

All of the petroleum products consumed inKray are imported from other areas. Of the products received for civil consumption, it is estimated that9 approximatelyercent originated in the Ural-Volgaail haul ofiles;ercent in Krasnovodsk; and 12

percent in Khabarovskiy Kray.Occasional shipments were received from other areas, including Vannovukayn, Guryev, Groznyy, and Baku. 3 the Khabarovskiy Kray was supplying approximately

ercent of civil requirements, and shipments from Krasnovodsk

decreased to lessercent of the total. The Ural-Volga area

continued to supply aboutercent.

Ineriod, earpetroleum products. largely diesel fuel, from the Black Sea to Region XII. The cargoes were delivered directly to consumero in areas which could be reached only by sea. principally to Nagayevo. the port for Dal'stroy. In the latter halfankers left the Black Sea for Vladivostok or other ports in Region XII,otal ofons of petroleum products.ome of this cargo was scheduled to be-shipped to Communist China by rail from Except for these few tanker shipments.

lnErllimatrS.of Products are based on data accounting for

erCCTCiViUanin Primorskiynd approximatelyercent Data concernin,

CarS haV<in "timatfngof

6 -

all product, consumed in Primorskiy Kr.iy or the areas which itare shipped in by rail.

b- Flow of Products within the Kray.

Distribution of petroleum products within Primorskiy Kray is under tho supervision of the Chief Directorate of Oil Sales at Vladivostok. The Ministry of Defense has its own petroleumpoints at Ugol'naya andnd the Ministry of the Merchant Fleet has an oil base at Many of the small towns along the Primorskiy coast which cannot be reached overland receive petroleum products by tanker from

There are other more distant areas that are supplied by tanker from Vladivostok, including Sakhalin Island, Kamchatka, Dal-stroy, and the Chukotsk Peninsula. Sakhalin had its own Oil Sales Directorate, atntil the fallhen il was put under the jurisdiction of the Primoxs,kiy Oil Kamchatka, which is part of Khabarovskiy Kray, was subordinate to the Khabarovsk Oil Sales Directorate until the fallwhen it was also brought under the Primorskiyhe Dal'stroy organization, although located in the northern part of Khabarovskiy Kray, receives most of its petroleum supplies by tanker from Most of the petroleum shipped fromto the Chukotsk Peninsula is destined for military units or for the Chief Directorate of thc Northern Sea Route. There are military representatives and representatives of the Northern Sea Route in Vladivostok to look after these OO tons of petroleum products were delivered by tanker from Vladivostok to these northern areas, for both military and civil consumers, andons were

V. Civil Consumption. *

Estimates of civil consumption of petroleum products in Regions XI and XII are based principally on reports of deliveries to consumers by

* For details of consumption in each region, sec Appendix B.

the individual Oil Sales Directorates. These reports reflect deliveries of products by quarterly periods or parts of quarterly periods. In addition, available information on the receipt of petroleum products by the Oil Sales Directorates and by individual consumers has been Because there is insufficient information lo establishestimates of those products, the estimates in this section exclude all deliveries of aviation gasoline and all lubricants, with the exception of avtol. It is estimated that these products would increase estimated civil consumption by not more thanercent. *

The total estimated civil consumption of petroleum products inegionsmounting toillion tons, ercent of the civil consumption in thc entire USSRhich is estimated at aboutillion/ Theitotar estimated annual civil consumption of petroleum products in Regions IX, XI. and XII4 is shown in Table 2.


Total Estimated Annual Civil Consumption of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions DC, XI. and XII of the4

Thousand Metric Tons

Ycar Region



a.0 estimate is derived by applying the observedincrease09 in Primorskiy Kray to9 estimate for the whole of Region XII.

This estimate is based on total observed shipments tohich is the only concrete information available. Civilian deliveries of aviation gasoline and miscellaneous lubricants to other parts of Regions IX. XI. and XII may be less than theercent observed in shipments to Dal'stroy.


V1. lntra-Sino-Sovict Bloc Trade.

esult of the Westernommunist China has been dependent upon the Soviet Bloc for most of its petroleum require mcnts since North Korea and Outer Mongolia also receive petroleum from the USSR. Most of the petroleum exported to these

areas either originates in or passes through Regions IX, XI. and XII.

thus becoming of strategic importance in the over-all regional supply

and distribution pattern.

A. Communist China.

ino-Soviet trade agreement signed inhe USSR contracted to supply petroleum as well as other products to Communist China.

using an estimated average priceubles per ton for alletroleum shipments toChina are estimatedons in thc second, third, and fourth quarters Although there were some shipments in the first quarterhey are believed to be small, and the total shipments of petroleum from the USSR to Communist China probably did notons for the year. It is estimated that1ons of petroleum were shipped toChina and that in the first half2ons were In2 lhe system of payments was changed, thereby eliminating that basis for estimating total petroleum shipments to Communist China. Petroleum is shipped to Communist China from the USSR by ocean-going tanker, by river barge, and by

* Based on the following prices of product* shipped to Communist China by rail: aviationubles per; aviationubles per; motorubles per; kerosme.ubles per. and Ekhabi crude oil. ton Diesel fuelstimatedubles per ton. on the basis ol the above price*.

