A MALTS IS OF THE TNTERHATIOSAL BCGRDART SITOATIOH IR THE CHUROTSK AREA
In view of the sensitive situation in the ChuXotsk Area and the lack of precise knowledge of Soviet definitions and interpretations of International boundaries, lines of deaarcation, and territorial waters, the following questions are being discussed-
1. Ihe boundary between Alaska and ths USSR was delimited in tbe
convention between the United States and Russia,eding
Alaska to the United States. Inf this convention, the
Bering See portion of tbe line of deaarcation ls defined as follows:
The western limit within which the territories and dominion conveyed, are contained, passesoint Intralte on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty ainuteo north latitude, at its intersection by thewhich passes midway between the islands of Krusenstern, or Ignalook, and the island of Ratmanoff, or Hoonarbook, and proceeds due north, without limitation, into the same Frozen Ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, prcceedo thenceourse nearly southwest, through Bearingraits sad Bearing'b sea, so as to pass midway between thepoint of the Island of St. Lawrence and thepoint of Cape Cnoukotskl, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the Intersection of that oaridlan,outhwesterly direction, so aa to pass aid way between the Island of Attou and the Copper island of the Koraandorski couplet or group in the Berth Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees weet longitude, ao as to Include in the territory conveyed the whole of the Aleutian Islands east of that meridian.
2. In essence tha lioe does notoundary between the
waters of the US and the USSR except where the territorial waters of the
two countries overlap ln the Bering Strait, namely between the islands
of Big Dicmede and Little Dioaede, which areiles apart. It
nay have been thought7 tbat more Islands remained to be discovered
the surrounding waters and that agreementine would automatically deternlne ownership.
The coordinate positions for plotting of thc US-Russia Convention Line7 are given in Enclosure 1. Nap) shows the line and its position relative to the International Date Line. As far as isbe Soviets attach no significance to the dateline.
Although the convention stated that the line proceeded due north without limitation into the Arctic Ocean, it would be best not to extend the line to the Pole, even though this might be implied. Such edmioaion would lend support to the sector theory employed by the Soviets.
5. There seems to be no written evidence to suggest that the Sovieto are intending to consider thiae facto international* However, if they should, some of their own publications providewhich could be construed to the contrary. In excerpts from Russian sailing directions for the Chukotek Sea (Lotalya Chukotsltogo Horya, GUU Glavsevmorputl,nder the title "Administrative Boundaries: The Chukotskhe Soviets state that the "Asiatic shores of the Cbukotsk Sea, including Vrangel Island and Herald Island, are governed by the USSR and are territorially Included in the KhebaroVGkiy Kray of the RSFSR - The boundary between the possessions of tbe USSR and the ISAine of agreement crossing the Bering Strait between the Diomede Islands. The American Coast of tbe Chukotak Sea belongs entirely to the USA." In an article appearing in Sovetakoyeravo, Ho-. H. Vyshnepol'skiy states, "Heitber of the coastal powera, at the present time, pretends to realize, ln these aeaa ^Barents and Bering/ their Jurisdiction
their territoriale does, however, declare the Chukotakclosed sea" along with the Kara, Laptev, and Eaatem-SIberian Seaa.
6. To the best knowledge of this office, there have been no incidents inh century involving the air space or water space In
the area to the north, east, and south of the Chukotsk area.
7. Consercial fishing la not on important factor in the Chukotsk area, which is north of the fishing grounds. International fishing rights in the Bering Sea, however, are recognized, as evidenced by tho
statement appearing in Sovetokoyeravo, which states
that "the Barents, and Bering Seas are typical examplee of 'openhey are associated with 'open seas' because they are important Inter-national Industrial areas and their great marine riches, for many yeero, have been used by the many fleets of various nations. In regards to conditions for international navigation, neither the Barents nor tbe Bering Seas differ froa other seas ln the subtropical or temperate
8. Bo recent Incidents relative to fishing rights are recorded. The only documented incident is that which occurred subseouent to the Treatyontroversy took place betveen tha United States and Russia over ths latter'e seisure of American vessels in the Bering Sea west of the demarcation line. Thia diapute led to tbs algnatursoduo Vivendin which tho United States agreedimit ofautical allea on tha Russian coaets of the Baring Sea and the Worth Pacific Ocean for hunting furadius ofautical miles around the Koatendorakiy Islands and Tulle nev Island waa alao agreed upon.
