TITLE: Footnote To Ci
AUTHOR: Dorothy J. Keatts
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FOOTNOTE TO CICERO
Dorothy J. Keatts
One of the best known spy stories of our time Is thatextbook exercise in tradecraft set innkara during World War IX It is. perhaps, of littlethat the exercise remained rather academicthat the information pilfered in the best traditions of thebusiness was never fully used by the Nazis: that the British, warned of the Ciceronian activity, took no effective action to stop It: and that Cicero Wnwif was never brought to book.atter of fact, the academic nature of the exercise makes Operationice, neat package to handle, uncomplicated by consequences and relatively free of loose ends.
Cicero was the code name given by the Germans to the valet of the British Ambassador to Turkey, Cicero gained access to secret documents in the British Embassy in Ankara,them, and sold the negatives to the Germans for large sums, paid In English pound notes. Apparently the Germans, suspecting the motives of Cicero's activity, delayed action on the Information be provided. Before they were convinced of the authenticity of the documents, Cicero's operation was blownfor the literature of espionage,oman.
The case was first packaged and presented to the publicC Idoyrlsch, Nad military attache at the GermanAnkarand purchasing agent in the CiceroMoyriscb'i book. Operation Cicero, was afactual piece of work. The movie version of the"Fiveas designed for the market, ofbore the embellishments apparently necessary toinefchandlsing. The Studio One television versionatch of clips from the movie, with new facet andin. The general accuracy of the Moyzlsch
was confirmed by Franz von Pa pen. German Ambassador In Ankara at the time of the Cicero operation, and by Allen Dalles,
who reviewed the book for the American press. Botb?feerr von Papen and Mr. Dulles, however, Intimated that other chapters on the affair might be written.
What those chapters may be, we do not know; and this essay Is In no sense intended to suggest what either Herr von Papen or Mr. Dulles may haveind. This isootnote to Ciceroa (ootnole on the woman In the case. The source is the American who was assigned the )ob of getting the woman out of Turkey before the Nazi agents could accomplish thcir nusslon of bringing her back to the German Embassy, dead or alive.
In his book. Moyzisch ascribes the collapse of the Ciceroto the treason of his neurotic secretary, Elisabet. EUsabet. Moyzisch declares, sold out to the British andCicero Into seclusion. In essence, Moyzisch probably is right, but his details need some revising and some
EUsabet's real name was Nele Kapp. Her father, aand respected German diplomat, was Consul Generalduring the war. It was largelyavor to herNele was allowed to go to Ankara to work. Nele'sthe Naziof coursesoShe had been brought up in English-speakinghad gone to school in Calcutta and in Cleveland,the early part of the war, sheurse inand later got into the German diplomatic service andto her father's post in Sofia. Nele was very unhappyand It was not long before she was transferred toa code clerk. Here her unhapplness increased and herfact, she was far more neurotic % r
Apparently Nele wanted very much to get away from It all and decided to swap Nazi trade secrets for freedom. One of her first contacts was made in .the office of a, German Jewish dentistthe same one, incidentally,.who was being patronised by some of her Nazi associates. "Sheoothache, went to the dentist, and told him that she would like to be put in touch with an American. The dentist arranged for her to
meet an American Foreign Service officer,ictim of* ache, Nele told the American that her sympathies wereon the anti-Nazi side, that her lather was an anti-Nad. and that she wanted to give information to the Americans In returnromise from them to get her out of Turkeyto America.
The Foreign Service officer transmitted her offer to theMr. Stelnhardt, who said "The Americans will promise nothing, but we will be glad to receive the Information. If she cares to take It on that basis, that'sfter all, Nele was German and was working for the Nazis. At that pointSteinhardt turned the whole thing over to the American Military Attache, and Nele began to keep her part of thebargain.
Neleairly full report of the Moyzischof Nazi spies who were working throughout the Middle East and other Items which Moyzisch had thoughtenough to cable to Berlin. Among these bits ofwas the fact that on certain days of the month, usuallyriday, Moyzisch got extremely excited, and the code room was locked. Nele reported that the man who called himself Cicero would phone, and everybody was shooed out of the place. AH she knew about It was that it was very important and that it had to do with the British.
Tbe American Military Attache reported this bit ofto Ambassador Stelnhardt, who said that the Britishbe told. The British were told that there was acalled Cicero who was transmitting to the Germansomething of great Importance, that about everythe Germans In the Embassy became very excitedthis information by code to Berlin. Thefar as we know, did not act on this advice. Had thebeen putting to use the intelligence received from
the British would have had reason toeak.
the Germans never did use the. ' .
This footnote really begins where Moyxisch's bookwith the disappearance of Nele. She came to her American
contact one day and said that the Nazis had found outrasa-r
her and, In typical fashion,onfronting her with It they had offeredacationtwo tickets to Budapest on the German plane which was to leave in two days from Istanbul. She was to go to Istanbul, get on this plane, visit her sickin Buds pest, all at Nazi expense.