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1- Ocean Tanker.

Before the outbreak of the Korean War, tanker shipments from Vladivostok to Communiat China consisted mainly of crude oil.0 tons and0ere delivered to the Dairen Refinery. In addition, small amounts ofproducts were otal petroleum shipments to Communist China increased tremendously, and sizable deliveries of products, totalingere made by tanker from Vladivostok. anker shipments to Communist China decreased to0nd3 they rose again toons of products are believed to have been delivered by tanker to Communist China from


Barge shipments of petroleum up the Amur and Sungari Rivers to Chiamussu in Manchuria were first observed in0 tons of petroleum are estimated*to have been delivered by barge during the shipping season, from June throught0 tons of this total were crude oil. Duringeason,ons of crudend anons of motorere shipped by barge. No information isregarding barge shipments to Communist China Ae3 shipments are estimated to be more than double the amount shippedowever, it is believed that atons of petroleum were shipped by barge Barge shipments,crude oil, duringare estimatedinimum

Rail shipments from the USSR cross into Communist China at two points. Otpor in Chita Oblast and Crodekovo in Primorskiy Kray.34 the refineries in Economic Region XII, Plantnd Plant. shipped an0 tons of aviation fuel0 tons of motor gasoline* to Communist China by rail via

" Based on an average shipmentons of motor gasoline per month duringonths in which barge shipments via the Amur River are not possible.


Grodekovo. In0 tons of Ekhabi crude oil were shipped by rail via Grodekovo Virtually all other rail shipments to Communist China are transported across the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Although most of thefte rail shipments cross the border at Otpor. some continue on to Grodekovo, in spite of the added distance, because of limited transshipping facilities at Otpor and at Manchouli, on the Chinese Communist side of the border.

rai' 9hiPmenlsCommunist China arc estimated

; ti^risXs0 ^Ths > 1to Communist China,

shipped by rail, roughly.

^ec. In [heau of

ons of petroleum are estimated to have been Rail shipments after this time can be estimated only

On the basis of rail shipments in the first half2 and planned and known shipments in the second half rail shipments arc estimated to have been maintainedateuarter2

Rail shipments in theonths4 are believed to have been reducedesult of the great increase in tankerfrom the Black Sea area, ln the third and fourth quarters, rail shipments probably would have increased, following the disruption of the tanker program, again reaching3 leveluarter. hange in the pattern of rail shipments to Communist China was observed inhen lamp kerosine, which arrived at Vladivostok by tanker from the Black Sea, was shipped to Communist China by rail fromail shipments4 are estimatedons in the first halfons in the


Estimated petroleum shipments lo Communis!Regions IX, XI, and XIIshown in Table 3.

Table 3

Estimated Petroleum Shipments to Communist China through Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII of the

Metric Tons

of Shipment






B. North Korea.

ons of crude oil were delivered by tanker from Vladivostok to North Korea0 tons werein the first half Refinery was bombed innd there were no further shipments of crude oil. After the Korean War began, pelroleum was sent to North Korea only by

The total amount of petroleum shinned from the USSRorth Korea can be cs'imared only roughly.


Total petroleum shipments from the USSRrtn Korea in ISbu, including the crude oil shipped by tanker, might be estimatedinimumons and2inimumons.

C. Outer Mongolia.

uter Mongolia imported from the USSR approximatelyons of petroleum products. Of thisons we re shipped from Ulan-Ude to Ulan-Bator for noitb-centralons were shipped from Boraya to Choy Balsan for eastern Mongolia, and northwestern Mongoliaons at Turtaons at Tsagaan Nuur. 1 there have been no indications of petroleum products beinp. shipped toISan, except for some lubricants. It is probable that Mongolnefi' (Mongolian Oilith headquarters at Sayn Shanda. probablyopping plant which would supply the requirements of eastern Mongolia, except for lubricants. Shipments to other areas of Mongolia are continuing but are not believed to have increased. Total shipments of petroleum products from the USSR to Mongolia4 are estimated0 tons.

VII. Supply-Demand Balance.

A. Crude Oil.

The supply-demandrude oil in this report applies only to Region XII because there are neither exploited sources of crude oil nor natural crude oil refineries in Regions IX and XI. Theproduction of crude oil on Sakhalin Island4 about equalled

Based on the following prices of products shipped toubles per; aviation gasolinerubles per. motorubles per. andubles per ton


the estimated total amount ol all crude oil charged to the refineries at Khabarovsk and Komsomol'sk. Some of thc crude oil produced on Sakhalin, however, was exported to Communist China, some wasonnd some was delivered to Dal'stroy. esult of this diversion, thc charge to the two refineries exceeded thecrude oil,eficit ofons of crude oil existed. The deficit was overcome byorresponding amount of crude oil from the Ural-Volga area to be processed in thc Khabarovsk refinery.

