RESEARCH IB THB USSB5
CKNTRAL IHTKU.TflBHCg AQBJJCY
NO CHANGE IN CtASSTW^ ^DECLASSIFIED TIlVsS. CHANGEO TO:
GROPHYSICAL RESEARCH IB THS USSR
In Yiew of tha projected cooperation between tbe USSR tnd tbe Western world during tbe coningbort account of Sovietof geophysical research seems desirable. Since thia report amy be used by persons not familiar with Soviot condltioao, general discussion of research institutes, pure and applied oalenco in the OSSR, the secrecy associated with it, and the publications of the institutes is given first. The Information presented below has been extracted froa Soviet publications and ia presumably available to anyone who is able to read then. Research Institutes
The fundamental unit of research in the USSR is the Kovehno-Iesledovatel!skly Institut (Scientific Research Institute;he scientific research institute. Aa BU isather large organ! mt loo; some institutes are known to have staffs ofersona. One such is the Geophysical Institute of the Academy of Scleoces, USSR.
Tbe number of research institutes is very large, certainly. Assuming tbe overage figurecientists per re searchoviet scientists are engaged ia reso arch. This seems incredible, but tbe following con side rat loos should be taken into account.
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Moat Soviet aclentlets hava multiple connectlone, ao that they are counted et least twice In the total. An outstanding aclentlot aay be on the staffs ofozen research Institutes.
In the Bosnian language,"science"roader neanlng than In Engliah. The Academy of Science a, USSB,bola large division of "technicalhich are oicply technology. In specialized research institutes, most "scientists" are really engineers.
The Soviets aea to It that no scientific talent ls wasted. In fact, under the Soviet system orerson having completed his training is under obligation to work for the State. There Is no opportunity forerson toiving except in some State-supported and State-controlled institution.
Sclcntlata whose primary responsibility la teaching are under heavy pressure to carry out research studies and most of thea are also on Um staff of one or aore research institutes.
Tbe Soviets realize the valua of conscientious, routine, scientific workers who are not capable of independent recearch of thoir own but, when attachedeader, may ba extremely helpful in relieving him of the drudgery involved ln any large-scale scientific Investigation. Papers withrollaborators mentioned in the Introduction are not uaccaaoa in Soviet scientific periodicals. The large amount of asolstance aay help to explain the remarkable productivity of soma Soviet scientists.
Pure and Applied Sclenca
The Bovieto. In theory,harp distinction betveen pure and applied science and hava thereforekinds of research institutes:
rimary (golovnyyo) re near ch institutes In. the Academies of Sciences, and UnlvorBitiee
rcoearch Institutes attached
to various mini-tries aid administrations
The prionry Institutes are supposed to formulate problems aod develop methods of Investigation, the specialized institutes to apply these methods to specific problems. Xa reality, however, this distinction is practically nonexistent. Acadenle research institutes are constantly criticized for their detachment from the current problems of socialistic reconstructionj on the other hand, many specialized institutes carry out fundamental research.
The official attivide io all cases la fiercely utilitarian. "Science without practical applications, what kind of science is this?" These words of Stalin are quoted constantly. The keynote of the Academy of Sciences is cooperation vith Industry. The extensive selGeological program of the Geophysical Institute, Academy of Sciences, USSR, la frankly based on utilitarian considerations, sod much tbe same can be said of any other large program in geophysics. In general, say unusual activity ln geophysics can bo tracedirective of some coordinating body within the Academy of Sciences, which in tum takes its cue from tbe government. In fact tbe Academy of Sciences say be said to be part of the government, since its representatives are members of the Supreme
Council (Verkhovnyy Sovct) of the USSR.
ufllbUL ItaTuu'UTORKTG" SVFRSUTA
This ls not to ooy that pure research In the Western sense of tba word Is unknown In the USSR. In tha final analysis. It Is up to the selentlats thenselvcs to aay what Investigations are needed In order to achieve the desired practical goal. But they oust Justify their choice in terns of practical considerations.
ecent paper, for instance (Prlroda, Vol.xtensive program le proposed for the observation of the planet Nora in the coming great opposition of Mars should be observed not simply because It Is interesting to learn something about the planet, but because itood opportunity to test the aerodynamical theories of Soviet scientists Klbel, Trldman, and Kochin.
