Created: 10/1/1957

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible



table of contents for chapter I

aster Itulex covering other Chapters of NISppears on pages iU-vtii)


ignificance of the

Military .


on principal

ransportation and Telecommunications


and naval

on principal


on principal

and structure of

order and

on principal

. .



O. Comments on principal



6 10 3









. .

on principal sources .

Map and Chart


and aerial


B. Programs under way or

Chapter was prepared for the NIS under the'direction of the NIS Committee in accordance withlocations of responsibility in the NIS Standard Instructions. Section coordinators are noted at the top ot each page.





The Master Indexuide lo the complete NI3 on Iraq. The alphabetised topics below refer to Section tables of contents where individual page listings appear lor the indicated topic or lor some more general topic related to it- Most of the citations below point to detailed coverage, rather than passing mention. The NIS Standard Instructions show the formal NIS topical outline for basic intelligence and can be used as an additional reference and general guide to NISoverage.

The "Comments on principal sources" that follow most Section texts are nothe Index, in general these comments contain an evaluation of dataist of those principal sources not produced by the contributing agency.

Military Geography) covers Syria, Lebanon, Jordan. Iraq, and Israel because the five countries were treated as one geographic area,; and items indexed forefer to this combinedA maintenance addition of SuctionWeather and Climate) covers Iraq alone. Sectiowovers oceanography. Sectionovers analysis of military regions and is equivalent toMilitary Geographicnder the revised NIS outline.

The following elements are omitted from NISor the reasons stated:

Topic and Landing- Beachm Scmanr ii

Section 30

Merchant Marine


Porta and Naval FaclUUea

Subject adequately coveredectionCoaaU andBeaches) Subject of irunifllcienl Importance

Stcrio* 82


Chapter vii, Section 17

Svptumcmt m

in the area Subject inapplicable In the area Subject adequately covered In SectionPort* and Naval Faculties) Subject of Insufficient Importance


Urban Areas

supplement iv

In the area Subject adequately covered In Section ii (Telecoramunlea-MobbI


Subject adequately covered In SectionUrban Areas)

Forecast lor production In1









Arab, Shatt alevaluation


Armed forces

Air forces

Communist Infiltration

Control and

Ground forces

Map recommendations


Atmospheric conditions





Air terminal

City plana (photot)

Cultural center

Highway system



Telecommunications v

Baghdad Pact member

Balance of payments

Banking system

Barley production


City plans (photos)

Highway system


Port (photo)

Railroad system


Berthing estimates



Intelligence and security ..

Newspaper personnel


Telecommunications officials

Birth rate

Brick and tile Industry



Waterway Broadcasting

Facilities .


Public information Budget




Constitutional basis


Pace iv

wit 6










4 33

301 23





. 1





1 38


6..1 63




Chart and map appraisal

Cities i





Agricultural factors

Health factors

Map recommendations

Weather and

Clothing requirements (mililary) .



Imports and exports .

River traffic

Sea traffic _


Map recommendations


Radio and wire .

Urban '





Constitutional system

Construction industries

Cotton production


Structure .


Cross-country movement (military) Crown

Constitutional basis


Culture features (topography)


Date production

Death rate





Delta region


Area administration

Military evaluation


Dlyali Nahr (strm)

Drainage patterns

Economic Development Board Economy, national

Educational system

Electoral procedures

Electric power

Elevation (topography)


7 51




3 35



... 8

6 67


4 61




6 26











Espionagethnic groups


National policy

Euphrates River

Military evaluation .






"Fertile Crescent"

Finance and trade

Fiscal policy











Cover aspects


Front organizations

Fruit production

Fuels andas




Geodetic surveys

Geography, military v. Geology

Military evaluation .


Gharraf,l (strm) Government


Leaders .,


' Policies


Government policies








p V)







Sup V)












'.. 57



8 (SupV)


Sup V)


Sup V)




:.. 44





policies (Continued)



Minerals and metals .



Grain production

Grape production

Great Zab (strm)

Military evaluation




Operations and weather

Gypsum production

Health and sanitation


Hillah, Shalt al (strm)


Hygiene, industrial



Labor force


Air force



Intelligence and security .



Political factors

Social factors


Constitutional basis



Khabur, Nahr alirkuk

City plans (photos)

Highway system



Railroad system


Kurdistan mountains


Labor force


Communist infiltration

Lakes and marshes





Leather products




7(Sup V) ... 65



















































legislative process

linguistic groups

literacy rate


livestock and livestock product*

location of nis area


lumber industry

armed forces



map and chart appraisal




indexes of data and coverage



airfield and road suitability

airfield and seaplane stations

clothing requirements

comparative areas

construction plants and quarries

| drainage (military aspects)

electric power


ground water availability




iraqi airways air services

kirkuk oil2



location map

malaria distribution

meteorological stations

military regions and strategic approach*

mineral occurrences

oil fields and installations

petroleum pipe lines

petroleum resources

population distribution



relief, military aspects

religious and ethnic distribution


strategic areas and routes

Map Indexes IndlcaUn* coverage and/or evaluation ol mapping data, maps, and charts are dlscussod.

surface water availability







Petroleum (Continued) Exploration and development

. Production

Refining and processing

Requirements and supply


Pipelines, petroleum

Map recommendations

Police system





Map recommendations







Map recommendations

Naval facilities and

Power plants



Public Information ,






Order and sufety



Pumping stations (petroleum)

Racial groups


Information medium

Propaganda medium



Map recommendations


Refineries, oil

Relief (topography)


Courts .'

Groups .

Pressure groups -

' Rights

Reserve system

Air force


Revenue sources

Rice production

NIS 30


Construction aspects

Map recommendations


Rock types

Military geology

Stratigraphy and structure

Rolling stock

Rooka Channel

Salt production

Sanitation and health


Security and intelligence


Sewage disposal



Shelter requirements (military) Social

Attitudes and value* _













r .

and finance












'. Map recommendations




.1 jVoourte

i: Groups

|:'. " olitical


-.' Underground Installation








Nations member

States Information Agency


Urban areas






Vegetation (topography) 6


Villages and towns

Population 41



Warning and intercept system .. 33




Waterways, inland33

Weather and3

Wheat production ..


10. Introduction

I ol the National Intelligence Survey on Iraqelective summary of the full-length survey. This summary Is designed toa clear, concise view of the area and lo contain sufficient detail within itself to serve as an initial basis for strategic planning. The facts selected for inclusion In the summary are those considered most essential for this purpose. Thes, however, an integral part of the completelone is not expected to support planning In depth nor to provide the user with all the details he may require for any special purpose. Additional details may be located by consulting the Master Index, which correlatesith other elements of

General introducUons, comments on -sources,ummary map are significant features of Chatter I. Most Sections are prefaced by aintroduction evaluating the area from apoint of view and relating the topic underto other topics. Generally, the last Subsection is entitled "Comments on principalhis Subsection also points outgaps In information and indicates the general credence to be accorded the subjectecause of their Inherent nature, do not include Subsections, "Comments on principalomprehensive mapat the end of the Chapter condensesfrom the general map coverage of

NISs partorld-wide program for the collection of Information and production andof basic intelligence required byof the Government for strategic and high-level operational planning and estimates and for the formulation of policy. Intelligence requirements of this type were pressing during World War II. The United States, unlike enemies and allies who had spent years in amassing basic intelligence on other countries, entered the war withoutpreparation in this field.isproportionate amount of time and manpower was diverted, during the, tothe area studies then urgently needed.onhe NationalCouncil charged the Director of Centralwith responsibility for coordinating the efforts of the Intelligence Agencies of theIn the production of basic intelligence on foreign countries, areas, and broad special subjects.

Pursuant to the National Security Councilthe Central Intelligence Agency, inwith other intelligence agencies, evolved an outline of the basic Intelligence requirements of the Government This outline, published in the NIS Standard Instructions, provides forand and four ocean areas of the world by major basic intelligence aspects and subaspects which appear as the Chapters and Sections of the NIS. When appropriate, Chapter discussion is amplified by more detailed treatment in one or more Supplements. Topical responsibility wasto each agency according to its missiori, dominant interests, and capabilities for specialized appraisal and world-wide collection of information on the topics concerned. Standards of quality for the intelligence to be produced were agreed upon. Uniform systems for base maps, spelling ofnames, and editorial format were adopted to eliminate confusion and facilitate comparison of data among areas and topics.

A guide for the order In which NIS are to be produced is set forth in priority lists issuedby the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Every effort is made to conform to these capabilities to produce NIS onareas and subjects, however, vary with the agency and from time to time. To exploitcapabilities to the maximum, therefore, It is necessary to produce simultaneously portions of NISarge number of areasiversity of subjects without concentrating rigidly on theof coverage of any single area or subject. To facilitate this required flexibility, the Section has been adopted as the basic unit of production, publication, and maintenance Thef an HIS is not produced until after completion of the basic research and development of Chapters II-IX, inclusive.

Collection of information on NIS Areaontinuing process. Sections will be revised and published under the maintenance program when sufficient information becomes available to enable Improving their adequacy as follows: I) presenting fundamentally changed situations In an area,illing gaps in intelligence sufficient to require new evaluations, orncorporating new intellt-

gcnee requirements which reflect policy, planning, or high-level operational needs. This revisionccomplished by Section rather than In amanner because the integrated treatment of nn'. entire topicection almost invariablya comprehensive reworking of the whole Section when fundamental changes occur. Such pertinent new facts as were available at the time thisas prepared were selectivelyin the Chapter.

. The running head at the top of each NISate (month and year) and the name of the agency primarily responsible for the Section.