The production and distribution of crude oil in Economic -Regions IX, XI. and Xll of the USSR4 are shown in*

13. Petroleum Products.

Regions DC, XI, and XIIarac deficit area with respect to petroleum products, 4 the only major sources of petroleum products located within these regions were the twoat Khabarovsk and Of the total estimated production of these refineries,ons wore supplied by rail to military consumers and for export. The remainder was available for civil consumption within Regions IX, XI. and XII.ons of this was shipped to Regions IX and XI. The net deficit for civil consumption inegions amounted toillion tonsecessitating tho shipment of this amount of petroleum products intoegions from other areas. Region IX probably received most of its requirements from thc Ural-Volga area because of its proximity. The Ural-Volga area was also thc principal source of supply for Region XI. Region XII. in addition to consuming most of the available output of the local refineries, received almostercent of its requirements from the west,from the Ural-Volga area.

* This includes that portion of the production that is consumed in the topping plant at Okha as well as losses incurred in production and distribution and fuel burned in thc field.

ollows on The Synthetic liquid fuels plant at Kitoy. which began production ininimum0 tons4 Production of other synthetic refineries in the three regions is believed to have been insignificant.

Table 4

Production and Distribution of Crude Oil in Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII of the USSR

Thousand Metric Tons



Exports to Communist200

Shipments to

Consumed on Sakhalincharges at Plant

nd Plant


a. All production is on Sakhalin Island.

The production and distribution of petroleum products in Economic Regions IX. XI. and XII of the USSR4 are shown in Table 5.

VIII. Capabililics. VuInerabilities, and.

A. CapabilUiee,

Regions IX. XI. and XII are unable to produce sufficient petroleum to meet the needs of the area. The area is deficient both

* ollows on

Table 5

Production and Distribution of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions IX, XL and XII of the USSR

Thousand Metric Tons

Production by localto

Rail shipments toand for

Net available for civilfrom

Civil distribution

IX Region XI Region XII

Additionalercent for lubricating oils and aviation gasoline

Total civil requirements

Net deficit of petroleum products


in crude oil resources and in refining capacity. Because the geologic structures of the oilfields are not conducive to any significant or rapid increase in production, it is unlikely that any attempt will be made to expand the capacity of the refineries in the Far East.

Although the synthetic liquid fuel plant at Kitoyoes not appear to bc producing any of thc refined products for which



it was designed, the plant produced quantities of motor gasoline, kero-sinc, and diesel fuel oil Should this production continue to increase, the distribution pattern will be. modified, and the degree of dependence upon other regions for petroleum products will be reduced.

The transportation facilities serving Siberia and the Soviet Far East, although limited in certain areas during the winter season, appeal capable of distributing the present petroleum needs of the area. extension of the product pipeline from the Urals to Novosibirsk will lighten the burden of petroleum shipments on the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

B. Vulnerabilities.

The petroleum industry of Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII is largely dependent upon the oUfields on Sakhalin Island, the refineries at Komsomol'sk and Khabarovsk, and the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The loss of these three facilities would seriouslyjrripple the Supply ofto Communist China and North Korea as well as to thc regions themselves.


Activities in the petroleum industry in Regions IX, XI. and Xll are designed primarily to lessen the degree of dependence upon other areas for Ihe Supply of petroleum. Important among these current activities are the constructionecond unit athe planned constructionetroleum refinery near Irkutsk, and the eastward extension of thc product pipeline from the Urals.

The activity at Combinearrants close scrutiny as anof intentions. witchover to the production of aviation gasoline, as originally planned, in lieu of the present production of motor gasoline, krrosine. and diesel fuel, wouldtress on the


TP" TritrT



I. Natural Crude Oil Refineries.

A. Refinery Facilities.

-1- Plant. Khabarovsk (Economic Region XII).

Plants locatedE. approxi-mately one-half mile northwest of the principal railroad station in the city of Khabarovsk. It was placed in operation for the first time in5 and was described as the first combined straight-run and cracking unit in the/ It was originally designed to processons of crude oil per day. from which topped crude representingercent of the crude charge was to be processed in the thermal cracking unit of the refinery. / On this basis the plant was probably designed to processons of crude Oil per year.

4 the plant probably had more than doubled its ons of crude oil were charged, fromons of cracking stock were processed./ Thus Ihe ratio of cracking stock to crude oil remained the same as that originally designed. The refinery is estimated to operateperccntallowing for repair and maintenance time, orperating day* per year. Thus the annual throughput capacity is estimated atons.

Plantocs notery wide variety of products, and it appears to be capable of manufacturing only those products which are producedirect result of combineddistillation and thermal cracking operations.


2. Plant. Komsomol'sk (Economic Region XII).

Plants located alNiles northwest of the center of the city of Komsomol'sk Newer and larger than Plant, it presumably was put There is no information about tbe original design or capacity of this plant or of any subsequent construction. about operations during thendicates tbat itonly primary distillation or topping operations. It operates largely on Ekhabi crude oil./ which containsercent ofthat boil at temperatures normalrimary distillation operation. Thus cracking operations would offer little advantage. Inlanthipped mazut to Plantor feed stock for the cracking unit at the Latter plant.-JOT/ which supports thc conclusion that Plantas no cracking facilities.

, the production in9 is estimated to have0 tons of products./ Assuming this product yield to representercent of crude charge, the crude charge would be on the order ofons per day. As Plantoes not have cracking facilities, thus reducing the interruptions for maintenance, it is estimated to operatepercent capacity, which amountsays per year. The annualcapacity9 is estimated to have beenons.