It is Important to notice that the proposed cooperation vith the Western world (end currently the Soviet press is enthusiastic about lt) ls to be done through the first group of Institutes and, more specifically, through the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Bothing bed been said about the specialized research Institutesecent Soviet announcement stated that leading scientistsM3 and QCSKP (abbreviations explained later) would participate in the Soviet Antarctic program. Ho mention was made of GUGK. This group of institutes involves soos of the most important organizations from the geophysical point of view. The recent decision to adhere to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) also comes from tho Academy of Sciences, USSR (Prlroda, Vol..
,fTO /uHBliJl JATIOBJLi EOB
Secrecy lo Science
Froa too very beginning of the Soviet regime, BOieace (end especially engineering) bee been recognised no the key to tbe mastery of the world. Up to tbe beginning of World Uer II, practically no effort was nade in the West to conceal scientific progress, but as early0 tho Soviets considered many aspects of their scientific progress as state secrets. The Germans learned by bitter experience that tha Soviet scientific and industrial potential was considerably greater than they imagined lt to be.
An American scientist brought up ln the idea of free scientific research will find it difficult to realise this situation, despite his own experience vith classified research. To him, atomic energy and guided missiles are the only obvious fields of science in which secrecy is necessary. The Soviets, however, have extended the area of secrecy to subjects that appear to the American scientist quite outside the. realm of immediate, or even possible, military application. This area of secrecy covero such geophysical topics as gravimetry, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, aurorae, etc. Concrete data on such subjeots are openly published within the USSR, but they aro never allowed to leave that country. Although often referred to in Soviet theoretical papers on these subjects, such sources are not available to Western scientiata. Wa may be sure that not more thanercent of Soviet scientific and technical literature, openly published in the USSR, over reaches the OS.
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EUR OfHCEUi UUC^JLY
In addition to thla, there ia an undatanalned but very large amount of classified literature on science and technology thatestrictedeven in the USSR.
A fev concrete examples nay clarify the situation. The Research Institute of Terrestrial) has beenuarterly entitled Cosmic Data, which contains nothing but indices of solar activity and corresponding geomagnetic data. There la exactly one Issue of this publicationt the Library of Congress, and lt le marked Tor Official Ooa Only, Theravity measures and of magna tic elements ln tha USSR hove never appeared in foreign countries, although neither publication ia regarded as secret, even from tha Soviet point of view.
Only recently have some crocks in this iron curtain of secrecy begun to develop. These cracks are not Blips in the system but are the result of the current phase of Soviet foreign policylimited scientific cooperation with tba Wast. An examination of the cracks shows better than any discussion tha conditions of scientific life in tbe USSR.
For boobreat Interest in radio astronomy on tba port of tha Soviets was evident. arge number of articloa on this oubject have been written by Soviot scientists, invariably using Western observational data as if thoy had none of their ova. CkUy loot simmer one of the Soviet meteor experta declared at the Manchester conference on radio astronomy that theat loo of radio telescopes Is being planned in tbe USSR, fronasual reader vould infer that no
radio teleocopes were actually in existence there. However, tho lost issue of the Soviet Astrooooical Journal (Astr.etailed descriptionadio-astronomy observatory in the Crimea, froa which one con see that the Soviets not only have elaborate equipnent ot two stations, but also tbat they havo pursued observational work vigorously Another recent reference (Vestnlk AS SSSR, Vol.ndicates that such work woo in progress as earlyears, therefore, the innocent subject of radio astronomy bao been considered secret by the Soviets!