The date Is that on which the agency approved the Section for publication in the NIS and isof the latest information available to the agency at that time. Including, whereummary field review of the draft. The fact that this date may be considerably earlier than that on which the material is received by the user does not invalidate the material. The NIS is concerned with the fundamental situationountry or area and remains generally valid with respect to the fundamental situation until superseded byunder the NIS maintenance program. The user may keep himself up-to-date by applyingIntelligence to that contained In the NIS.

ii. Significance of the Area

in oil and unused agricultural resources, Iraqparsely populated Arab state located in the center of the land bridge between Asia and Africa on the historic flood plains and fringing uplands of the Tigris and Euphrates. But for the two rivers, most of the country would beubstantial part of the income from oil Is invested In projects to irrigate or reclaim potentially useful land which, under cultivation, could support many more people than Iraq now has. Most of thesubsists on primitive agriculture, whichthe country self-sufficiency Inmall, largely pro-Western ruling clique governs theand5 concluded with Turkey anwhich became the multilateral, anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact. Iraq is the only Arab memberrotective "northern tier" consisting of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. The United States supports the agreement to the extent of membership in most of Its working

Iraq is fourth among crude oil producers In the Near East; the most important fields arc In the vicinity of KlrkQk In the northeastern part of the country. Petroleum operations have beendeveloped, and owned by foreign companies, originally mostly British. With the exceptionmall area, concessions are owned and operated by the Iraq Petroleum Company (or subsidiaries) Jointly owned by British, American, French, and Dutch interests. Relations between the Iraqiand the company have been generally amicable, with oil profits sharedasis. In recent years oil payments to Iraq, notthose.of oil companies for local services and material, amounted tof the estimated gross national product. Oil payments supplied about two-thirds of the total Iraqi foreign exchange andf total government revenues.

Iraq hasf its oil0 to the development of resources such as land, water, and manpower. Official Iraqi estimates show that the amount of potentiallyland is almost three times that now under cultivation. Water Is abundant, and in ancient times an elaborate irrigation systemuch larger area than is now used, but wasby the Mongols inh century and neverevelopment Board plans and schedules projects for flood control, irrigation,development, land resettlement, rural community projects, and education. The United States participates in some of these programs and providedillion dollars of technicalduring the current year. Other Iraqi funds have gone Into local Industries and such other projectsational ol)extileement plant, low-cost housing, roads, and bridges.

The efforts of the Development Board have thus far had little impact upon the economy or the poverty-stricken countryside, especially in the southern part of the country. Agricultureabout three-fourths of the population toone-fourth of the national Income.low health standards, and antiquemethods are prevalent. Under the quasi-feudal land tenure system, debts owed the landlord tend


to tie tho sharecropper to land In which he has no equity. Farm labor Is drifting to urban centers, where it adds to chronic underemployment and to politically volatile pools of unskilled Is scarce, and tribal customs resist change. Incentive and training, especially in mechanical and managerial skills, are lacking.

The ruling clique consists mostly of wealthy Iraqi landlords, professional politicians,and tribal leaders. Operating through amonarchy and backed by an army of0olice force half that size, both fairly well trained and equipped In comparison with other Arab forces, the group needs no outside support to maintain itself in power. The majority of the people, especially in tribal and rural areas, have little comprehension of democracy orin governmental affairs. Government to them seems In general alien, repugnant, and corrupt, and most of the beneficial projects accomplished by the Development Board relatively remote.

The United Kingdom is still associated with the small circle of conservative rulers, most of whom were trained by the British during the time from tbe end of World2 when the country was administered under British directioneague of Nations mandate.2pecial treaty relationship committed the United Kingdom to defend Iraq, and permitted peacetime air installations in the country. This relationship was broadened with the advent of the Baghdad Pact, and the corps of British advisors has steadily decreased.

Rivalry with Ftfypt for leadership among the Arab states has been sharpened by Increased great power participation in the area, with Egypt5 accepting closer relations with the- Soviet bloc and Iraqrotagonist of pro-Western posture. Like other Arab stales IraqIsrael as the principal military threat but has shown, more awareness than the others of the dangers of Soviet infiltration. Theirect threat to the country in Soviet maneuvering in Iran after World War LT and in recent Soviet encroachment in Syria, the transit route byf Iraqi oil reaches Europeans Iraqi and Egyptian policies diverged, the heightened tensions in the Arab world have largely vitiated the Arab League and its related Arab Collective Security Pact, originally intended

as the basisoint military command structuri directed against Israel.

Egypt sidestepped the Collective Security Pact anderies of separate militaryaimed at isolating Iraq and consolidating Egyptian political and military hegemony. Egypt has great prestige among politically aware Arabs, based on Its larger population, military strength, propaganda and cultural Influence, and especially Its more dramatic assertion of Arab nationalism. Nevertheless, other Arab governments, especially Saudi Arabia, alarmed by recent Egyptian tactics, have cultivated closer relations with Iraq, thusits Isolation and Improving' Its leadership position.*

Alienation from the Arab world and loss to Egypt of relative prestige within the area hasigh price to pay for Western protection and economic aid and is resented by the small group of Iraqi intellectuals and educated middle class. The Iraqi Government has thus farlocal nationalist opinion and emerged from the Suez crisis with internal stability unimpaired.-The course that appeals to most Arabs In the great power rivalry Is to remain uncommitted in order to play the powers against each other for maximum advantage. Nevertheless, to the Iraqi leadership generally, the location of their country and its wealth in oil make involvement in any major war seem likely. Faced -with encouraging economic prospects of the country that depend onof present western European oil markets and preservation of the present Iraqi social and political system, pro-Western policies seem to them the safer course.

During; the first week of. Egypt and Syria joinedUnited Arabbout ten day* later Iraq and Jordan countered by form-insArabithin tillsInternal affairs and actalnlstratlon are to remain separate. Iraq and Jordan each retains sovereignty within Its area and maintains Its easting retime. The King of Iraq becomes head of the federation. Unification of Iraqi andlaws, army, educational systems, and foreign policies Is specifically anUetpated in the agreement The economic provisions of theare reminiscent of those In the Beljo-Economic Union, Inustoms union is to be formed, economic policies merged,ommon currency established. InternaUonalalready in effect In cither country are not to be affected by the federation.








12. Military Geography


Geographic situation

Iraq is located on the land bridge between Africa and Asia (see. The extensive oilfields and the main pumping station in Iraq for thepipeline system to the Mediterranean coast arehort distance of the USSR From the southern border of the Soviet Union across the mountains and basins of Iran to the majorpetroleum fields of Iraq, the distance Istatute miles by the shortest road andautical miles by air. From Iraq, otherparts of the Near East are relatively close. All the petroleum fields along the Persian Gulf aretatute miles by land andautical miles by air of the southern border of the country, and the Suez Canal istatute miles by road and slightly lessautical miles by air from the western boundary of Iraq.


The land boundaries of Iraq totaliles and are defined and currently undisputed; however, only the Syrian, Turkish, and part of the Iranian boundaries are demarcated. Tha countryoastline of onlyiles, and no official claims have been made for territorial waters. Iraq has no system of permanentalong the land boundaries, nor docs It have any coastal defenses.

The northern and most of the eastern boundaries of Iraq traverse very rugged terrain. The total length of theranian boundaryiles, most of which Is in mountains; only aboutiles is on the east bank of the Shatt al Arab andiles Islat, marshy plain.ile boundary with Turkey Is along high mountains and through deep, narrow valleys and gorges.

All of the western and southern boundaries of Iraq traverse terrain which would impose few barriers to military movement. In the west,ile boundary with Syria is across level to rolling desert and steppe plains, andmile boundary with Jordan isearly level desert plain containing scattered areas of lava. In the south,ile boundary with Saudi Arabia Isesert plain whichtony or sandy surface broken by numerous wadles and low limestone ridges. East of this stretch,lle boundary with the Neutral Zone, which is

Jointly administered by Iraq and Saudi Arabia, isevel to rolling desert plain brokenew small wadies.tlo boundary with Kuwait istecp-sldcd wadl for aboutiles and then extends eastwardandy or stony desert plain to the Persian Gulf. The wadi trends north-south andotential avenue of


Iraq is an irregularly shaped country with an area ofquare miles or about two-thirds the area of Texas (see. Most significant of the environmental elements of Iraq are its vast plains, which comprise about nine-tenths of the country. These plainsariety of surface conditions, In the north, the plains are nearly level to rolling and contain small, scattered areas of low bushes and grasses. In the south and southwest, they are mostly barren deserts. In the southeast, numerous lakes and marshes cover much of the nearly flat surface. The plains slope gently downward from the northwest to the Persian Gulf and are broken only by the Jabal Sinjax (see Ficure l. Profile B) which has aelevationeet. Between the Iraqi -Jordanian boundary and the hills and mountains in the northeast, the plains slope gently downward to the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers (see Ficure

The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow between high, steep banks in northern and western Iraq and are contained locally by natural and man-made levees in southeastern Iraq. High water levels occur from early March through May, and large areas that are not protected by levees are flooded south of Baghdad. The numerouswadles of western and southern Iraq are in the Euphrates drainage system. Several large eastern tributaries flow Into the Tigris River from the hills and mountains, but it hasew western tributaries.

Hills and mountains, which comprise about one-tenth of the country, are located In the north and northeast near the Turkish and Iranian borders. Some peaks0 feet above sea level in the mountains near the Iranian border, whereas the maximum elevations In the hills areeet. The hills and mountains consist of parallel ridges, generally trending northwest-

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southeast, that are separated by narrow valleys. Vegetation consists of grasses In the valleys, bushes and widely scattered treeseetperennial streams now through the valleys In the hills and mountains. Floods often occur during the winter and spring rains (early October or November througheasonal high water peaks, caused by snowmelt. usually occur In May.

Numerous small villages with narrow, winding streets and closely spaced low buildings usually constructed of burnt or mud brick arc scattered along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and along the larger streams In the hills and mountains-Cities are few and usually have villagebut some, especially Baghdad, Basra, and Kirkuk. have areas of new multistorled buildings of concreteew wide, modem streets. All of the larger towns are connected by roads, although many villages are connected only by tracks or trails. The principal cities of Iraq are connected by) orailroads which parallel the Tigris or Euphrates Rivers or cross the plains of northeastern Iraq.


