CSM No. No.
CURRENT SUPPORT MEMORANDUM
INDICATIONSOMBINED EVACUATION-SHELTER PLAN IN THE SOVIET BLOC
IFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
This report represents ihe immediate views of the originating intelligence components of the Office of Research and Reports. Comments ore solicited.
HISTORICAL RRflBN PP-OB? RELEASE AS SANITIZED
^ment contains Information affecting the national defense the United*3tatesQyithin the meaning of tfafr-cf Inrt. TitleSC,iStJad=3inrtfansmisslon or revelation of which hiaiUlLl Uj an unauthorized person is prohibited by
INDICATIONSOMBINEDPLAN IN THE-sOVIEf BLOC
It is becoming evident that the Soviets are modifying their civil defense system by building sizable underground air defense shelters in areas outside major cities which, in time of war, might logically be considered as targets for atomic or heavier nuclear attack.' Confirmation of many of these reports is lacking butrogram, if widespread, would indicateerious effort is being made to save important segments of the populationrogram combining evacuation and dispersed shelter foragainst aerial attack.
Major General G. Pokrovskiy of the USSR, writing on atomic defense, reportedlytatemento the effect thatdefense against atomic weapons might be achieved bythe populationistance greater than twice the radius of expected destructionarget area and placing them in "proper shelter." General Pokrovskiy conceded that the "commonly used type" of air defense shelter might not give sufficient protection against atomic weapons, particularly in case ofor underground bursts. 2/
Some evidence has been found which leads to the conclusion thatrogram may have already been Initiated. Atomic bomb shelters are under construction or projected for various cities in Czechoslovakia, umania, ungary and the USSR. o be truly effective, sucK shelters would have to be located well outside the target area and provided with an airsystem for protection against radioactive fall-out. In areas remote from large cities, gas-proofing of farmuch as has been describedoviet chemical defense manual,ight increase the Soviets1 capacity to handle evacuees from large cities.
The clearest pattern of establishing large shelteroutsidearge Sovbloc city is apparent near Sofia, Bulgaria. One report states that air raid shelters have been completed in seven villages* of the Sofia areaotal estimated capacityersons. 7/ Five additional large underground construction projects in the foothills north or south of Sofia have been reported by other sources. 8/ Two or three locations were the_ sites of. governmental shelters during World War II, but others appear to represent new construction. They are generally located on access roads at distances varying from three to ten miles. (See sketch)
Additional/reportsombined evacuation-shelter plan have been received. In Czechoslovakia, for example, the decision to construct atomic bomb-proof shelters was madeccording0 Czechere allocated4 for constructing shelters for the cities of Prague, Plzen, Usti-nad-Labem, Liberec, Decin, Most, Brno, Morovska-Ostrava, Olomouc and Trencln. 9/ One such shelter, constructed in the sideeep valley nortKwest of Bratislava,
1 Two ofave not been located. Their locations were stated to beReidut and Pidusna (Sic).
-CURRENT SUPPORT MEMORANDUM2
was tolanned capacity0 people. In- this area have been received. Suburban airhave also been reported near the cities ofottwaldov,ndn
Suburban shelters in other countries occasionally have been mentioned. Atomic bomb shelters have been constructed "outside but near" Bucharest,nd in China, accordingong Kong newspaper report,air raid shelters were constructed in the Shanghai suburbs.eturning German was told by fellow prisoners in the USSR that they were digging tunnels in the hills near Magadan for use as air raid
Using shelters outside cities would necessarily involve extensive utilization of transport, particularly motor transport. Organization of motor transport for mobilization has beenfrom Czechoslovakia. This may, of course, be related to military preparations only, however, driver training has been accentuated during the past two years in connection with all the Sovbloc paramilitary bodies. These organizations, heavilyin civil defense training, would logically be theground for auxiliary civil defense personnel needed toand control any evacuation movement. Reports have been received of planned evacuation lnndut these are unconfirmed and the extent of evacuation un-3cfined.
Formerly reported civil defense preparations in the Soviet Bloc have not been connectedispersal program. Civil defense construction has largely been limited to shelter building in cities and factories. The extent of this new preparation for evacuation in the case of air attack cannot be demonstrated at present. Theoreticalransport preparations, reports of heavy underground shelter in the environs of Sovbloc cities, and rumors of an evacuation scheme, following theof hydrogen weapons are too timely to be disregarded. It must be concluded, therefore, that additional civil defense preparations are being made because of the untenability of major cities in the event of nuclear attack. Dispersal and shelter will undoubtedly be utilized, first of all, to preserve the essential elements of control, the Party, government and security forces.
Analyst: Coord: .
CIA. , "Evacuation and.Dispersed Shelter Suggested for USSR Nuclear9
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state, Bucharest,ec7IA. CS,
Army, office of the Chief Chemical Officer, Intelligence Branch Study Numberoviet Protective Shelters, Part.FF
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arch SUPPORT MEMORANDUM4