Similarly, for years tbe Soviets made reference to theirobservations of surorao without specifying the place of Bow It appears tbat this work has been in progress1 at the Stratosphere Section of the Murmansk Station of the Geophysical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, USSR (Vestnik AH SSSR, Vol., Although thisey research institute in the proposed cooperation with the Vest, the very existence of this station was unknown.
A veil of secrecy has aloo been lifted slightly from the activity of the Arctic Research Instituteut only general results, not specific data, are given (lay. AH, Ser.ol.o.ust enough has been released to indicate the remarkable octlvity of the Soviets in this region.
Such subjects as high-altitude-rocket research, applications of radar in meteorology, shoraa, aod loran are only guardedly mentioned in Soviet literature. Although there is some discussion of the subjects, the observational data used ara invariably borrowed from tbe West. Thehere is undoubtedly the same as vith radio astronomy. All evidence
TO FOREIGN RATI ORALS
Indicates groat activity of tho Sovleta along these lines, if the present Soviet mood continues, perhnpa wo may hear soon of their progress.
Tho limitations of secrecy apply to Soviet aciontleta themselves. Host of them work along ebarply defined lines ondary limited knowledge of the situation outside their specialty.ery high degree of coordination is evident, but thla is achieved by directives from above. In short, Soviet science ls organised along nilitery lines. Publications
Tho general rule Is that every research institute In the USSR has Its own Journal,and the larger institutes have two or more. Theae are generally notble in the Meat, although many ara re^aented in OS librariesew ncoc^msecutlvo volumes. The" eltuation in the American llbrariea ls described in tbe Library of Congreaa reportPublications of the Sovietpecialto the Monthly List of Russian Ac ce salons,his publication,onthly List to keep it up to date,air idea of the availability of Soviet publications. Even thie list ls not complete, and the Library of Congress may be overly optimistic vhen it estimates that onlyercent of Soviot publications ever reach this country.
Publications of the Academy of Sciences, USSR (but not of other academiesX generally available; but even here there are conspicuous gaps, from the viewpoint of geophysics, the most Important academic publications are: IzveBtlyaR, Seriya Qcoflzicheskayo, whichlonger articles; Doklody Afl SSSR, which includes ahorter articles
oo all branches of science. Some articles of geophysical interest may also bc found ln Izvestlya, Bex, glziaheskaya (coshIc rays) aad Ser. Googroflche afcayaon s
Research Institutes, observatories, stations,revarious organisations, and their activities are coordinatedcouncils, commissions, or committees. So far as geophysicsthe following organizations* oreof Sclencos. The main Academy of Sciences of tha
USSR (AB SSSR) hasesearch institutes, and theacademiesore. The number ofln the academies is very large, awards and decorations granted to outstanding workersAH SSSR alone numberedod. Among thethe most Important for geophysical research arethe Ukrainian, Georgian, Uzbek, and Kazakh The most important universities, each of which
arge number of research Institutes attached to it, ere those of Moscow and Leningrad.
ist of research units in these organizations is given in Appendix A. The abbreviations used in the list constitute one of tha stumbling blocks in tho use of Soviet scientific literature. The names ore usually not spelled out, and the reader is often in doubt as to the identity of the Institution referred to. More0 such ebbrevla-tioao are now being used in Soviet literature.
tratIon of Hydrometcorologlcal Service. Thlo is
a very large organizationesearch institutes, coneDO-pnyaicatobservatories, andbservation stations.
OUSMP Main Adadnlotratlon of Horth Sea Route. This isarge organization with several research institutes. In the Arctic Institute of thla Administration, research includes all phases of geophysics in the Arctic. The Administration has five Arctic geophysical observatoriesarge number (hundreds) of observing stations.
Administration of Oecdesy and Cartography. Most of the
work of this Administration is in geodesy and cartography of no lsmedlnte interest to geophyslelsts. However, ita TaHUGAik directs the gravimetric survey of the USSR, and much attention ia paid there to the problems of variation of latitude ond longitude.