Iraq has great daily and seasonal ranges in temperature and receives most of its relatively scanty precipitation during the cooler months of the year. Summers (early June throughare hot, and winters (early December through February) generally are mild except in theThe hottest months, July and August, have afternoon temperatures usually"aximum temperature" F. has been recorded. In the north, the diurnal range is. In the south, daytimeare lower than in the north; and thetemperatures are usually higher. Humidity may be high for several daysime in thepart of the country.

Winter temperatures are usually above freezing except In the mountains; however, freezingmay occur anywhere, except In thesouth. In January, the coldest month,temperatures are inss and night temperaturest times during the winter, afternoonhave been Ins and nightas low asn the northern part of the. in the central part,. in the southern part. Frosts may occur at any time from early November through February.

In general, the mean annual precipitationfrom south to north. It Is less thannches In the south, aboutnches on the plains and hills, and betweenndnches In the mountains. Essentially all the precipitation and the maximum cloudiness is associated with cyclonic storms that move inland from the Mediterranean from early October or November through May. Showers occur up toonth during this period, but rarely does precipitation occur several days in succession. Snow falls in the mountains and may He on tbe ground at high elevationsonsiderable length of time during the period from early November through March; elsewhere snowfall is rare. From early June throughskies generally are clearoonth.

Dus tstorms may occur at any time during the year but are most frequent In the summer months, particularly In southern Iraq. Duststorms which reduce visibility to lessards may occur on seven or eightonth in southern Iraq, especially in June and July, but are less frequent in northern and western Iraq. Sometimesuststorms in Iraq are very severe, and visibility is reduced toards or less. -


autical miles ot the Iraqi border, air approaches from the north and east are, in general, over high and rugged Iraq by air from tbe west and south are generally across desert plains;0 feet high areautical miles of the Iraqi boundary on the west. In winter, turbulence and Icing would make flying hazardous over the mountains. The principal hazard to flying over the desert areas is poor ground visibility during duststorms, which are most common in the summer months.

The air approach from the north is over the Black Sea or Caucasus Mountains in. and the mountains In Turkey and Iran. The Crimean Mountains on the north shore of the Black Sea, which areautical miles from the Iraqi boundary, have elevations slightlyeet above sea level; and the Caucasus Mountains,autical miles from the boundary, have maximum elevations ofeet. The mountains of eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran extendautical miles beyond the Iraqi boundary and have maximumgenerally00 feet above sea level The best Hying conditions are from early April through September when cloud cover lainimum and visibility is best;heavy turbulence may be encountered over the mountainous area at any time of the year.

Air approaches from the east are over desert plainsugged belt of mountains in Iran. Peaks near the Iraqi boundary are0 feet high and one peak lessmiles from the boundary is0 feet. The mountains in eastern Iran, which are about



SOO nautical miles from the Iraqi boundary, have peaks.more0 feet high. The bestconditions are from early April throughwhen clear days are common.

Air approaches to Iraq from the south are mostlyry, barren desert, although there are some hills and mountains in northeastern Africa and parts of the Arabian Peninsula. The mountains in Yemen, in the southern part of theaximum elevation of slightly less0 feetautical miles from the Iraqi boundary. The mountains in Oman, on the eastern side of the peninsula,aximum elevation ofautical miles from the Iraqi boundary. The mountains along the coast of the Red Sea have numerous peakseet high. In general, weather conditions are favorable for flyingthe year, although, over the desert, dust-storms cause poor visibility at times during the summer months.

Air approaches from the west are over theMediterranean Sea and the steppe andof the Near East; however, mountainsIn western Turkey, Syria,and Crete. The mountains inhave elevations slightly moreautical miles of the Iraqiand the mountains near thein Lebanon and Syria haveiles of the boundary. Onreach' slightly morenautical miles from the Iraqion Cyprus, they are slightly moreiles of the boundary. Theflying weather on this approach isMay through September when clear days

The only sea approach to Iraq, through theGulf, Is restricted bymile-wlde Strait of Hormuz which separates the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. North of the Strait of Hormuz, depths are generally deeper along the Iranian coast than along the Arabian coast. Water depths gradually decrease northward to betweenndt the head of thePersian Gulf. Weather.conditions in the Persian Gulf arefor sea approaches throughout the year; gales are infrequent, and tides and currents are negligible. From late May through August, dust may "reduce visibility. The low coastline is bordered by tidal mud flats and is backed by marshes.athom line lies fromo SO nautical miles offshore and dredging is needed toavigation channel into the Shatt al Arab for ocean shipping.

The principal land approaches to Iraq from the east traverse rugged mountains which wouldground operationsost of the principal land approaches cross vast desert and steppe plains characterized by scanty water supply, high summer temperatures, and sandstorms.

On the western approaches from Syria andthe surface is mostly favorable formovement, although the water supply Is limited. The most favorable approach from Syria is along the Euphrates River. This routewo-lane, all-weather road for most of its length. The other two approaches from Syria follow earth tracks across the desert and steppe plains. The approach lo Mosul from Turkey and northeastern Syria is on nearly level plains and in low hills; Itingle-track,ry-wcalher road. The approach from the Mediterranean Sea through Jordanwo-lane, all-weather road; but the deployment of troops and vehicles along the route would bein the coastal mountains and in the lava areas In Jordan.

Land approaches to Iraq from the east are across Iran. Most approaches are through ruggedwhere steep slopes would channelizeand deployment off the roads would bein mostnow may block these routes for several days from early December through February. The best of these approaches extends west from Kermanshah. This approach has an all-weather two-lane road and is across broad basins and through moderately steep passes. Although the northernmost approach, through the Rawanduz gorge,oorly surfaced all-weather road and, south of the gorge, the approach through Pan)win pass has an extremely poor road, they are the next best routes across the mountains. In the extreme south, the Shatt al Arab, Tigris River, and extensive marshes and lakes restrict approaches to Basra.

An approach to southern Iraq can be made from landing beaches in Kuwait and Saudiesert track crosses Kuwait to Basra. Iraq; and conditions are generally favorable formovement. Problems on this approach would be the lack of water and the prevalence of dust.

B. Military geographic regions

Significant contrasts In terrain and climate are the bases for dividing Iraq into three military geographic regions:uphrates Delta, Northeastern Hills and Mountains, and Steppe and Desert (seeithin each region the environment is relatively uniform In Its effect on military operations; however, from one region to



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another the effect ot environment on almost all aspects, of military operations would vary greatly.

uphratesextensive plain region, which comprisesf Iraq, Includes the delta of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The nearly flat surface slopes gently downwardaximum elevation ofeet above sea level in the north. Extensive marshes, lakes, areas subject to spring flooding, and Irrigation cgnBh are common south of the dam near Al Hlndlyah on the Euphrates River and the dam at Al KQt on the Tigris River; however, these rivers are bordered by marshes and lakes as far north as Baghdad.flooding usually occurs during May, when melting snow from the mountains In northeastern Iraq as well as In Turkey and Iran causes the rivers to inundate vast areas. Vegetation consists of taU reeds and grasses in the marshes, groves of date palms and trees along the rivers, andcrops. Most of the population isin numerous small towns and villages along the rivers. Baghdad In the north and Basra In the south, respectively the largest andraq, are connectedair-weather road along the Tigris River andair-weather road and narrow-gage rail line along the Euphrates Paver.

Conditions in theuphrates Deltaare unfavorable for ground operations. South of Al HindTyah and Al KQt vehicles and foot troops would be severely handicapped by numerous marshes, lakes, canals, and irrigated fields;vehicles would be needed to move off the roads in much of the region. The Tigris andRivers would require bridging at all times. Destruction of the two dams probably would cause Inundation of extensive areasonsiderable period. The hot, humid climate is enervating and malaria is common In this region. Concealment and cover would be readily available in the date groves and trees near the rivers and in the towns and villages. Elsewhere limited concealment for foot troops is available In cultivated fields in early summer and in the marshes throughout the year.

Airborne operations would be hindered by weather and drainage conditions. Fog andin the winter and dust in the summer would be major problems In flying. Airdrop sites would be restricted throughout the year In most of the region to some dry areas which are generallyacent to the irrigation canals.

There are no practical landing beaches alongmile coastline of Iraq. Mud flats border the entire coast; however, amphibious landings could probably be made within the entrances of the Shaft al Arab and the Khawr az Zubayr.

Military construction would be difficult or in-feasible. Conditions in the southern two-thirds of the region are unfavorable for the construction of airfields, roads, and bunker-type installations because of the prevalence of drainage features. The construction of tunnel-type installations would be lnfeaslble throughout the region because of the unstable soils and the lack of suitable slopes.

Northeastern Hills and MountainsThiswhich constitutesf Iraq, Is partarger mountainous area which extends over western Iran and southeastern Turkey. In this region the hills and mountains consist of parallel ridges separated by narrow valleys; In general, the ridges are alinedoutheast. Summits range fromeet above sea level In the hills toeet in the mountains Near the Iranian border the mountains are extremely rugged and several peaks0 feet In elevation. The floors of the valleys areeet below adjacent summits in the hills andeet In theVegetation consists of grasses in the valleys, shrubs and widely scattered trees In the hills, open deciduous forestseet above sea level, and widely scattered bushes above the tree line. Most valleys contain perennial streams whichource of water, although during the summer months the water decreases in volume and becomes brackish In the western part of the hills In general, the population IsIn small villages along the larger streams. Most of these villages are connected by tracks or trails.

In general, ground operations would be severely hindered by rugged terrain which would channel vehicular movement to narrow valleys and passes and make cross-country movement for foot troops difficult. Wet ground and snow would be agenerally from early November through March. On the forested slopes, concealment Is available in the deciduous forests from early June through September, whereas grasses in the valleys would afford only limited concealment for foot troops. Surface irregularities would afford coverthe region.