B. Types of Crude Oil Processed.

Crude oil from Sakhalin Island and from the oilfields of the Ural-Volga area is processed in the refineries in Region XII. Plants known to have processed Ekhabi. Katangli, and Okha crude from/ and Tuymazy and Bugul'ma crude from theolga area. It appears that this plant is chargingsmaller quantities of Sakhalin crude and, sincencreasingly larger quantities of Ural-Volga crude. Some of the crude oil from the Ural-Volga area thai is shipped to Plants similar in distillation characteristic! to the crude oil from the Okha field on Sakhalin. Thus Plantould proccMS Ural-Volga or Okha crude with equal facility.

- JO


Plants known to process both Ekhabi and Katangli crude. Ill/ General identification of the residual fuels from Plants "sweet" (low sulfur content) and those from Plants "sour" (high sulfur content) indicates that the former does not process the high-sulfur types of crude oil from the Ural-Volga area, /

C. Refinery Operations.

1 the operation of the two refineries in Region XII was seriously limited by the availability of crude oil on Sakhalin Island and by the limits of the shipping season for transporting crude oil from Sakhalin to the mainland. Plantrobably ceasedduring the last calendar quarter9 and did not operate during the first calendar quarter/ The total crude oil available from Sakhalin to the refineries9 is estimated to be on the orderalf milliononsiderably less than thethroughput capacity of the two plants. The completionipeline from Sakhalin to Komsomol'sk in the_latter part1 has enabled Planto operateear-round basis since that time. The increasing amounts of Ural-Volga crude oil being shipped to Plant/ indicate that Sakhalin still does not produce -sufficient crude oil to employ fully the capacity of the two mainland refineries,

Other factors limiting the operations of the two Earinclude the corrosive effects on plant equipment oftypes of crude oil from the Ural-Volga area. ackstorage facilities when shipments of finishedthe refineries are delayed, and the extreme lowthe winter

Estimated crude oil charges to refineries in Region XII of the USSR duringeriod are shown in Table*

* See Tableelow. ** ollows on

Tabic 6

Estimated Crude Oil Charges to Rcfinerie. in Economic Region XII of the

Metric Tens)


PWNo^o, planl No.












- 32

Table 6

Estimated Crude Oil Charges to Refineries in Economic Region XII of theContinued)

(Thousand Metric Tons)

Year lant Plant


Margin of Error (Percent)



3 Sakhalin



Katangli/Okha Ural-Volga

4 Sakhalin


Katangli/Okha Ural-Volga



- ii -

L>. Refinery Output.


oons of products4 There is no

Aircraft Engine Fuels.

forhichigh-octane, straight-run gasoline, andhich is0 modified only by the addition of tetraethyl lead, neither plantelieved to produce reciprocating engine aircraft fuel from local resources. / are produced by blending locally produced base stocks with components shipped to the refineries from sources elsewhere in the USSR. The components used in blending at Plantnclude iso-octane. enzol,/ and toluene,/ and at Plant,/ and pyrobcnzol. /

, Of the two Far East refineries, only Plants known to produce jet-engine aircraft. * The manufacturet Plants estimated to have begun/ The analyses of Ekhabi crude oils indicate that the content of distillate suitable for the production of jet fuel is sufficiently high toaximum production ofercent of fuel which would meet4 Soviet jet fuel specification. / An attempt to produce this maximum, however, would preclude the production of any kerosine ornd would reduce substantially the gasoline and diesel fuel yield. It is estimated that betweenndercent of Soviet jetould be producednit weight of Ekhabi crude oil and permitproduction of gasoline, kerosine. and related products.

*erosine-type fuel, similar to US grade JP-I, for use in jet-engine aircraft.

** Ligroineight distillate product useduel for tractors.


2. Nonaircraft Distillate-Type Fuels.

Motor gasoline, ligroine. tractor kerosine. and diesel fuel appear to have been produced by both refineries during the period

under consideration. IZb/ Although Plant9 continues tomotor gasoline./ there is no evidence to indicate that since

lantas produced any sizable quantities of finished motor gasoline. It has been observed to ship motor gasoline base stock to Plant./ The high-quality gasoline fractions from Ekhabi crude oil which Plantas processed in recent years may be conserved for use in the production of aviation gasolines. It is also conceivableortion of the materials that might be used in motor gasoline is being diverted to the manufacture of jet.

Illuminating kerosine is not believed to be produced in either refinery in Region XII. Both plants manufacture some grades of diesel fuel for use in high-speed engines. / Plants also capable of producing the "apecial-grade'A-djcsel fuel which is considered suitable for use in diesel-propelied submarines. /



No lubricating oils are produced in either refineryin the form of nigrol (transmission oil) and

axle oil. both of which are essentially residual products similar to mazut. were reported as having been produced at Plant No /


Both Plant No.nd Plantroduce heating mazut and bunker/ Plantroduces various grades of bitumen (asphalt)./ Another unidentified product, probablyategory between boiler fuel oil and bitumen, is known to have been produced at plant/ in small



rni' rrcicrr

11. Synthetic Refineries.

A. ear Irkutsk (Economic Region XI).

Based on plans developederman firm. Combineas to have been designed in two sections to processotal of approximatelyillion tons of bituminous coal to yield

Aviation gasoline Iso-octane Lubricating oils Sulfur

Liquefied petroleum gases Phenol

Metric Tons per Year


The design also provided for the alternative production of motordiesel fuel, and nitration-grade toluene at the sacrifice of the aviation gasoline yield.

