PROSPECTUS

Created: 12/5/1956

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the past three years of research with the drug L. S., we have developed reliable methods of analyzing social situations and interactions. Our progress in assessing personality types is useful in diagnosis and prediction. These methods are basedulti-discipline assessment of personality in dynamic social adjustment under normal circumstances and

underrug effect, ft

. Tbe briefest phrase to characterize our main area of study is

"socialaboratory of experimental social psychiatry has been established inay that various types of personality and many

situations maybe subjected to critical study. For example. Its methods

can be applied to any specific problem such as the effects. D. or other oteeVeJ

drugs likeor the improvement of interpersonal relations.

There are two important steps to be taken: ompleting the work in progress of personality types so we can define more clearly our social personality types and relate them to (a) the more standard, objective tests such as tho Wechsler-BcUevue on which Gittinger's theory of types is based, and (b) the conventional clinical projective tests such as the Rorschachhematic Apperception, cpaaaaa^hoaaaa'ent

nf step-Involves several irrtuur^prrrjecte

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making moresubject-experimenter relationships.

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We-asespecific areas of personality, each- of -wldoh-ia-

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AND METHODS INVOLVED

A- Social Personality Assessment

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personality along simple social dimensions by easily applied interview and

observational methods to determinearticular type functions under stresses induced by social-situational changes or drugs.

The social dimensions we used hero focused primarily on tbe subject's

Interpersonal relationship: erson's feelings about other people; {b)

how does he communicate to other people; (c) how does be react to stress

situations which involve his relationships to other people; (d) how aware is he of bow he le behaving when he is with other people. From these dimensions we derived thirty-six personality attributes.

Through one method, of analysis,heoretical point of view of tbe above method of evaluation, six personality types havo been determined. The relationships established between, these types and their reaction to. have been reported innnual Report. Persons who over-value acceptance or rejection of others tendurmoil type. reaction. Persons who are socially introverted are most likely tochizophrenic type of reaction. On the other hand we were unable to predict tbe psychiatric syndrome or its severity In the elated or interactive type. It is clearly indicated that further careful study is required, to determine more reliable criteria for prediction and diagnosis.

Some subjects maintained enough of their. traits to remain characteristically of the same personality type under L. >S. D. Others, however, showed. traits opposite their. characteristics.

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A more thorough investigation of these two trends is needed which will clarify the significant dynamics of personality reaction to stress.

To help resolve the above areas ofactor analysis has been done on the thirty-six attributes. Two very reliable, relatively pure factors have been determined:s the dimensionntroversioa-extxoversionj whileanges from dominant-extrapunitive to

submissive-iutrapunitive dimensions. The determination of these factors open up considerable opportunity to correlate this method of assessment with other more sUndardised tests such as the Wechsler-Bellevue and other projective tests such aa the Rorschach.

Another method used in the study of the assessment of the social personality is the questionnaire. The Direction-Control Questionnaire is filled out by tha subject himself before he takes L.

On the basis of Interview data of the first forty-three subjects, we found that specific changes in social direction took place from pre toeer aa so in moving with, an increase in moving away, toward and against othor people. From the interview data weuestionnaire of two hundred and eleven items toerson's behavior in these areae. esult of an item reliability analysis,ample of two hundred and twenty college students, we have reduced the number to forty-three highly discriminating items.

ArPiOVIDEOIIIEUASE

The dimensions measured by this questionnaire axe: (Z) the fiveerson moves in hia interpersonalith, toward, out, away and against other people, and {bj tho type of control he

experiences as he interacts with others. Further work will include scoring previous questionnaires to correlate them with personality types and factor scores.

This technique offers us the opportunity to determine the relationship between the social personality assessment by interview and observation with an assessment by the subject himself and with other testing procedures.

The following method and organization of study of tbe social personality assessment is proposed:

There is data available on one hundred and twenty-five subjects which can be classified on social personality attributes. So far only forty-three subjects have been classified. It Is proposed that this year tho complete data will be classified. Thia will extend the number of subjects in each categoryoint where our results will be moro statistically reliable.

New subjects will be studied to the extent necessary to increase our sample in any categoriestatistically treatable number. It Is Impossible to state the number of additional subjects that aro necessary.

In. the elated personalityizeable number of subjects are represented. So far no significant predictive trend has been established for this typo. By factor analysis of the various attributes, it is expected that this olated category may be subdivided into component categories which will bo statistically reliable for predictive as well as diagnostic purposes. More subjects of this type will be tested in our conventional manner if it is necessary.