ADLE TO. .dvli.uti.vLo
Subjects. Of Research A. Solar Activity
Visual and photographic observations of tha sua aro naturally made at astronomical observatories, and their vers Is coordinated by tha Solar Conralssion of the Astronomical Council, AH SSSR. onulletin, but it is not available to tho Vest. Some of these observatories are partrogram being carried out accordingefinite plan designed to correlate solar and terrestrial phenomena. This program lo knovn as the "Sun .Service" (Sluzhba Solntsa) and is under the management of the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetismhlch publishes the aerial Coamlc Pata (also not available). Theaa its own beUoohyslcal observatory at Xrasnaya Pakhra near Moscow. The two institutes of communication, TsHXIS and NIIISKA, are also partleipating In the prograa, presumably In the study of tha ionosphere.
Tho astronomical observatories in the Sun Service are: Kazan' (Engelhardt)
0A0 (Pulkovo,olar observatory near Kislovodsk)
Abastumoni (Georgian SSR)
kStkJbAaaous xo rvnttiua aAxiUuu^
Odessa Irkutsk Kiyev B. GqcaafPMtlaa
Too main institute lo the RIIZH la the system of the Thie inetltute haa carriedystematic magnetic aurvey of the USSR reoulting-la the primry determination of magnetic ele-enta through the use ofecondaryl). The data vlll be publishederies entitled "Magnitnoye Pole SSSR" (Magnetic Field of the USSR) in five volumes, of vhlchave been published. Although Vol.arthe general catalog, la available,iving the secular variations is not available. The survey, however, does not extend beyondthe far north being under the Jurisdiction of the ABU, vhlch banery thorough magnetic survey of the Arctic aad vhlch will now participate in the Antarctic program.
Tbe 0BOPIAH (Geophysical Institute of the Acndeny of Sciencea, USSR) has also done considerable research oa terrestrial magnetism. Magnetic observatories areparte of the geophyDlcal observatories, but they are situated outside the city ln vhlch the sain observatory Is located. In tbe following list, two nazes are therefore given for seas of the observatories:
pob owricTAi. rrre am
D Iks on
Aurorae and Alrgilpy
Regular observatiooa of alrglov ara carried out at soma of tho astronomical observatories, notably those In the Crimea and Alma-Ata. Tbe aodiacal light ia observed et the Ashkhabad Aotrophyflical Laboratory and ita subordinate stations and at Alma-Ate.
So far as observations of the aurorae are cencerned, the situation Is uncertain. The GEOPTABarge program for the study of tho spectrum of aurorae and alrglov at Hunranok. The aurorae stations would naturally be situated in the Arctic, that ia, under the jurisdiction of the ABII.4 the following nrteorological stationsegular aurorae program (Koamlcheafclye Pannyyo,:
n entirely different aet of arctic atatlona at which regular obserratlcasorea were carried out was given (PrOblerg Arkt<Jd Vol.- Thla list naturally includes tho five ABU arctic geophysical Ofcsarvatorieaoed onlus the following:
The discrepancy probably la explained by tho fact that tha first aet of atatlona ls under the Jurisdiction of the GOGMS, whereas the aecond set is under the Jurisdiction of the GOSMP. At any rate, there can be little doubt that aurorae are regularly observed at toneooviet stations.
T* flffiiaB RATTQttALS
It should be noted also tbat tbe 'AGO (Astronomic and Geodetic Society of the Soviet Union) Includes observations of auroras In Its program, and smny observations of this type are published in its bulletin. The observations, however, are sporadic and refer to brighter aurorae visible In lover Latitudes.
TJ. Ionosphere and Radio Aatronoay
Research on the ionosphere in very suchecret in the USSR, and little is published on the subject except in theoretical papors. The number and quality of these papors leave no doubt that the study of the ionosphere is being vigorously pursued ln the USSR.