9* Ihe Sovietsmile limit la territorial waters for all the coasts of the Soviet Union. This position Is confirmed by A. B- Bikolaev ln Problcmc. Territorial'nykheshdunarodnom Prave. Qoeyurlzdat,hich elaborates on the question of the concept of territorial waters in general, stating, "We have established that Soviet Territorial Watersart of the territory of tbe USSR, are under Ita suzerainty, and ara Ita national socialist possession. The extent of the territorial waters at the present tine equalaautical milee."
Confirmation of thia position Is servederies of legislative acta of the Soviet Government, which in part are as follows:
Constitution of the USSRn which it Ishat the watar as well as the land, its subsurface, and so on, are national property.
The Poaitlon on the Defense of Rational Boundaries of the Soviet Union,7ndtnile sone of Soviet territorial waters, over whose entire expanse the exclusive authority of the Government of the USSR prevails.
The Air Kodex of the Soviet Union5n which the exclusive euteralnty of tbe USSR over the airspace above Its tsrritorlal waters is affirmed.
(U) The SNK (Soviet Bexodnykh Koeeiisarov; Council of People'a Coaalnsars) decree of5 on the regulation of fiahlng and the protection of fish reservesn which it is indicated that territorial watersart of the fishing areas of the USSR, etc.
10- In regard to the above position on territorial waters, lt la iatereating to note that aa late0 some Soviet authora used the definition of territorial waters recommended by the Hague Conference. It Is alao Bignificant that the book. Problems Territorial'nykhczbdunarodnrm Prave, devotes considerable diGCuaaion to the confusion existing among some Soviet authors, vho erroneously do not adhere to the concept thatalle territorial watersart of the territory of tba Soviet Union, completely under the suzerainty of -the USSR andart of its national territory. Instead, these authors maintain the position that the Soviet Union has no territorial waters completely under its suzerainty but that it merely exercises special rights in special zones. Singled out for special criticism ie V. A. Belli, the author of Voeanp^Morskoy Merhdunarodno-pravovoy SpravochnlHnd9
he Chuhotsk Peninsula,ecent comprehensive study in which the physical and cultural geography of tha Peninsula are analyzed for the purpose of estimating ita strategic significance.
ontains the complete details of the conference held at HQ ACIB on1 for tba purpose of delineating the IS-USSR Treaty Line on Maps and Charts. Also included is Enclosureepartment of State Intelligence Memorandum0, Boundary Between Alaska and the USSR.
FimiZED REPORTffiESEMg IBLDATl
0. SUBJECT: Delineation of US-USSR Treaty Line on Haps and Charts,Submitted by State Department and Hrdro graphic Offioa
Prewnt at the oonferaoea vera tha following;
R.k. Studda,S CdTo R. W. Knox, Chiaf, Division ofS. Rlttonburg, last. Chiaf of Division of
Mr. Laming Sisaums, Chief, Katbaaatieal Division of
S Lt... Rary Hydrographlo Offioa.. Navy Sydro graphic Offioa Mr. Paul Alexander, Amy Map Servioe Mr. Charles F.. Geological Survey Mrs. Sophia A. Ssnearaan, Dspartsent of State Mr. Arthur Ball
Mr. Loren A. Bloom, Aeronauticalnfaraatlon Service Mr. Lawrence P. Broun, Aeronauticalnformation Ssrvico Mr. Dewey S. Peglsr, Aeronauticalnforaatloo Serrioe
2. Purpose of ths meeting was toroposal of thsconcerning tha delineation of the treaty line between UnitedAasrloa and DSSR and to agreeonsistent treatment of this linoand charta published. Government-
3- The convention between Russia and. concluded7 oonoerning the cession of Russian Horth American
ooloniea was ravlewed to de terrains tha proper delineation ofs, by establishing geographic coordlnatss of turning points and intermediato points along the lino. Thia was dona to assure the uniform plotting by all agencies of ths treaty lino on various projects. It was agreed that theee coordinates would ba snbjsot to modification resulting from future surveys, ohangss in datum, spheroid, ate.
a. Inf7 Convention the Baring Saa portion boundary is defined as follows:
"The western limit within which ths territoriescootsyed are contained, passesointstraits on ths parallel of sixty-fireminutes north latitude, at its Intersection bywhich passes midway between the Islands of Krosanstarn,
Ignalook (Littlend tha island of Ratasnoff,
or Hoonarbook (Bignd prooseds duo north,Into ths same Froien Ocean, The saasbeginning at ths saas initial point, prooseds tbsa course nearly southwest, through Behrlng's straitssaa, so as to pass midway between thsof the island of St. Lawrence and ths southsaatCaps Chockotaki, to the aarldlan of one hundred andwast longitude; the one, froa ths intersection of that
meridianouthwesterly direction, so as to paas midway
between tht island of At torn atri tea Coppor Ofe day) is land of the Kor-andorukl ccuplai, er group, in the Gorth Pacifico tbe meridian of one lucdrsd and ninety-three degree* west longitude, so aa tc Include in the territory conveyed the whole of tha Aleutian inlands east of that meridian."