Although Combineas scheduled for constructionack of materials and funds for the project delayed construction, and it had not been completed at the end It is possible thatin the electrical system and shortages of coalommercial scale until sometime/

Except for the reported production of tar and semicoke in the springhere were no indications that the plant had attained commercial production of liquid fuels prior tohen motor gasoline was shipped fromignificant quantities of motor gasoline, illuminating kcrosine. and diesel fuel oil were produced during the last half The total of these products, which represents shipments on aboutays ofonth period,0 tons. On the basis of this coverage, thc total shipped duringonth period is estimated at not less0 tons. There is insufficient evidence available at the present time on which touantitative estimate of the capabilities of this plant.


nrn* of anVto Ihc production of petroleum

lt,ch/hr. pl,ant was primarily*

- proaucts other t

which J - ' of facilities

ln igh-quality aviation gasoline

or blending component, may have been deferred and emphasis placed velopment and/or operation of those lessj

or ^ I"Slh*ee" completed

imvc Men deterred and emphasis placed the development and/or operation of those less complicatedhich could be used to produce, among other things,et fuel.

Although there is no positive evidence to supportt is possible that the plant is using natural crude oil as raw material instead of coal, for which the plant-was originally designed.

B. Others

i ,Thenstallations, which axe, described as synthetic

low-temPcraturc carbonisation plantsUd ire therefore, relatively un.mportant to the petroleum industry.

a. Synthetic Liquid Fuel Plant No. cninsk-


KuznetskiyNegion IX Synthetic Liquid Fuel Plant No.heremkhovoNegion XI

Liquid Fuel Plantornozavodsk

egion XII

Liquid Fuel PlantJglezavodsk

Negion XII

Plant No. nd Plantroduce small amounts of semi-coke, tar. bitumen, casting binder, carburizing agents, antiseptic, and phenols./ Plant No.nd Planthich wereto thc Ministry of the Goal Industry inroduce small amounts of liquid fuel and tar paper./





I. Economic Region IX.

Civil consumption of petroleum products in Region IXestimated to have increased fromillion tons/ toillion tons* Available information does notreakdown of Ihis total by product or by consuming sector.

II. Economic Region XI.

Petroleum consumption within Region XI is estimatedons9one4 it had risen toons, an increase of S8 percent

Thc product breakdown of pctrolaum consumed remainedthe same0 ashe greatest changeecreaseercent in thc consumption of ligroine. The product breakdownowever, is based only on consumption within Irkutsk Oblast, Chita Oblast, and tbe Buryat-Mongol ASSR. which accounts for approximately three-fifths of the total products consumed in the region Estimated consumption of petroleum products tn Economic Region XI of the USSR90 is shown in* There arc no available data on which to base estimates of product breakdowns for years later

A- Over-All Level of Civil Consumption.

Petroleum consumption within Region XI is estimated at an-



* 4 figure is estimated by applying the observed percentage increase40 in Primorskiy Kray (sec Tableelow) to0 estimate for Region IX. ** ollows on p.


Table 7

stimatcd Consumption of Petroleum Products in Economic Region XI of the






B- Consumption -within the Administrative Subdivisions.

rasnoyarskiy Kray and Irkutsk Oblast accounted for more thanercent of the total civil consumption of petroleum products in Region XI. Estimated consumption in thc sixsubdivisions0 is as follows;

Metric Tons








The estimated consumption lo Yakutsk ASSR is not believed to include deliveries to the Northern Sea Route or to units of Dal'stroy within Yakutsk ASSR. There may have been additional deliveries on direct shipment* to other consumers in remote areas of Yakutsk ASSR. The plan for cargo shipments5 on the Lena River, which is virtually the only means of transport north of Yakutsk, ons of petroleum produc'.i./ In addition to deliveries to civil consumers through the Oil Sales Directorate, this would include deliveries to military consumers, to thc Northern Sea Route, to Dal'stroy, and to any other civil consumers receiving direct shipments

C. Principal Consumers.

In Region XIhole, agricultural activities andof the MVD were the largest consumers of petroleum products Agriculture consumed almostercent of thc kerosine and ligroine in the/ as well as substantial amounts of motor/ and diesel fuel./ The MVDarge share of the dieselnd motorn the region. The coal industry was also an important consumer of dieselnd motor gasoline,/ and the Procurement Ministry consumed sizable amounts of motor gasoline./

In Chita Oblast and the liuryat-Mongol ASSR, metallurgical enterprises were important consumers of motor gasoline,/ and in Chita Oblast the electric power industry also consumed motor gasoline. In Krasnoyarskiy Kray the river fleetajor consumer of diesel fuel./ The timber industry and agricultural enterprises were the principal consumers of all petroleum products in Yakutsk ASSR./

Not delivered hv th* local Oil Sales Directorate

- 41 -

ill. Economic Region XII.