The most favorable conditions for airbornein this region occur from early June through September when skies are relatively clear and the ground of the few sites suitable forIn the larger valleys is usually dry.even during the summer months, flying would be affected by morning haze and turbulence.

Military construction would be difficult.for the construction of roads and airfields generally are unfavorable throughout the region because of restricted alincments. The construc-


6 kg 3


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of tunnel-type installations would bo limited, especially In the east, by Inaccessibility and hard crystalline rock which would be difficult toThe construction of bunker-typeand hasty fortifications would be limited to the deeper soils in the valleys. Throughout the Northeastern Hills and Mountains Region theof earthquakesonsideration In

Steppe andregion covers about of Iraq and is partuch larger region thai extends into adjoining countries. Most of the regionparsely settled, nearly level rolling plain generally sloping downward toward the east. Secondary relief features include scattered hills and ridges with crests upeet above the surface of the plain and abrupt banks of wadies upeet high. In the north the plain is brokenmall Isolated group of hills andwhichaximum elevation ofeet above sea level, and along the Euphrates River by aneet high.consists of small, scattered areas of tow, bushy shrubs and grasses north of the Euphrates River and mostly barren desert to the south. The perennial streams include the Tigris. Euphrates, Great Zab, and Little Zab Rivers; however, only the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provide large quantities of surface water. The wadies flow after winter rains, but many terminate in salt lakes or the water percolates into the ground. Settlements are generally limitedew towns and small villages near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The transportation pattern8 V) rail line along the Tigris River androads.

Terrain conditions, for the most part, would not hamper ground operation, although water supply wouldroblem in some parts. Cross-country movement would be relatively easy over the nearly level to rolling plain, except locally where wadies have cut deeply Into the surface. The majorto cross-country movement are the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which would requireThe sparse vegetation would afford only limited concealment, and cover would be restricted to wadies and tow rock ridges.

Clear skies throughout the year would facilitate airborne operations. Nevertheless, during the summer months, visibility may be reduced by haze and dust storms. Numerous sites suitable forare prevalent In all parts of the region.

Military construction would be hindered by the scarcity of water, lack of Umber, and rockfor construction. Tho nearly fiat surfaces of the plain afford numerous sites for theof airfields and unrestricted alinementThe construction of tunnel-typeinstallations would be feasible Innorth of the Euphrates River.have been Infrequent and relativelythe past, probably would not affect.

C. Strategic areas

The three strategic areas of Iraq are thr Kirkuk- Mosul Area, the Baghdad Area, and the Basra Area. These strategic area* contain the oil resources and most of the Industry of the country, the largest cities, and the keycenters.

osul Strategic AreaThis area in northern Iraq is the largest oil producing area in the country and contains two of the largest citiesraq: Kirkuk and Mosulhe KirkOk oilfield, because of Its size and potential production, has considerably greater significance than the smaller fields west of the Tigris River. The pipeline system to the Mediterraneanat the pumping station near the southern end of the KirkOkingle pipeline, which is not connected to this system, extends from the oilfield north of Mosul to the refinery nearKirkOk and Mosul contain light Industries and are centers for transportation andTwo airfields, one civil and the other military, with runwayseet areiles ofivQ airfieldeet isiles of Mosul. The militarily significant industrialin the strategic areamall chemical plantefinery atement plantextile factory at Mosul,mall refinery near the oilfields south of Mosul.

Baghdad Strategic Areaarea In central Iraq is centered on Baghdad, the capital andest cityn addition to its political Importuncc, Baghdadey transportation and communication center, roads, railroads, andlines radiate from the city. Two airfields, one civil and the other military, with runwayseet, areiles of the city. Two additional military airfields, which have runwayseet, arewest of the strategic area and aboutiles from Baghdad. The Baghdad Strategic Areathe principal agricultural area and the most significant concentration of light industry In Iraq, industries which are of military significancea small ammunitionefinery, and


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railroad repairmall arms factory Issouth of the strategic area aboutiles from Baghdad.

Basra Strategic Areaarea at the head of the Persian Oulf contains two major oilfields as well as Basra, the principal port and thirdcity in the countryasra is the focal point for all transportation andlines to central and northernivil airfieldilitary airfield are located withiniles of the city; both have runwayseet In length. The only militarily significantInstallationsefinery and the repalr shops for the port and railroad. The oilfields are connected by pipelines to the secondary oil port of Al taw.

Page 10

D. Comments on principal sources

Reliable, detailed information for most militarytopics on Iraq is available p

from recent publications; however, aatastiu lacking for some topics, especially vegetation and soils. The reliability of available climatic data Is limited by the relatively few years of record and the few stations, particularly In the southwestern desert and in the northeastern hills and

for most topics

contained in Ci!aptitruch mon complrir now than It was9 when Chapter II wasInformation on the best maps and aerial photography available for terrain Intelligence is contained In











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13. Transportation and Telecommunications


The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers influence the Iraqi transportation pattern to the extent that almost all the existing land routes and planned expansion of rail and road transport facilities parallel the two rivers and their distributary, the Shatt al Arab (seelthough the Tigris and the Euphrates are too shallow in their normal state for navigation by other than shallow draft barges and sailing craft, the rivers satisfied most of the transportation needs for the low economic development of the country until the first part of this century. The British built railroads inof their political plans and strategicbefore and during World War I. Today, the railroads are the most Important means of trans-

Page 12







portation. Geographically. Iraq is on the most direct and easiest route from western Europe to the Persian Gulf. Theailroad north of Baghdad connects at Tall Kushik with the Syrian railroad, which connects with the Turkish State Railways and, thus, with the rail network of Europe. Baghdad Is the cross roads of the north-south transportation routes and an east-west route from Iran to the Mediterranean. The oil pipelines from Klrkuk to the Mediterranean are transverse to the general transportation .

With the development of oil resources In recent years, transportation facilities haveational Development Board was created by the Iraqi Government0 to use oil royalties for economic development including roads and bridges, and an extensive program of road improvement was Initiated. Progress on this program has been slow, however; and the condition of moot of the highways is still poor. Theoretically, official recognition is given to the concept ofighway network which will complement or feed the main rail and water transportation arteries; but,ractical matter, trunk highways parallel to the railroads and rivers are being Improved since demands on the transportation system cannot be met by either existing or planned rail and water facilities. Through the Internationalhe United States is providingassistance in road development, and much of the Improvement work on highways and bridges is being performed by engineering firms from the United States.

The Economic Committee of the Baghdad Pact has studied the needs of Iraq, Iran, Pakistan; and Turkey to encourage social and economic progresseries of communication Improvement projecla. Among other projects,ission, working through the Economichas authorized money formile highway link between Cizre, Turkey, and Zakhu, Iraq; for telecommunication projectsBaghdad to Tehran, Iran, and Ankara, Turkey; and for telecommunication equipment for use within Iraq (seehe past, Iraq has not entered into formal arrangements with neighboring countries respecting international highways; but it is anticipated that the highway link with Turkey will stimulate trade between the -countries. The volume of traffic betweento the east and west of Iraq Is Insufficient at the present time to make Iraqi highwaysas transit routes.

The British developed Basra, the principal port of Iraq,esult of the Anglo-Iraqi Treatyhe considerable investment of the British

in the political and economic interests of Iraq has given the British extensive Influence over portand maritime affairs. The Iraqihas complete control of the port, although atritish subject is serving as thedirector. Iraqi nationals are gradually taking over port administrative positions previously filled by the British. The growing Independence from British domination and Influence is also spreading to the shipping field.

Iraq has no merchant fleet but depends on the ships of other nations for ils ocean shippingA program toationalized merchant fleet was initiatedhe Iraqi desire toemblance of Independence from foreign shipping lines Is motivated by theof the oil pipeline to the Mediterranean and political instability within the Near East. These two factors increase the importance of sea transport for Iraqi oil products.

Civil aviation, although limited in scope, has developed steadily since the end of World Warmphasis has been placed upon expansion of scheduled international services rather thanservices or private flying, which has been limited by costs prohibitive to the general public.

The telecommunication system of Iraq Is among the best developed in the Near East. Thepart of the country, which is the most densely populated, Is well serviced by the network which centers at Baghdad; but the western part of the country, largely desert, is almost void of

B. Railroads

The railroad system Is government owned and is operated by the Iraqi Stateemi-independent administrative entity within theof Communications and Public Works.operations are centered In Baghdad, with meter-gage routes extending southeastward to the port of Basra and northward through oilfields in the Kirkuk area to IrbU. The standard-gage line proceeds northwestward from Baghdad to the Syrian border and Is the eastern legain railroad route connecting western Europe with the Near East.

ile railroad system of Iraqiles of) linesiles of> lines. All of the lines are single track exceptiles of double track north ofrack structure Islight; rail on the meter-gage railroads weighsoounds per yard and the rail on the standard-gage lines weighsounds per yard. The axleload limithort tons on the meter-gage routes1 short tons on the standard-






gage lines, trifled.

None.of the railroads has been elec-

motive power Inventoryeter-gage! andtandard-gage locomotives. All of the'motive power consists of oil-fired steam locomotives;'but two dlesel-electric and two diesel-hydrauUc locomotives have been ordered foruse on the meter-gage lines. Ten meter-gage steam locomotives are also on order, and bids 'have been invited on an additionaleter-gage locomotivestandard-gage locomotives.


The rolling stock Inventory at the beginning5 was as follows:



Freight cars

Much of the rolling stock Is old, but the purchase ofew freight cars Is plannedart of50 railroad development program. Long range planning calls for Increasing theby adding new rolling stock, Increasing the maximum permissible axleloads, employing heavier and more powerful motive power, and using more capacious rolling stock.