5-feecription of this Convention Line, extractedtate Department letter w> the ayurographio Office under date,lk la quoted herewith by way of Interpretation.
*'A pointoronengl'.-ude The latter it; the aarloUan bvtamtM the easternmost poin- cl Big Dioxede Islund *nd the Atsternaati point of Little Dicnede Islat.-i. li is bustrd. Coastangolation,i. and la on etc 'Eorrh' The point inorch latitwle is -he turning point ni the southern end ol' *he luridian relertad to.
fc. oint, on the tmrtdlanHengicude at the teiminu*irel* starting at the first turningjied above and passingoint Mlrtwy between the northwest, point of St, Lawrence Island and the southeast point- of Caps Chukotski,
e.oint cn tbar Earn,est) .treat circle beginning at the last named turning point, and pissing midway be'oieen Attu Islande Aleutians and Copper (Modry) Island ln the Komandorskie Islands. This latter point la tha tanalrtus of the Convention Line."
It was agreed that the line beussia Convention" This treaty line does notoundary between tha uatero of. and OSSR except betuaen overlapping territorial water* of both countriea In th* Beringlsewhere the waters of Bering Sea are regarded as high seas outside the territorial sea of the two countries?
7. Tha following delineation of ths Convention Line was agreed on:
atWorth latitude In tha Arctic Sea, thsrun south on theongitude toorth latitude- (It was agreed to carry theLire" only as far north asHorth latitude.)
the above.Icnjituca) tha line runs almost southwesturningorth latitude,West longitude (point ofd meridian West longitude by tbe great circleest longitudeoint midway betweenserenity of St. Lcwrence Island and tho southeast extraCape Chukotski).,
o. From the aboveerth latitude,Vast longitude) tha line runs sonthuast passing midway between Attu Island and Kupper (Coppar) Island and endsi1 North latitude,East longitudeWest longitude).
8. The Bydrcgrapble Office has deiernlned the latitude for the points in paragraphndbove and has furnished tha attachedcharts on which the line of demarcation Is indicatedreat circle course broken down to Increments of fire degrees.
Based on the Navy requirement to shew the Convention Line to assure "hat the operations carried on in that area vould be in waters ln which the right of American ships would be unchallenged and to assure consistent treatment, it was agreed that all maps and charts wouldentire Una as described inbove.
After cacaidsrable discussion, it was decided that the standard international boundary symbol now shown. agency naps and charts of this area will continue to be used unless tbe State Department recorxssnds otherwise.
Mr. Bog p. of tbe State Department later definitely recommended that tho standard international boundary symbol employed for land areas should not be used in the water areas of Bering Sea and Beringt was poTnted out that there were very few water "boundaries'1 extending outside tbe land areas that properly constitute international boundariesan example being ths United States-Canada boundary in Passamaquody Bay extending through the territorial waters only to the high sea. Subsequent discussion with Mr. Boggs disclosed the fact that the State Department would interpose no objection to the useashed line symbol In the presentation ofUSSR line of demarcation.
Revoking tha decision reached in paragraphbove, the Aeronautical Chart and Information Service intends .toashed symbol to delineate this line. Subsequent telephone discussions with participating representatives indicated that most age no lea intend to use the dash line symbol as recommended by the State Dapartaant. Some agencies, however, wish to reserve final decision pending further consideration.
Coordinate Positions for Plot ofussia Convention Lino7
(Capo) Chukotski; southeast extremity
3t. LaHraane Island, northwest extremity
Hsdny (Copper Island),extremity
Attn Island, Western extremity
Initial Turning Point
Turning Polnv. Nc. 2
Mid Point hetwean Medny and Attu Island
southwestern extremity of Convention lino
inoreaonttf of longitude along great oirola area
3 H 8 E
R.7 NewlUth Ed.3 oorr. to Jan. 'US
H.st Ed.U Corr. to0
H.h Ed.orr. to
8 Uth Ed.orr. to0
Starting point ofe