Total civil consumption of petroleum in Region XII. whichthe entire eastern coast area of Siberia from Vladivostok to the Chukotsk Peninsula, wasons

4 it had increased more thanercent toillion tons.


Khabarovskiy Kray thc civil consumption of petroleum products.

to about

ons 4 it had increased moraoons. The figure9 includes consumption for Kamchatka, which accountedery small part of thc total, but docs not include those shipments from Vladivostok to Dal'stroy, which are included in the consumption in Primorskiy Kray.

9 the principal products consumed in Khabarovskiy Kray were heating mazut (aboutercent of thc total) and motor gasoline (aboutercent of the total). The principal consumers of healing mazut were the Amur River Steamship Agency and various industriesn particular, the metallurgical plant at Komsomol'sk. Consumption in Amur Oblast (Blagoveshchensk) differed from that of thc krayhole. Amur Oblast consumed sizable amounts of both ligroine and kerosinc, most of which were delivered to the Ministry of Agriculture./ , motor gasoline and heating mazut remained the principal products consumed in Khabarovskiy Kray. Consumption of motor gasoline had increased significantly9 and comprised aboutercent of the estimated total. Heating mazut increased only slightly over9 level and4 accounted for aboutercent of the total consumption. Diesel


fuel consumption increased fromercent of the total)9 to0ercent of the total)nd thc consumption of both kerosine and ligroine decreased. The decrease in ligroine consumption was quite significantromons9 to aboutons

In addition to Ihe consumption figures given above. Plant No. f the Ministry of the Aviation Industry located athas received direct shipments of jet fuel from other directorates. The first such shipment was observed

and3 regular shipments from Ufa occurred in each of ihe

months from August through November./ These shipments variedons per month. It is-helieved thatof jet fuel to this plant would continueegular basis and would amount to aboutonsear. No other regular recipients of direct shipments have been observed, except for those plants that receive heating mazut and have been accounted for in the estimated consumption of heating mazut in the kray.

B. Primorskiy Krey. *

Total civil consumption of petroleum products inKray is estimated to have beenons 3 it had increased aboutercent totons. This includes products shipped from Vladivostokis not actually in Primorskiy Kray.

* See Tableelo


rjeC'iuBc uistri-

oulion in Kamchatka Oblast was transierred to the jurisdiction of the Primorskiy Oil Sales Directorate in the latter parthe total consumption of Primorskiy Kray4 includes thein Kamchatka, which is estimated roughlyhus the civil consumption in Primorskiy Kray, including Kamchatka Oblast, is estimatedons

Primorskiy Kray is not important as an agricultural economy, nor does it have any large industrial enterprises. The fishing industry and merchant shipping are the major industries, and the petroleum consumed reflects their requirements forproducts. 2 percent of the petroleum consumed was mazut,ercent was diesel fuel, andercent was motor gasoline. iesel fuel, which had increased tremendously in importance throughout the USSR, omprisedercent of the petroleum consumed in the area; mazut,ercent; and motor5 percent.

Approximatelyercent of the mazul was consumed by the Ministry of the Maritime and River Fleet2nd the fish industry accounted for anercent. / Dal'stroy was the largest consumer of diesel fuel during the period covered in this report, accounting forercent of the total The fish industry consumedercent, and the merchant fleet consumedercent./ These were also the- principal consumers of diesel fuel Dal'stroy was also the largest consumer of motor gasoline, its deliveries amounting to0ercent of the total consumption)ndercent of the total)


The total petroleum products shipped to Dal'stroy from Vladivostok3 amounted toons. The diesel fuel and mazut delivered to the Ministry of the Maritime and River Fleet amounted toons, and deliveries of diesel fuel and mazut to the fish industry amounted to0 tons. After deducting these amounts from the estimated total production consumed, there remainedons of petroleum products for all other consumers throughout Primorskiy Kray

In addition to products delivered from Vladivostok, Dal'stroyn occasional tanker cargo direct from the Black Sea or from Sakhalin Island. 0 tons of gasoline were shipped from/ons-of crude oil from Sakhalin./ The crude oil presumably is used as fuel oil. Thus the total petroleum delivered to Dal'stroy3 amountedons. al'stroy received approximately the same amount of crude oil from Sakhalin ITS/ and0 tons of diesel fuel from Batumi. /

C. Sakhalin Island.

The consumption of petroleum products on Sakhalin Island,

wasonseliveries from the Sakhalin Oil Sales Directorate, however, do not represent total civil consumption on Sakhalin. The Far East Oil Association (Dal'neff) on North Sakhalin haa its own lopping plant which supplies its requirements for motor gasoline, kerosine, and mazut. / It also supplies Some products to other consume rs. /

In addition, Dal'neff is believed to receive direct shiomenls

diesel fuel

which probably is the largest consumer of petroleum products Sakhalin, is not included in9 consumption estimate of

_ iiThusbulk of the petroleum consumed by Dal'neff,

0 Ions.

i on ap-



There is very little Available information regarding petroleum consumption on Sakhalin On lhe basis of the observedin consumption in Primorskiy Kray ofercent4herefore, the petroleum consumption on Sakhalin, exclusive of Dal'neft', is estimated to have beenons

Sakhalin was brought under the jurisdiction of the Primorskiy Oil Sales Directorate for the supply of petroleum products in the latter part The Sakhalin consumptionowever, has not been included with the consumption in Primorskiy Kray.