The five-year Iraqi Development Board program includes rail construction and the replacement of meter-gage lines with standard gage. Progress is extremely slow, however, because of the poorcondition and operational difficulties of the railroads.

Operational efficiency suffersack of technically trained personnel and from inadequate replacement and maintenance of equipment. Transshipment of freight from cars of one gage to another; car couplings that require all cars to be headed In the same direction, which results In delay when cars must be turned around before they can be made up Into trains;ariety of poor braking systems all complicate and limitThe lack of alternate routes makes thesystem vulnerable to attacks at critical

C. Highways

Highway transport has played an increasingly Important part In the economy since World War n, but the highway system is inadequate In both quality and extent to meet the expanding transport needs of the country. The better highway routes of the sparse system generally follow the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys and radiate from the larger population centers. Iraqiles of highways, consistingiles of bituminous-treatediles of bituminous surface,iles of earth- or gravel-surfaced roads.

The principal highways usually haveituminous-treated surfaceeet wide with shoulders upeet wide, .for drainage is poor. There aretracks in addition to the regularprevious higher mileage estimatesdesert

The few major bridges on the highway system are of concrete, steel, or timber construction and have gross load capacitiesohort tons and roadway widthsoeet. Two new bridges, one three lane and one four lane, were opened at Baghdad In

Highway maintenance Is poor, and much of it is still accomplished by manual labor. Roadsunder construction conform to Improved standards for foundations and surfaces, but the older roads were not designed for the heavy loads now hauled over them.

Under the present road development. approximatelyillion will be spent on highway and bridge construction. This program calls for the constructioniles of highways, and some of this work is already in progress. Priority has been given to the construction of roads from Baghdad to Basra, Mosul, and Kirkuk; to the development of roads between cities having no railroadand to the improvement of otherarge amount of modern highway construction equipment has already beenand additional equipment is being

Restrictions to the movement of personnel and freight by highway transport Include the sparsity and low-type construction of the road system, large sections of which become impassable during wet weather; narrow, low-capacity bridges; steep grades and sharp curves in the mountainousof northern and northeastern Iraq; narrow, cliff-lined defiles; and extensive areas of deep sand. Climatic restrictions are intense heat in theand central desert regions, sand and dust storms, severe floods in the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys from February to June, and flash floods and snow blockage in the mountain passes during winter.

Motor vehicle traffic Is generally lightthe country and most of it is in the larger city areas. In the city ofodern bus transportation system operates numerous buses. Animal transport, consisting largely of camels, is the form most used in sparsely settled areas.

The Inventory of highway vehicles at6otal7assengerrucks,1 buses.

Page 14





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addition, thereorse-drawn vehiclesotorcycles.

D. d waterways

Iraq has three principal InlandShatt al Arab and Its two main confluents, the Euphrates and the Tigris. Until the advent of the Iraqi railroad system, these waterways afforded the chief means of surface transportation. Although inland waterway traffic has declined (no precise traffic figures arenland waterways stillubstantial portion of the freight of the country. The volume of cargo moved by waterway Is not known, butons of shipping pass the lock at Al Rut on the Tigris each year.

The Shatt al Arab accommodates maritimebetween the Persian Gulf and the port of Basra andeast depth of six feet from Basra to the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris. The Tigris Is navigable by barges and shallow-draft steamers as far as Baghdad, and. during the high-water season from November to May, small native steamers can proceed as far as Mosul. Navigation on the Euphrates is very limited, but fromto May small craft can navigate the entire length of that stream In Iraq. Keltks, native rafts made of skins, are used to transport produceon both the Tigris and the Euphrates and are dismantled upon completion of the Journey. The principal maintenance on the Iraqi waterways IS the continual dredging of the channel at the entrance to the Shatt al Arab made necessaryof heavy siltatlon.

E. Ports and naval facilities

Iraq has one principal port, Basra; one secondary port. Al Fftw; and one minor port, Umm Qasr.eepwater commercial port,iles along the Shatt al Arab aboutiles above its mouth. This Improved river harborinear feet of alongside berthing space for nine Victory-typedditional feet of quayed lighter berthage,arge number oflandings for lighters and small craft The excellent terminal facilitiesquare feet of covered storage space, petroleum tankage0 barrels,hore cranesaximum heavy lift ofons,loating cranesaximum heavy liftons. Basra has an estimated military unloading capacity0 long tons of general cargo per day, but the> railroad,and InlandInadequate to clear this amount of cargo from the port.

Al FSw.ase for dredges, wasconvertedarine terminal for crude petroleum shipments. This secondary port,close within the mouth of the Shatt al Arab, hasead piers each capableanker. Plans are underway for the construction of two supertanker berths. The terminal hastorage tanks0 barrels. No facilities forcargo are available

The minor port ol Umm Qasr, locatedidal estuary, was in active use briefly during World War IL It has been almost completely dismantled but Is considered toavorable site for future port development and eventually may be converted into an oil terminal. Financial difficulties insuch an undertaking and disputes with Kuwait over the ownership and boundaries of the nearby area preclude present development

The ports of Basra and Al Fftw are faced with the problem of continuous dredging because of the incessant silting In the Shatt al Arab. The outer barontrolling depth ofeet at low water andeet at high water.

Iraq has no naval facilities.

F. Civil air

The government has developed Iraqiovernment-owned air carrier, and has provided airfields, aids to navigation, and such otherservices as weather station data andThe Directorate General of Civil Aviation, under the Ministry of Communications and Public Works, is responsible forof civil air matters. The Directorate General of Railways within tho same ministry, however, Is the nominal administrator of Iraqi Airways, whichepartment of Iraqi State Railways.

Iraqi Airways has been developed largely with the technical assistance of British OverseasCorporation (BOAO. which provides many of the technical personnel, pending the training of qualified Iraqis. The air carrier hasmployees, including aboutilots. Britishcomprised8 and aboutourteen of the pilots are Iraqis, and these constitute the only major group of qualified four-engine pilots in Iraq. Iraqi Airwaysleet of three Vlckers Viscount, three Vlckers Viking, and one De Haviiiand Dove aircraft Three additional Viscounts are onfor7 delivery and two larger models for deliveryhe carrier operates international scheduled air services to points inoreign countries In Europe and the









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East. Domestic scheduled services arebetween Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul, which have: Ihe best equipped airfields open U) evil use, .The scheduled air traffic potential at otherIs limited because the airfields usually are not associated with major population centers but are used chiefly for support flights for the oilNavigational facilities are not abundant, but the generally good flying weather reduces the y. need for extensive aids,

Other civil air activities are conducted byAirplane Society, an aero clubrivate pilotsircrafttraining purposes; by the Iraqiilotsusters used inwork; and by the Iraqi Departmentilotsiper Cubfor locust control work. The Iraqowns andew airfields toIts pipeline pumping stations, butby the oil company are registered inKingdom and operatedritish

Iraq is signatory to the Convention on Inter-national Civil Aviation and the International Services Transit Agreement andember of tha International Civil Aviation Organization lICAO). Sixteen foreign air carriers scheduled International services to Iraq from the United States, Europe, and Near Eastern points. Foreign services from the United States, England, and the Netherlands stoo in Iraa en route to the Far-East. The other foreign services terminate' Iraq or neighboring countries. The foreign car-rlers make aboutandings at Baghdad andfer.' at Basra each week. Iraq has entered Into lateral air transport agreements with elevenjr '. lions, but only about half of the foreign carrier JJJS services to Iraq and Iraqi services to four foreign nations are sanctioned by these agreements. All the other international services are conducted der provisional arrangements renewable for limited periods of time.

G. Telecommunications

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The extensive government-ownedsystem Is operated by the Directorate eral of Posts andart of theof Communications and Public Works. The svstem appears to satisfy the needs of the various government departments, the Iraqi police, the 'armed forces, and also the modest requirements of the general public. The Iraqi Petroleum Company and its associates, the Basrah Petroleum Company and the Mosul Petroleum Company operate alimited but highly efficientsystem of their own under government cessions.

The open-wire network carries both telephone and telegraph traffic. The principalaxis Is formed by two lines which extend along different routes from Baghdad to Mosul and by two lines from Baghdad to Basra. Linesfrom these main trunks extend to most of the larger communities. There are approximatelyelephone exchanges in the country, serving0 subscriber sets, of which about three-fourths are automatic and attached to exchangesnd. Exchanges in the provinces are manual, mostly of the magneto types. Morse telegraph apparatus Is In general use, but teleprinters are used along the Basra, Baghdad. Kirkuk. and Mosul lines.

Public radiocommunication facilities are limited to government coastal stations In Basra and Al Faw and an aeronautical radiotelegraph station In Baghdad. The armyadiotelegraph network controlled from Baghdad.

International open-wire circuits provideto neighboring countries;arge portion of international traffic is carried by the Baghdad radiocommunication station, which maintainstelephone and telegraph circuits to key points in the Near East and Europe and uses Tangier and London stations for relay to more distant parts of the world.

Radio broadcast facilities arc concentrated in Baghdad. Domestic programs in Arabic are carriedUowatt dual Marconi transmitter which can be heardthe Near East, Sudan. Afghanistan, and parts of India Present transmitters for international broadcasts are being replaced by twoilo watt transmitters beamed principally at Europe and the Far East. International programs use the Arabic. Kurdish, and English languages. The number of receiving sets has Increasedduring past years and0 at the beginninghe only television station, which was Inaugurateds in Baghdad.

Telecommunication equipment manufacturing industry in Iraq Is limitedlantdry batteries for the militaryactory assembling broadcast receivers from British and United States parts. Most imported equipment comes from Oreat Britain.

Top-level engineering personnel are British, but' experienced Iraqis are being used as supervisors and inspectors. Younger employees are graduates of technical schools and the Baghdad Engineering College, and selected men are being sent abroadear of practical training with manufacturers supplying telecommunication equipment to Iraq.