The0 centers of ionospheric research sre as follows:
Institute of Applied Physics, with Tomsk Ionospheric Observatory
Institute of Applied Physics
Institute of the Academy of Science, USSR,igh-altitude observatory on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus (Krugoxor)
Cooperating with the PIAH in observations at Krugozcr
Institute of Cogmml cations in Moscow, withsection "LCSIISn in Leningrad, and with ionospheric observations at both places
Bed Army Institute of Com ml cations, with an ionospheric observatory in Moscow region
spectre-Technical Academy of Com ation
Ann Arctic Research Institutethe ionospheric data of all of its five arctic geophysical observatories (seoere freely published before World War II; nothing has bean heard of their activity since the vex.
Until very recently, radio as tree, coy ln tha USSR has alsoeep secret. We nov know that one of the ceoters of this research is in the Crimea (see, Institutes actively engaged ln research on radio astronomy include PTAH and GOT! and, in all probability, all other institutes listed in connection vith the study of the Ionosphere.
Tho centers for research on meteors ln the upper atmosphere are Stalinebad Aatrono_lcal Observatory and Ashkhabad Astrophysical Laboratory, vhlchatvork of observing stations in the vicinity of Ashkhabad. Magnetic effects produced by meteors are studied ot OEQPIAN andnd radar observations are carried out by the Sternberg Astrcnomical Institute in conjunction vith TeHHS.
It ohouid also be noted that nuch attention Is paid ln tha USSR to the problem of noctilucent clouds, especially at the 0EQ7IAH and VAOO.
E. Meteorology and tha Lover Atmosphoro
Records are available foroteorologicol stations in the system of tho Thasa stations are graded intoirst-class station having as many aseople on its staff. Soma research is done at auch larger atatloos, and the results are published in tbe periodicalldroloftiya. The main centers of research are:
TdAO Central Aerological Observatory at Dolgoprudnaya near Moscow
Geophysical Observatory in
TelT Central Institute of Forecasting, Moecov
Hydrolog!eel Institute, Leningrad
Recentlyour Hydrometeorologlcal Raseexch Institutes vere established in Tbilisi, Hlyev, Vladivostok, and Alma-Ata; but little ia known of their activity. There Ispecial research Institute for hydro-meteorological ir^truoentatlon (HUGHP) In Moecov.
The study of various phenomena ln tho atmosphere of the earth, such as ecatterlng of light, transparency, star scintillation, turbulence,s carried out at the GE07IAH, PILGU (Physical Institute of the Ienlngrndnd several astronomical observatories, notably those at Alma-Ata and Abe-stumani.
Tbe main organisation in seismology loIAH, which maintains U6 seismic stations anduarterly, Bulletin of Seismic Stations, USSR (Byulleten' Setl SeVBnlchflBklkh Stantoiy SSSR). As of3 there vereermanent seismic stations in the USSR, assigned neatly to academies. This list does not include any seismic stations that may be in the Arctic.
A special Institute of Seismology Is located at the Academy of Sciences of Tadzhik Republic, but very little is known of its activity.
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OREIGN HATICRAL8 0. Variation of Pole and longitude
Tho USSR hasery large research program, both for the observation of thesa phenomena and for their theoretical Interpretation. The goal ls stated frankly to be tho correlation of these astronomical phenomena vith geophysical factors such as seasonal tronsfor of masses of air for the odvancement of long-range voathar forecasting.
The variation of the pole Is observed ot tha following stations:
KMShS Kitab International Latitude Station
At PGO, AOS, and IAO, earth tides are also being observed regularly.
The Soviets maintainndependent time stations3 inn Leningrad,ach In Riga, Blkolayev, Khar'kov, Tashkent, and Irkutsk. The variation of longitude is receiving much attention, especially at GEOFIAH.
H. Cravinc try
The main institution In the development of grnvimotry is the TsHUGAlK (Central Research Institute of Geodesy, Photogramootry, and Cartography) In the system of GOGK. ystematic survey of all OSSR territory vaa carried
out under Ita direction1 and resulted In0 pendulum Determinations of gravity cere fully reduced to tha Potadsm System. Hone of this aaterlal la available outside of the OSSB.