The estimated civil consumption of petroleum products in Primorskiy Kray in Economic Region XII of the USSR duringeriod is shown in Table 8.

Table 8

Estimated Civil Consumption of Petroleum Products in Primorskiy Kray in Economic Region Xll of the























/ ui









Estimated to be approximately the samelus an0 tons consumed in Kamchatka Oblast

- 46

SQfi SfiCftfiT*



Crude Oil Storage.

Most of the crude oil storage facilities in Region XD areon Sakhalin Island. Some atorage, however, is available at the refineries and the transshipment terminal at Sofiyskoye.

Estimated crude oil storage capacity on Sakhalin Island in Region XII of the USSR is shown in Table 9. No information is available on storage facilities at Sofiyskoye.

Table 9

Estimated Crude Oil Storage Capacity on Sakhalin Island a/ in Economic Region XII of the USSR

of Tanks (Metric Tons) (Metric Tons)


Kaygan (Zaliv Urkt)




Katangli (Zaliv Nabilskly)


Crude oil storage at the refineries in assumed to be equal to the quantity of crude oil necessary (orays' operation. This represents the expannonday level used in some plants in the US where climatic conditions and routes of communication exert less influence on operations than in the Far East. Therefore, the estimatedper month and storage capacity for crude oil at Plant0 tonsons, respectively, and the estimatedper month and storage capacity for crude oil at Plantonsons, respectively.

2- Refined Product Storage.

Identified facilities for the storage of petroleum products in Regions IX. XI. and XII of the USSR arein

Table 10

Identified Facilities for the Storage of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions IX, XI, and Xll'of the USSR /


(Thousand Metric Tons;

Economic Region IX



N -E






Footnotes for Tabl*ollow on


Table 10

Identified Facilities for the Storage of Petroleumconomic Regions IX. XI. and XII of the/


Capacity (Thousand Metric Tons)

Region XI







Other installations


tons each)


Economic Region XII

Blagoveshchensk Nc vel'sk Khabarovsk


Southwost of city Khabarovsk-

Zayachvy Komsomol'sk

Re fine ry Komsomol'sk





N -E

N -E

N -E


5 30

/ 20







Identified Facilities for the Storage of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions JX, XI, and XII of the/


Capacity (Thousand Metric Tons)

Region XJI {Continue dl






I -:


Pervaya N











/ 25


/5 40


7:np mvi'i r

Table 10

Identified Facilities for Ihe Storage of Petroleum Products in Economic Regions IX, XI. and XII of the/



Metric Tons)

Economic Region XII (Continued)



Vladivostok -

-E /

- nstallations




Total for Economic Regions IX, XI, and



the total ofnstallations.

to the nearest.

ynthetic fuels plant.

the total ofnstallations.

crude oil storage

allied with these installations are now under theMinistry of Ihe Coal Industry.

the total ofnstallations.

- 51 -

Tablehowspatitie* at each identified installationotal capacity in excessons and thc aggregate capacities of ai; installationsotal capacity ol less0 tons. The totalcapacity of about2 million tons represents aboutercenl of the capacityillion tons estimated for the USSR.

3. Pipelines.

ii. Crude Oil Pipelines.

Identified crude oil pipelines in Economic Regions IX. XI. and XII of the USSR are shown in Table II. The table shows the knownof the pipeline network nerving thc crude producing areas on Sakhalin Island. The exact dale at winch the integrated pipeline between Okha (Sakhalin) and the Komsomol'sk refinery on the mainland began operation is unknown. That section between Okha and Sofiyskoye apparently was operating at least The section of the line between Sofiyskoye and Komsomol 'sk was apparently still under construction, or at least wan not in full operation, during the third quarter

suggests that the line was serviceable to Komsomol'sk. On this basis the crude oil line between Okha and Komsomol'sk may have heen operating by the end

The crude oil pipeline connecting Okha and the marine terminal at Mo-'kilvo, which was in service at leasts still in operation. Available information suggests that the pipeline to the mainlandr. extcntion of this older line from Laguri. which is approximately mid-way between Okha and It is possible, however, that the line to theland mayew section paralleling the old line from Okhaaguri. Thereingle reference3 to constructionrude oil pipeline lo serve theN -E) area on Sakhalin. /

In addition to 'ftese crude oil pipelines in the Far East,equipment (ot use by the Tuymazv-O'nsk Oil

Pipeiice Directorate. here was. however,

a pipeline an such. p. it possible tha'ine, il itection o( the fir bakh-Novo*sk product pipeline