Telecommunication facilities of the IraqCompany consist of telephone and tcle-





graph lines with radlocommunlcatlon stations backing up the wire lines that follow the oilpipelines. Telephone and telegraphactivities are automatic with intcrdiallngThe automatic telephone and telegraph system of the Basrah Petroleum Company operates from Basra central offices to the oil fields and tanker loading stations and includes short stretches of multichannel, medium-high-frequency radio links. Telecommunication facilities of the Mosul Petroleum Company are also fully automatic The systems of the oil companies are Interconnected.

H. Comments on principal sources

Information on the transportation andsystems of Iraq is. for the mostfairly reliable, and adequate exceptof the figures reported are not preciseestimates which vary slightlythe source. Use has been made of Chapterby information from engineeringof consulting firms and oil. and internationaland current Iraqi Govern-

ment and other overt publicatlons.

14. Sociological


Iraq can be considered essentially stable in its present social configuration, despite internaland conflicts of an ethnic, linguistic, and religious nature. It has no refugee problem, with Its concomitant emotional disruption; and itsminority group, the Kurds, is tooto translate its antipathy toward the Arabs, or its vague hopes of political Independence, into effective action. The great majority of theIs ethnically homogeneous and united by the powerful appeal of Arabism and by the bondommon tongue and religion.

Unity on political issues on the part of the Iraqi population is improbable. The great lower class rural majority Is disinterested in politics andof government In general. The literate, articulate middle class, which is preponderantly urban, Is often out of sympathy with governmental alms and turbulent in Its expression ofbut it Is still too small and disordered to challenge effectively the political control of the select upper class. There are no indications of political or other differences between groups or classes in Iraq so compelling as to threaten anin the social order or form of government as presently constituted-No other country, with the possible exception of Egypt, has sohread of recorded history as Iraq, which dates back to. From the time of the first primitive written records, and even further into prehistoric times, the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers hasaven to those who chose to till the soil. Throughout thisuccession of peoples have held the reins of power. Sumcrians, Babylonians, and Assyrians ruled the then known world from this river valley before the time of Christ. When, In the seventh century of the Christian era, the conquering armies of Islam freed the valley of Persian rule, they established an era of Muslim control which, though occasionally Interrupted, has persisted to the present day. Throughout this long history, despite Intermittent foreigntrong thread of continuity Is apparent. There is no discernible anthropological difference between the early residents of the valley and the Arabof today. Linguistic continuity also extends back from the Semitic and Iranian tongues of Arabic and Kurdish, spoken in Iraq today, to the earlier Semitic and Iranian languages of antiquity. The course of the Tigris and Euphrates stillas It did in the distant past, the practical boundaries of arable Iraq andrainage basin whichatural economic unit. Taken together these ethnic and geographicalcontributeense of identity which, though not always apparent, gives to theeeling of historical permanence that is often lacking among neighboring Arab peoples. This group identity Is being transmutedascent sense of nationality, which. In turn, Is given substance in modern international relations by thewealth and economic progress brought to the country by revenues from the great Iraqi oil fields. Economic stability and visible evidences ofprosperity have given the middle and upper class an Increasing consciousness of their status as citixens of Iraq rather than merely as Arabs, or Muslims, or members of some sect, tribe, or family.




not 6







NIS 30


diversion of oil revenues to works for the public good, carried out by the Iraq Development Board created0 by the Iraqi Government for this purpose, has put Iraq in the forefront of' Arab countries In the construction of new schools, hospitals, and housing; the expansion of sanitary measures and agricultural services; and theof the rivers to prevent floods and to provide efficient Irrigation. Considerable efforts are being made to correct the almost universal lack ofin the rural areas and in the city slums and to provide atinimum of medical care for the lower class Iraqi. The sudden andparticipation of the government In public works, for the benefitopulation long Inured to governmental indifference, coincideseriod of social unrest brought about by theeconomy of the modern world wherein the tribal and feudal balance between tribesmen and sheikh or peasants and overlord Is under severe strain. These large-scale public works serve to ease the dislocation inherent in the Initial erosion of an established social order, though at the same time these public works hasten the displacement which' they were established to alleviate. The tendency, consequently, Is for greater dependence on governmental paternalism In place of thereliance on the bounty and protection of Individual group leaders. Despite the outwardof democratic process, government in Iraq is still substantially the exclusive domainmall upper class ruling clique.

The social outlook for Iraqf the changing order already drastic reduction In the receipt and use of oil revenues takes place, the increasing use of the new facilities for education may be expected to result In the continuing growth of. the middle class In numbers and influence. The lower class agricultural majority can expect to become even less dependent on the feudal landlord or tribal sheikh as additional governmental plans forand land distribution are put Into practice. It is too early to estimate whether the Increased prosperity Inherent in continuing expenditure on public works will actheck on Irresponsible political actions such as have often characterized groups and governments in neighboring Arab countries.

B. The Iraqi people

opulation and manpower

The official Iraqi estimate of the total national population as ofased on afrom7 census,ersons. However,ate of growth ofer annum, this estimate appears low; more probably the present population Is close toillion figure tentatively released as the total from the7 census.

llustrates the relationship between area and population In the various provinces and desert administrations in Iraq. The importance ofprovince in regard to total population and density is primarily represented by the capital city, Baghdad, with its estimated population ofersons. Mosul, the second city of Iraq,ess pronounced effect on its province, as compared with Baghdad, because of the greater area of the province Itself and the more uniform spread of rural settlement due to greater rainfall. Three great desertBadiyah Ash Shamill-yah, Al Badiyah Al JanObiyah, and Bodlyat Alalmost half of the country. Although they have no officially recordedthey are. In fact, the grazing groundsood proportion ofomadic tribesmen of Iraq. For administrative purposes the Bedouin are accredited to the province they mostfrequent, though their migratory track may take them over the less fertile sections of various provinces, over the desert areas, and acrossboundaries. Excluding the desertthe population density of Iraq Is aboutersons per square mile; that of the country tn Its entirety is

Current prosperity and Increased urbangrowing out of the Development Boardprojects, have steadily drawn unskilled labor away from agriculture, reducing theof those working the soilndicated by7 census to. Dependence on pastorallsm In some degree is common among all rural Iraqis. Thef the ruralstill predominantly dependent on flocks of camels, sheep, and goats, are increasingly attracted to settled agriculture. Factors contributing to this trend are theof dry farming techniques on Land formerly thought fit only for grazing, the declining market for camels, and the success of the government's Bedouin settlement program.

Wheat, barley, and temperate-sone fruitsnorthern agriculture, while dates and rice typify the south. The extensive desert areas to tho west and south of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers afford only scant grazing for Bedouin flocks.

Of the urban population0 arein Industry, and an0 are employed in the production and distribution of oil. Iraqi industry is still characterised by the family workshop.fstablishments recorded inensus employed fewer thanorkmen, whUe the national average for all establishments, regardless of size, was only four workers per plant.



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f those engaged in industry worked in plants employing fewer thanorkers

The largest employer in Iraq is the government which, excluding the army and the state railroad, had0 persons in the civil servicehe largest single private employer is the Iraq Petroleum Company, withndustries which bulk largest inemployed, given here in order of importance, illustrate different facets of Iraqi industry:and weaving, which In the main Involves elaborate mechanical equipment, organizedand comparatively high annual pay; fruit- and date-packing, employing large numbers of women and childreneasonal basis with Its consequent- low annual pay; and tailoring, where small workshops made up of an owner-worker and his family still predominate. Female workers make upf the total employed in Industry. Boys underakef those reported, though substantial numbers below the legally employable age ofre thought to be unreported by employers.

The national labor force amounts toersons, orf the entire population. Of the total, and of the totalonstitute the proportion of the sexes In the labor force.

Unemployment is noterious threat to Iraqi labor. Underemployment Is slill common In agriculture, where Inertia and lack of capital binds the farm worker to the soil or to the pastoral life. However, the drift of labor to the city is steady enough to bring about local shortages In some rural areas. The construction growing out of the development program has been active enough to

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provide comparatively full employment for the abundant supply of unskilled labor In the cities. Skilled labor, however, is in almost continuous short supply; and work In this category hasqualified recruits from among Palestinian refugees and from the neighboring Arab countries.

Return for labor among agricultural workers is generally low. Sharecropping is the prevailingin central and southernthe one-third to one-half share of the crop that remains with the farmer as his return allows for little more than bare subsistence, The law In general favors the landlord rather than the tenant; there are no minimum wage obligations for farm workers, and most legislation designed to protect labor specifically excludes agricultural workers. Improvement occurs chiefly whereprojects under the economic development program permit the farm worker to supplement his agricultural return by casual labor in nonagri-cultural pursuits or from increased crop yield brought about through agricultural Improvement programs, such as those sponsored by the 1CA.

Urban labor is the subject of considerableattention. The code legalizing this Interest dates2 and is specific In its protection afforded to women and children and to workers In such matters as hours, severance pay. andfor Injury. However, compliance with these regulations Is not required by firms with fewer than four employees; and they are widely evaded by the larger Iraqi employers.Is haphazard except among the large foreign companies. Proposals for the modernization of this code have been brought before Parliament but have yet to be enacted.

The Iraq) social security laws limited In coverage to concerns employingr more persons; its benefits aref the total of industrial workers. Urban wages remain relatively high, and the legal minimumraqi Dinar (ID) per dayis generally exceeded even for unskilled workers. The Iraq Petroleumwhich has always led the Held In regard to wages, established in6 Its minimum take home pay for unskilled labor ofer day. Thus, urban labor, particularly In the skilled categories. Is able to command relatively highThe rising cost of living, however, tends to minimize the recent gains in wages.