Theoretical Investigations of gravity are carried out at the ITA (Institute of Theoretical Astronomy) of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, and at several astronomical observatories. At tbeH therepecial section of gra vine try, but the field vers la now under tha direction of the various GCCK organ!latloos.
The outstanding academic Institute for oceanography Is the MOIAH (Marine Bydrophyslcallong with its sections In Moscow and Crimea (Katsivoll). AB (Institute ofuch attention is paid to marine life. State Institute ofhich is ln the system of the GTJQMB, Is carrying out systecmtlc surveys of seas adjacent to the OSSR territory. Ia the system of, there are several marine observe torladivostok, aod Potropavlovsk on Kamchatkaut their roles are not knovn. Probably much important work is carried out by tba Hydrographic Adsdnlstratlooa of the Havy snd of the GOSMP, but little Is knovn of their activity.
The Academy of Sciences, OSSR, includes IMAB (institute ofno of whofio functions is the study of glaciers. The IOAH (institute of Geography)pecial glaciologlcal station ln the Tyan'-Shen'
IU* gai'lUlAL UJB CULT
Mountains, and tbe Institute of Geophysics, AH Oecarglan SSR, istudy of glaciers In the Caucasuso. Tbe nest Important work, however. Is probably being perfca-ned at the ABU (ace. Cosmic Rays
Tho moat Important institute for research on cosmic rays is tho FTAR (Physical Institute of the Academy ofhich rmlntalns oovoral stations at Elbrus (Caucasus Mountains) and ln the Tyan'-Shen' Mountains. The Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Armenian SSR, is also active in thla field. Arctic Research
Arctic ra search la discussed herenit because lt does not fit Into any one specific phase of geophyslca. Tho ABU (Arctic Research Institute) of the CD3KP is responsible for research on all aspects of geophysics. Itery large Institute and upramendoua amount of information on all aspects of the Arctic. Since the war, however, no publicationa of thla institute except those relating to marine Life have boon allowed to leavo the USSR. Only recently (Vestnik AB SSR, Vol.M bos tho curtain been lifted scevvhat, Juat enough to show that arctic research in the USSR haaace the warery large scale. The ABU la definitely known to have five geophysical observatories (Bukhta Tlkhaya, Uollen, Matochkln Soar, Dlkaon, Chelyuskin; Hated onnd probably others at Bay Tlkal (mouth of
. appehdtx research obqabizatiobs
Rain Agencies; I. Al (Academies of Sciencea)