!'able follows on p


Identified Crude Oil Pipelines in Economic Regions IX. XI, and XII of the USSR

War H

* Length a/ Diameter (Centimeters) Completed

Katangli-Kaygan (Zaliv Nabilskiy) b/ Ekhabi-Okha Line


Southkha Section via Kaygan (Zaliv Urkt) b/ Westkha Section b/

War II

War II

Okha-Sofiyskoye-Komsomol'sk Line

Okha-Laguri Section b/

Laguri-Moskalvo Section b/

Laguri-Pogobi Section b/ Pogobi-Lazarevka Section b/ Lazarevka-Dekastri Section c/ Dckastri-Sofiskoye Section d/

Sofiyskoye-Komsomol'sk Section e/

BB /

b. Product Pipeline*.

ipeline serving thc general area of Magadan on Nagayevo Bay in Northeast Siberia. It is estimated that this linetorage areas in theof Magadan is aboutentimeters in diameter ando tho town of Palalka. approximatelyilometers due north of the city of Magadan. There were reports that the ultimate terminus of this line would be in the Kolyma gold fields./

An important product pipeline to connect) in Region VI and Novosibirsk in Region IX has been under construction for several years The approximate route and dates that the sections went into service are Ahowrren the-following tabula-



Kuybyshev Ufa

Sineglazovo Kurgan

Petropavlovsk Omsk


Rail Distance (Kilometers)




/////6 (forecast!

Thereetroleum product line operating in Region VI beAstrakhan- and/ 'A* Urbakh is only aboutiles southeast of Saratov, it is conceivable that thereelationshipthis line and the Urbakh-Novosibirsk line.

The diameter of the Urbakh-Novosibirsk line is unknown w of the distance involved, it ia unlikely that the USSR would have made such an investmentine leasnches in diameter. The line appears to be used for refined products, and it is unlikely that it would be larger thannches in diameter; for thisargerhl pass thc point of diminit-hing returns. In the USnch

- -

line wouldhroughput capacity of approximatelyons per day,inch line would havecapacity of overons per/

In addition to the transmission capabiliUes of the line, il also possesses significant storageompletelyn of this length would containons ofinch line would containvtons. *

Basedule-of-lhumb estimate that the square of the diameter in inches is equal to the number of barrels US gallons)eet. arrels are equaletric ton.)



lor vir-n'^



The major quantitative estimate* contained in this report are bated on detailed studies which, becauee of the bulk of the data involved, it would be impracticable to publish as parte of the report. Thote ttudies have been compiled in fully documented appendixes which are available in ihe files of the responsible branch of ORR.

The estimates of production of petroleum in Economic Regions IX. XI. and XII of the USSR are based largely on>ercentage increase figures and shipping information. Estimates of the production of petroleum products are based on studies of the individual refineries in the regions Quantitative estimates of distribution are based on all available data on shipments of petroleum and petroleum products into the regions, within the regions, and out of the regions to Communist China. North Korea and Outer Mongolia, by rail, river, and sea. Quantitative estimates of consumption are based principally on delivery reports by local Oil Sales Directorates. Estimates of the exports of jet fuel and aviation from the Komsomol'sk Refinerv are based on an analvsis of the observed bill of ladinp numbers.

ln addition to the data on crude oil production, refineries,and consumption, the appendixes on file contain information on the principal oilfields and prospecting areas, selected inputs and cost of production, and the location of Slate Reserves Storage Depots

- 57





There are major gaps in available information on all phases of Ihe petroleum industry in Economic Regions IX, XI, and XII of ihe USSR. The major gaps are considered to bc as follows:

output of Plantt Komsomol'sk

production capabilities of

The operating status andthe Omsk Refinery.

Capacity of the Urbakh-Novosibirsk products pipeline.

Military requirements for petroleum products in all

three regions.

Civil consumption requirements by product in Region IX.

Civil consumption requirements by product in Region XI


Petroleum exports by product to Communist China. Extent of the stockpiling program.




An attempt has been made to survey all available sources in thc preparation of this report.

Ol thc collateral open-sourte material used in ihc preparation ofeport, no source evaluated lower thanas been incorporated The following types of Soviet open-source materials were screened and used ni the synthesis of Sections II and HI to the degree indicated;

Regional Press.

The regional press was extensively screened. variedew scattered issuesxtensiveyearsumber of useful articlesin thc newspapers Sovetskiy Sakhalin andzvesda.


central press was checkedead basis andfew useful

Technical and Economic Periodicals.

Technical and economic periodicals wereNeftyanoyeand Vnigria few useful

Technical Books.

Technical books were extensively screened. The books by Fedorov. Velikovskiy, and Pavlova were especially useful.

5. General Books.

Regional geographies and tho like were checkedead basis, but they yielded relatively little.

Evaluations, following thc classification entry and designated "Eval have the following significance:

of Information


A Completely reliable

sually reliable

airly reliable

ot usually reliable

ot reliable

annot be judged


- Confirmed by other sources

- Probably true

- Possibly true

- Doubtful

Probably false

- Cannot be judged

"Documentary" refers to original documents of foreign governments and organizations; copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or information extracted from such documentstaff officer all of which may carry the field evaluation "Documentary. "

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cite document; those designated "RR" are by thc author of this report. No "RR" evaluation is gJvcn when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.


Original document.

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