Nele said to the American, "I've got to get out. You've got to get mend (with tbe Embassy's concurrence) he agreed to do It Itticky business. Turkey was acountry, and If she were detected hi the presence ofthere would be trouble. It was decided that she should be sent to Cairo, where the American authorities would decide what should be done with her. But how could she be got to Cairo? All the roads, the stations, and the airports werewatched by Nazi agents, whose orders were that Nele should be caught dead or alive.
A plan was contrived, andisappearing act began. She was housedeek with two American girlsfrom the US Embassy. This cover device led to such things as Nele being hidden under the beds when the girls' boyfriends came and to having her appearance changed. Her hair was very blondeash blondeand the girls dyed It black. The girl who did most of the dye job got her hands so covered with dye that she couldn't go to work next day. Her boss came out to sec the poor sick girl, bearing roses andboth of which she had to accept with her hands under the covers. She finally got the dye off with gasoline.
The next step in the plan was this. The Taurus .Express trains, both northbound and southbound, came into theIn Ankara at exactly the same moment and remainedin the station for about five minutes. The northbound train went to Istanbul but stopped soon atew miles out of Ankara. At this stop, one caught the tram If he'd missed it In Ankara; It was possible to miss the train In Ankara and get to Ayash by automobile before the train did. The southbound Taurus went to Syria and to Baghdad and Iraq. One of the members of the escape party (ouraource) went alone to the station. Under pretense of going on an outing, some Americans from the Embassy went noisily to the girls' apart-
nient,TgoV*he American girtsTrleie, hernd drove the disguised Nele to Ayssh. The accomplice in the sUUon at Ankara climbed Into the rear car of the southbound train, movedew cars, and then Jumped out into thetram Just as it was pulling out His hope was that his followers (and he expected to be followed) would bethe southbound train for him as the northbound Taurus left the station.
He leaped unwittingly Into an empty car, In which thewas locking both front and rear doors. The doors had to bo opened, as he had to get out of the train at Ayash, grab the girl and her suitcase, and get her in the train, allew minutes. The only person who could open them was theOur source told the conductor that he was In apredicament He explained that he was an Americanand showed his passport He said that be had Just been married and his bride and her friends had missed the train-He explained that it was our custom after marriage to beseparately to the traina silly American habit The conductor, obviously lookingp, cooperatedHe promised to open both doors and to watch at one end while our source watched at the other for his bride. This worked beautifully. Our man jumped off, grabbed Nele. hopped back on the train, the conductor locked the doors again, and the train went off northward
Blsabet was clutching tome tablets In her hand the whole time of the escapeshe called them sleeping tablets. Our friend gaveoaded gun which she carried at all times. He also took along for theottle of whisky which she looked as if shewas quite sure he didand after they got on the train he gaveairly thick slog ofScotch. They lay down In the twotook the upper berth and he the lower and, afterew. minutes, she said, "I'm going to bee said, fWeH.o the bathroom and behe replied, "Ail right, hot you'll hare to getnock on the door when yoo cano he very politely went outside, "smiled at the conductor, waitednock, and went in again. This
happened several times befort'tfiey got off the train atin the morning and, as they were leaving the train,came up to the "bridegroom" and said, "Dentmuch; they're often like that the first
ButNele was not to go to Istanbul, where she certainly would have been seen. That Taurus Expressew cars which are taken off in the middle of the night to proceed to Baltkealr, which wasritish camp. (Although Turkey was neutral almost until the end of the war, ah* bases by the score were built under Royal Air Force supervision for use in the event they became necessary. By now to some extent the British were partners in thehe "newlyweds" got off the train In Balikesir, were metritish officer, driven to the RAF Installation, put up for the night then drivenritish truck to Izmir. Here another difficulty wasWhen the British representative took one look at Nele he said. That girlerman. I'll have nothing to do with her. The only good Germans are dead Germans."
This Impasse was saved by an OSS man who had asmall boat much used in these waters) coming inthat night Nele was taken in the caique to
and thence to Cairo.
In Cairo, Nele was internedrisoner-of-war camp, which made her very angry. She felt that she had been and could continue to be of service to the US Intelligence service. Sheetter to her American friend (who had helped her escape from Turkey)which was intercepted, so that her friend was questioned by the Army authorities for consorting with the enemy. Despite this mess, Nele was sent towhere she lived in Elizabeth, New Jersey, until the end of the war. Then sheobestaurant hostess ta Chicago, and Is now living In California where she iswith one or more children. Our source last heard from her from California He feels that she probably has never writ-
ten anything of herfToxn toe tone of her
she probably would prefer to forget the whole
What happened to Cicero? He didn't disappear entirely. He actually, at one time, went to the German Embassythe
ostwar Free Germannd claimed that heiven real money to replace such counterfeit money as the Nads had given him. At times he had small jobs for Turkish InWUgcnce and. when last heard of.oor man, living inOriginal document.