II. GUGM3 (Main AaminiBtratdon of Bydrtmeteorologlcal Servlce)
III. GOSMP (Main Administration of Horthern Sea Route)
IV. COOK (Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography)
V. GUVOZ (Main Adsdoia tret ion of Higher Educational la* tl tutiocs)
I. Academies of Sciences (AH)
A. AH, USSR
L. GBOFIAB (Geophysicalir.. Goaburtaev*
Murmansk Station: aurorae, uppertatiooB
Elbrus Observatory: uppercosmic rays
2. FIAH (Institute ofir. D. V. Skobel'teyn
Elbrus Observatory! cosmic rays Kryo Station: radiosBtronomy
3- MOIAH (Institute of Marineir. V. V. Shuleykla
Kryo Station at Kotalveli: motion of poles aod tides
*. IOAH (Institute ofir. B. V. Kort
Arctic research; tides
5. GAO (Main AstroDomical Observatory atir. A. A. Mlkhaylov
Gravity, variation of the(Kislovodsk): sun
HOOAO (Hikolaysv): variation of the pole
nviRSRsmr to wrm^tm
(Crimean Astrophyslcsl Observatory,ir. A. B. 8evernyy
Bight Dhy, bud, radloaBtrooooy
(Kamchatka Volcanologlcalir. V. I. VlodavetB
8. AB, Ukranlaa.
KCO (Kirov OeophyBicelll aapecta of geophyalca
POO (Poltava Gravimetricir. t. I. Akeent'yeva
Variation of latitude aod earth tldee
3- GAO (Ooloeeyevo Halo Astronomicir. A- A. Yakovkia
Variation of latitude
AH, Tadzblk SSR
Dir. V. I.eismic stations
Dir. A. V. 8olov'yev Meteors, upper ateospherB
AH, Turkmen SSR
1. AAL Ashkhabad
2. TAO Tashkent
Stations at Asbkhabad, Khayrabsd, Dusbak
Mo too re, uppertatlona
Dir. V. P. Shcheglov
Kites International Latitude
Station (KMShS): variation of
latitude, bub, meteors
AB, Oxbek SSR
sSS Samarkand P. AB,
1. GAO Alma-Ate
wavcwjrm iisb MB
II- Main Administration of BydrcacteorologicalCM3)
Institutes and Observatories
Main Qeophyaicaloyyeykovo, Leningrad
Reaearch Institute of Terrestrialellophyslcal
raenaya Fakhra, Moscow
3- BIIGXP (Research Institute of Hydromoteorological TaAO (Central Aero logicalolgoprudnaya 5- TsLT (Central Institute ofoscow 6. State Bydrologicaleningrad 7- COIN (State Oceanographlcoscow
Geophysical Observatories (UGMS)
(magnetic observatory ot Vyaokaya Dubrava)
(nagnatlc obeervstory at Dushetl)
(magnatlc observatory at Zuy)
(magnatlc observatory at Kales)
(magnetic observatory at Zaymlahche)
(aagnotic observatory at Takov)
ot iota trpBB-
Ih. KBICaa Kazakh (Alma-Ata!)
OirXGMI Klyev (f)
III- Main Administration of tho Bbrtfcgrp Sea Route (GUSMP) A- GaophyaicsJ. Observatories (All aspects of geopbyalce)
Bokhta Tlkhayn Matochkln Shar
B. Polarotalparticipating In vaxloua types of geophysical observationsJ
IV- Halo Administration of Geodesy and Cartography (OUOK)
(Central Scientific Research Institute of Oeodeay,
Photogramuetry, and Cartography)
Oravimetry, variation of latitude and longitude
V- Main Administration of Higher Educational Institutions (gUVUZ) A. fnlngrad University
1- AOLGU (Leningrad Astronomical Observatory)
(Research Institute of Physics)
Upper atmosphere, actlnometry, cosmic rays
3- IZH (Institute of Terreatrlal Cruet)
Crust of the earth
B. Hoacov University
1. OAISb (Sternberg Astronomical Institute)
Sun, variation of latitude, tine
0* Gor'*ly unlveralty
(Oor'kly Institute of Applied Physics)
(Exact nam not available)
Variation of latitude
D. Kazan' phivarsity
(Kaxan Astronoolcal Observatory)
Variation of latitude
(Bngelhardt Astronomical Observatory)
Variation of latitude, earth tides, aun, oooultatloos
K. L'vov Unlveralty
1. LAO (L'vov Astronomical Obaervntory)
P. Klyev Unlvarsity
1. KAO (Klyer Astronomical Observatory)
Q. Irkutsk University
I, IAO (IrkuUfr"Astronomical ObBervotory)
Sun, variation of latitude, earth tidea
PPlUUiL UhlL OHLT-
) wa oprioiAt-ica user
1. TAO (Toobx Astronomies! Observatory)
2- ara (Siberian Phyeico-Technical Institute)
I. AOTOU (Ural Astrcncolcnl Observatory)
(Central Institute of Communications, Moscov Ionospheric Station)
(Leningrad Section of TsfiTIS) Ionosphere
(Red Army Institute of Communications, Moscov and Leningrad
(Military Electro-Technical Academy of Cccctunlcatloos)
lOft-OfTTCIA farfXss -Original document.