.an organize only with government permission, which is difficult to obtain; and unions are dissolved by government decree at will. At the beginning7 there were In all Iraq only five labor unions,ombined membership of littleersons. In the absence of effective labor organization such strikes as occur are usually spearheaded by self-appointed "strike committees" acting In the name of the workers. Strikers are apt to be diverted from legitimate social and economic goals by extraneous political objectives, and their justifiable complaints are usually blunted by unrealistic demands. Labor Is devoid of skilled leadership from its own ranks and is unaware of its power or responsibilityroup. Such guidance as It may receive from management is at best paternalistic andThe attitude of the government toward labor is one of paternal authoritarianism. Its action In unresolved labor disputes, which It Is required to arbitrate, Is customarily aimeduickof production and its decisions to this endfavor management.

A sense of responsibility toward his Job is not very well developed in the Iraqi worker;onspicuous accompaniment to the current rise of wages. The capabilities of the Iraqi laborer for sustained, though not overly hard, labor are good; and he shows considerable aptitude lor the acquisition of mechanical skills within the limitations Imposed by unfamlliarity andilliteracy. The reserves of unskilled labor presented by the underemployed rural workers and the substantial nomadic population areto care for the manpower needs of anyor agricultural expansion in the foreseeable future.

Z. Physical characteristics

The preponderant and controlling ethnicin the population of Iraq Is Arab, whicherm applies as much to unity of language and culture as to identity of origin and physical typender this classification are such divergent groups as the nomadic tribesman and the settled townsman, the Illiterate peasant and the university graduate, and the Muslim marsh-dweller of the south and the native Christianof the north. Little physical difference separates the desert nomad'from the cultivator or townsman, though the settled Arab shows less of the lean build and coppery skin color than the Bedouin nomad. Certain physical characteristics may be considered as held In common by all the Arab population of Iraq. Anthropologically, the Iraqi Arabemitic-Mediterranean, with long head, uniformly brunet coloration, and moderate height. He has an Inherent sparsencss of build which Is not entirely the result of frugal living, and his features show with considerable frequency the long thin face and the high-bridged nosethe Arabs of Central Arabiaphysical adulteration occurs only on the periphery of the country, where Intermarriage











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with Turks, Iranians, Kurds and the like lias been going on lor centuries.

The Kurds, who are also Muslims, constitute the only ethnic minority of numerical Importance in Iraq. They make upifth of the total population and are, in fact,ajority in the four northern provinces. Physically the Kurd is an Irano-Afghan,iberal admixture ofNordic Like the Arab he Is long-headed, and In the most typical examples exhibits an even more arched nasal profile than the Bedouin. His staturo is measurably greater than that of his Arabbut his general coloration is approximately the sameimited Incidence of blondlsm.

Obvious visual differences distinguishing Arabs from minority groups include those of dress. Western garb has been adopted by most of tho upper and middle classes, but In the great rural lower class the Arabs still cling to the traditional flowing headdress or kafflyah and 'aqdl (head-cloth and fillet) while the Kurds prefer the head-cloth woundkull cap into an untidyThe Arabs cling to the enveloping outer cloak or aba, while the stiff-armed version of heavy felt is standard winter garb for Kurdish peasants from tbe northern provinces of Iraq.


Throughout history Iraq hastronghold for the Semitic languages, one supersedingin concert with military or economicArabic, the Semitic tongue which Is the official language of Iraq, swept over the Tigris-Euphrates valley with militant Islam in the seventh century; and byh century only ttoUted pockets of linguistic resistance remained. Modem Iraqis pride themselves, with someon the comparative purity of their Arabic. It Is rich, nevertheless. In loan words fromKurdish, and Turkish. Such dialectalas exist between the geographicaldo not Interfere seriously with Individual cemm unlcatlon.

Kurdish, an Indo-European language closelyto Persian. Is distinctly divided by dialectal differences, with the divergences in some cases so great as to make individual communicationthe extremes virtually Impossible. Theof As Sulaymaniyah Is used for theof laws, decrees, and textbooks in IraqiKurdish, along with Arabic, Is an official language in Kurdish-speaking areas.

Of the other linguistic minorities, Turkomans and Iranians are numerically significant. The language of the former enjoys official status, along with Arabic, in Turkoman communities; members of the Iranian and Turkoman minorities are apt to know some Arabic. BiUngualism In Arabic, Turkish, or Persian exists among the Kurds with some frequency at the ethnic boundaries of the separatemong the middle and upper class strata of Iraq, which are almost exclusively Arab, English Is widely used, though notfully comprehended.

eligious and ethnic fragmentation

Iraqi society Is fragmented along religious and ethnicare majority of the Muslimbelongs to the Shlah branch of Islam, while the remaining minority is of therbranch. Despite the slackening of religious fervor among middle and upper class Muslims and the consequent lessening of inter sectarian friction among them, the lower class majority still



ox Tab


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een sense of sectarian Iraq% of theand such effectiveness as they might exertnited bloc Is dissipated, here asn the Near East, by mterdenornlnatlonal rivalry. The numerous additional sects and faiths which are represented In Iraq, though insignificant in number of communicants, illustrate in indirect proportion to their sise those exaggerated traits of mutual excluslveness that characterize thetechnique of religious, ethnic, and tribal communities throughout the Near East.

The overriding urge toward group excluslveness has Its genesis in the patriarchal family anditself in the social self-sufficiency of villages in relation to their neighbors and, most specifically, in the often militant independence of the tribe


The cultural atmosphere of modern Iraq, which is not only Muslim but Arab In its broadest sense, is superimposedong succession of indigenous and intrusive Eastern cultures which in themselves were mature for theirense of common participation in the creation of the Arab Empire following the original Muslim conquest and aof the time when Baghdad as the imperial capitalorld center of culture and influence give the Arabonsciousness of participation in the mainstream of Arab history. Common use of the Arabic languagerime ingredient in the feeling of culture unity between Iraqis and other Arab-peoples. Perhaps the most powerful inter-Arab tie is Airfe? religion which provides for mostommon meeting ground under Islam and which In Iraq, for the great lower classat least. Is still the basic guide for the ethics of human relationships. Islameneral sense makes for local unity, giving to all in the Muslimactor In common unaffected by ethnic differences. Local sectarian rivalry,has given It divisive effects as well. The schism which divided Islam into the antipathetic Sunnl and Shiah sect* Is felt with considerable emotion by the Iraqis. The orthodox Sunniin general control the government, and the Shlahs wholight majority of the total of Iraqia substantial majority of the Iraqiperennially relegated toplace in respect to opportunities forservice. The concentrated Interest of the Shiah Muslim world in the great pilgrimage cities ofAn Najaf, Al KirimTyah. andto the Iraqi Shiah congregation an Importance in their own eyes which they feel the government consistently disregards.

The very existence of the great variety ofand ethnic "minorities illustrates thesocially exclusive character of minority-group attitudes, which in turn explains thesmall effect that the minorities exert on the attitudes of the Muslim Arab majority as expressed by the government.

The attitude of the rank and file towardaffairs Is one of indifference, as indeed it is toward virtually all matters of public concern not directly affecting their livelihood. Theattitudes of the very select upper class and the comparatively small middle class constitutes Iraqi public opinion. The middle class is capable of emotional, undisciplined, and destructivethough the strict hand of authoritarian government has reduced such expressions to aPublic opinion regarding the Arab League can be characterized as one of practicaltoward Its Arab neighbors in general It hasolicy of independent action based on Iraqi rather than Arab interest. Public opinion on the Baghdad Pact, in government circles, in general was Initially favorable, since it offered the prospect of increased prestige and military strength through strong Western support. More recent reactions to the Pact have beenesult of the Pact's exacerbation of Arab political disunity, disappointment over the amount. material support received, and the cumulative effect of Egyptian anti-PactOutside of government circles the reaction has been dubious and suspicious at best.

Israel and the plight of the Palestine Arab refugees are of no interest to the Kurds of Iraq and are far from being burning Issues with the Arab majority. Though Iraqis in general do notto use these Issues when it Is to theirto arouse pan-Arab or pan-Islamicfew have demonstrated any eagerness to shed blood over them.

Iraq Is confident of its own Importance In the Arab world; and It can point. In substantiation,urplus of arableubstantial regular Income from oil royalties, and an Impressive series of accomplished developmental projects. While the middle class Iraqi may acknowledge thesupremacy of Egypt and look upon It as the leader of the Arabs in their opposition torenched Western interests, those among theclique under no circumstances look to that country for leadership in Arab affairs; nor are they willing to accept fortatus secondary to any of the other Arab nations. Pan-Arablsm in asense Is an impulse common to moat Arab Iraqis. It is particularly attractive lo the literate middle class. Pan-Arabismolitical force is


















a tenet of the opposition in contrast to the policyndorsed by the governing group.

The upper and middle classes of Iraq have eagerly adopted the appurtenances ol Westernand technology; and even the lower class, through the continuing impact of the oil industry and the economic development schemes which it supports,ore than customary awareness of modern technology as applied to agriculture and Industry. However, the ethical values andof Western culture have been only partially absorbed or understood, and few Western ethical concepts have been adopted to bolster Islam, which In the middle and upper classes has lost much of its moral force. The individual literate Iraqi finds it difficult to understand such unfamiliar concepts as "enlightenedxemplified by. International Cooperation Administration (ICA) programs, thinking instead that, in some way which he has not yet discovered, the United States Is to derive benefits which must ultimately be at the expense of Iraq.