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eliable scoring method has been established (or the Direction-Control Questionnaire (See Social Personality Assessment). Soventy-fivo L. S. D. subjects have been administered tbis questionnaire. The scoring and analysis will bo carried out this. year. This would be expected to lead to morealuaiion of the social personality types. The two

methods of assessment of personality, the social interview, which is more

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informal and personal in ita administration, and the Direction-Control Questionnaire, which covers the same general area by using an established series of questions will be compared. Tbis comparison of these two instruments should show which areas of interview are of most value as well astandardised measuring device, namely, the Dlrectiou-Control Questioanadre. Additional studies of college students will be carried on in the application of these instruments. B. Gittinger's Theory on the Wecbslcr-BeUevue Psychometric

The general theory of Gittinger's personality types has proved fruitful as witnessed by "Tho Predictive Potential of Gittinger's Theory" in our last semi-annual report which dealt with polar classifications basod on acquaintance with the subjects. The theory being attached to one of the most reliable psychological Instruments (Weehaler-Bellovue) makes possible the attainment of relationships to social and projective measures' of personality. In addition, Gittinger's attaching of hypothesis to each mode of learning (subtests) may reveal which adjustment patterns indicated by other instruments aro stable or in the process of change. Moreover, the scatter pattern, depleting the subject's preferential modes of learning should prove useful in

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extinguishing personality types displaying similar behavior patterns, but varying dynamic structures.

We have already acquired forty Wechsler-Bellevues on subjects prior to their taking. Analysis of scatter and correlation with other measures would be needed to indicate how many cases would be required to render reliable the dynamics underlying scatter patterns. Selected individuals would be tested to provide us with adequate sample for each* theoretical quadrant and assure us of proper statistical manipulation. C. ^Psychological Projective Tests

Tha Thematic Apperception, Rorschach Ink-blot andersor Tests are conventional clinical instruments. We have used them to assess overall personality style, perceptual organisation and interpersonal attitudes, both with and without L. S. D. The content of the subject's personality problems is also Indicated.

The average results of twenty-nine subjectsroup have been analysed for each toat separatoly and were reported in our last semi-annual report.

A substantial contribution would be made to assessment of personality dynamics if tbe performance of each subject separately on the three projective testa were analysed. Twenty-four subjects have taken these tests who had our standard doso. S. D. It is planned to correlate the subjects' responsoa on the three tests to identify discrete peychologlcal types.

These same twenty-four subjects have been classified into types arrived at by the social personality assessment method so the psychological types will be compared with the social types. Tbis procedure will provide

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a comparative test and may suggest new dimensions or type refinements for the present social personality categories.imension of depth of

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inner personality structure will thus be added to the breadth of outer social patterns.

Minor Areas for Completion It is proposed to continue some work in several areas ncaring completion or growing out of tbe previous research.

Tbe Feeling Tone Communication Device, mentionedethod innnual Report, has been given to twenty subjects. It Is the most direct scorable assessment of emotions per se which we use, warranting completion of scoring and analysis.

Tbe difficulty. subjects in expressing their thoughts and feelings has been viewedhenomena of emotional blocking, intellectual deficit and interpersonaln educational psychologist, speech therapist, has become interested in studying L. S. D. speech difficulties. We havo recorded interviews of subjects, pre and during L.hich be will analyze to determine what, if any, aphasic conditions may bo present. Changes will be investigatod In pitch, rate, articulation or other functional distortions of speech such as are encountered in stutterers and other speech

on the therapeutic and educational implications of

L. S. D. for patients and non-patients remains to be completed. Final analysis of available data should not require very extensive work.

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he original Occupational Therapy Laboratory Test had deficiencies in method. Including its administration. We have made progress recently inore appealing, spontaneous, but measurable situation which rests more on determining the Interests of subjects and patients. It is called the "Interest Selector". Tho emphasis on interest developed from the analysis of results from the previous Occupational Therapy Test, which showed subjects could carry out self-Initiated activities better than those requested or imposed by others. An initial manual with the rationale and procedure for the "Selector" has already been written.

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1 psychiatrist (partociologist, one-half timeocialducational " ime Statistical consultation andocialime

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PROSPECTUS

Conclusion of LSD Study:

In the past four years of research withave developed reliable methods of (a) analyzing social situations and nteractions; (b) describing personality in terms of socialand (c) relating social situations and social personality types to the specific effects of LSD. Througo this methodology it has been possible to identify some important determinants of drug effects which have not been previously considered in studies of

While we have made considerable progress instudying theseertain amount of data analysis still remains to be completed before the determinants of theffect on individual cases can be reliably stated.

Therefore, the primary objective of this final phase of the project is to complete the analysis of data on all our subjects in order to define the extent that differences in certain effects can be accounted for by the above-mentioned determinants.

A second objective is to complete reports on some peripheral studies conducted with Scrplsil and certain other psychochemicals.

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A third objective is to reduce and summarize the many progress reports submitted during the course of the projectinal report. Budget:

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