The literate Iraqi in general looks upon the Western powers with considerable distrust, and his attitude toward them Is subject to abrupt change on relatively small provocation.. sentiments, which wereeak after the Arab-Israeli conflictre less apparent today since the literate Iraqi, either from conviction or expediency, acquiesces in the moderately pro-US. policy pursued by the government- Among the Western powers the United States Is viewed with most favor by the Iraqi. He admires Its wealth, he respects its strength, and he Is consciousertain degree of the humanitarian Ism that has. relations with the Near East In the past. Iraqi officialdom would welcome US. adherence to the Baghdad Pact because of the added strength and stature it would give to Iraq in Near Eastern eyes. Despite the strain of the Suez. Influence in Iraq remains strong, rooted as it is In years of favored status.elaxation of the strong hand used by the present Iraqi Government could easily lead the volatile Iraqi middle class to anti-British acts, British method in government. Industry, andcan be expected to predominate In thefuture as It does today. The Iraqi'sloward the Soviet Union is largely negative because of the lack of official Soviet-Iraqi contacts and the repressive measures taken by theagainst Communist activity. Nevertheless, Communism continuesallying point forgroups of middle class Iraqis, who arein it mainlyractical weapon with which to attack the ruling group and the British. Students and other Intellectuals, lookingeans to express their traditional Impatience with

the status quo, haveeceptlveness todisruptive tactics. The town-dwellliuj Kurds have alsoeceptlveness to Com' munlst propaganda, espousing it in an expresslor of dissatisfaction with their minority status oronvenient vehicle for their separatist ambitions. The Turkomans, as pro-Turk and anti-Kurd, are the most staunch among the minorities in their resistance to Communist penetration. Various other minorities, both religious and ethnic,in Iraq (seencountering relatively little official Interference or public discrimination. Remnants of the old Turkish millet system, under which the non-Muslim communities werea substantial degree of self-government, still exist in the personal status courts maintained, with government consent, by the chief minority faiths for cases involving their coreligionists.

The divisive force of ethnic and linguisticseparatesf the population which is Kurdish from the Arab majority; andminorities of Iranians, Assyrians, andstrive similarly toward social andself-sufficiency. The once prosperous and large Jewish minority, which9 exercised strong control over Iraqi trade and commerce, has been reduced through emigration to Israel from welloersons. Despite the separation inherent In sociallyor self-sufficient enclaves, minorities as such do not at this timeerious threat to the stability of Iraqi society or politics. Theharboring individual and unorganized separatist sentiments, are too disunited to act effectively to this endloc.


Iraq expends annually onum equivalent tof the national budget. In addition to substantial amounts from theBoard for new school construction. Theon the masschiefly through primary rather than adult education.In alltudents are enrolled In Iraqi schools. rc in the primaryn secondary% Inand teacher training,% inof higher learning. The several colleges in the governmentalPharmacy, Law, Engineering, Commerce and Economics, Arts andthe past year have beenby official decree Into the only university of Iraq, butnified and functioningit remains still largely in the planning state.raqi students go abroad each year In pursuit of higher or other specialized studies. Most of these are on government grants, and about half are enrolled. Institutions. Some




of all Iraqi educational Institutions are under tbe free public school system. Of the nonpublic schools, about one-half are foreign supported.during the primary school age Iscompulsory for all. boys and girls alike,hortage of schools and teachers, the need for the children's earnings even in the average home, and lax enforcement of attendanceall contribute to absenteeism in the schools. Only about half of those of primary school age attend school at all.f the total school enrollment Is made up of girls.

Much emphasis is placed In the standard public school curriculum on Arab culture andand teaching methods rely more on learning by rote than by analysis and deduction. Student preference for the academic as opposed to theapproach to education predominates and reflect* not only the need felt by the post-Worldritish advisersiterate middle class to fill the vacancies In the newly created civil service butraditional Arab concept ofas something divorced from technology. The result hashortage of young mentrained for the demands of modernThere continues,urplus of traditionally educated white collar workers fo^ the number of government jobs, which still remain the preferred objective. To correct this situation the government now emphasizesrather than academic training, butthat does not lead directly to white-collar status continues to be unpopular. With occasional exceptions the continuing teacher shortage isin an inferior quality of teachingall levels of the educational system. TheIs evident In the scholastic difficultiesby many of the Iraqis who go abroad for advanced study. As In other Arab countries, Iraqi students when not under restraint participate in poUtlcal demonstration* with an enthusiastic lack ofractice which results Inepisodes of mob violence, frequent loss of time, and general Indifference to scholastic

ublic Information

The few papers constituting the local press have little circulation outside the cities. Rigid official control and the threat of suppression serve tothat the editors, who in the main share in the pan-Arab isolationism of the middle class,in print the broad lines of the policy endorsed by the government. Iraq depends for its books

Paqe 24


and magazines primarily on Imports, chieflyebanon and Egypt. Word-of-mouth is still the favorite medium of transmission in the rural areas, though the battery-powered radio isin village coffee shops where Egyptian,sh,. programs, which often come ins clearly as those of the Iraq Governmentasting Service enjoy considerable popularity. The' new Iraqi televisiononly one inearthus farery limited', audience and is operated as an adjunct to theeducational system. The. films,ery popular/ form of urban amusement.

iving standards and public health

The living standards of the wealthy in Iraqfavorably with those of the upper middle class In western Europe. Western mechanicalare readily available to the moneyed class, and servants in quantity areormal accompaniment of upper class status. Middle class living conditions In general afford few of the conveniences taken for granted at compa: rable levels In the United States, while theof the great lower class, which is largely rural is primitive in the extreme. Even elementary sani tary facilities are lacking, sources of purewater are apt to be more the result ofthan design, and epidemic diseases, while diminishing, are still prevalent. The urban lower class,eginning in governmental slum clearance and resettlement, Is at home in the same squalid surroundings to which It has long been accustomed.

Diet for the majority of Iraqis is inadequate. standards. Deficiency diseases are common, as are also malaria, hookworm, dysentery, and trachoma. Medical personnel, though not up to Western standards, in general are competent but amount to only onenhabitants, with the severest shortage in the rural areas. Hospital facilities in Iraq allow for about one bed forersons in the population; quality of hospital care in Iraq judged by Western standards ranges from barely satisfactory in the Royal Hospital in Baghdad, used for training doctors and nurses through the Royal School of Medicine, to primitive in the provinces.

Substantial allotments for low-cost housing and new hospitals have been earmarked from thebudgets of the Development Board, and if no serious interference with the accrual of oil revenues occurs, marked improvement In both these fields should be evident In the nextears.



g 3


ocial structurer ty

The structure oi" Iraqi societyhole Isin Its most elemental form In the ruralwhere foreign pressures are the least direct. The basic social unit Is tho patriarchal family which In the course of natural Increase emerges as village or tribe. Marriage outside the extended family Is rare, with first cousin marriage rights prevailing according to long established Arab custom.

The Bedouin of Iraq,f whom still adhere to the nomadic pastoral life, are looked uponertain nostalgic respect by the settled population as the custodians of the early Arab virtues of hospitality, courage, and honor. Bedouin allegiance Is to the. tribe rather than to the government, and while each tribepecific nationality, many continue to follow tho sparse desert pastures unhindered across nationaljust as they did before those boundaries existed. Tribal life is essentially egalitarian, with little social distinction arising from difference in economic status. This trait, along with tribal affiliation, persists even after the tribesman has been forced by the changing pattern of modern economy to adopt the sedentary life. Increasing numbers of Bedouin are being Induced bysettlement schemes to change to the fully settled agricultural life. The consequent blurring of the dividing line between nomad and cultivator, along with governmental suppression of Bedouin raiding, has tended to reduce the traditionalbetween the free-roving Bedouin and the settled farmer.

The steady transition from nomad to village-dweller does not diminish the tradition of family solidarity and loyalty, but the communal sharing of tribal land and the equalitarian atmosphere of the nomadic clan tends to be replacedeudal relationship between sheikh and tribesmen. Land once held as the property of the tribehole Is apt to become the personal property of the sheikh and be cultivated by the tribrvanenharecropplng basis. The tribal leaders and bigordiminished in prestige and power in direct proportion to theof civil authority Into the rural areas. They are, however, still important in relation to thethey exercise over votes and economic effort; and they are regularly cultivated by thefor that reason.


Agriculture is the primary occupation off the Iraqionspicuousof this majority is landless, tilling the soil as tenants of large local and absentee The settlod rural population adheres to the

Near Eastern preference for agricultural villi and towns rather than Isolated farmsteaas. Settlement Is thick along the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries,teady water supply makes irrigation possible. Only in the northern extremity of Iraq,in mountainous Kurdistan. Is there enough rainfall to eliminate the dependence on irrigation. Few rural settlements yet have electricity, sewage disposal systems, or adequate schools and medical facilities.

The agricultural village as suchhysically and socially stable fixture In Iraqi society. The Iraq Development Board program pointsontinued betterment In rural living conditions and crop production.illion acres of cultivable land have already been distributed among individual Bedouin and other landlessGovernmental programs for aid to the farmer, in addition to settlement schemes for Bedouin and for landless peasants. Includethrough flood control, irrigation, andAgricultural agents are available to advise the cultivator; and the United States, through the ICA, isechnical and clericalto assist the Iraqi Government in tackling domestic problems, almost all of which are of direct concern to the cultivator.esult of these aids, return for labor among the rural rank and file shows signs of permitting the peasant to rise somewhat above the traditional subsistence level of existence to which he has been accustomed. The further development of the large Iraqi reserve of unused cultivable land through Irrigation and drainage gives promise of increased prosperity and stability for the agricultural segment of Iraqi society.

rban society

The facade presented by urban Iraq is one of growing modernism. New business houses,buildings, schools, and clinics are Western in appearance and function. Truly urban society, accounting forf the total population, is epitomised by the few large cities, allcenters of riverine trade. Foremost is Baghdad, the capital and the largest; then Mosul, center of northern trade; and Basra, the principal sea port of Iraq. All three are located on the main rivers. Lesser centers, many of which are also partly agricultural, exist elsewhere on theof the country. OH production in recent years has brought technology to urban Iraq where economic activities formerly had been limited almost entirely to trade and handicraft. Cases in point, out of many, are Kirkuk, northern oil producing center; Dawrah, near Baghdad, site of the national petroleum refinery; and Al Faw, plpe-

Page 25

line terminus on the Persian Gulf for the oil fields of southern Iraq.

The city is the stronghold of the smallclass and the literate, articulateThe latterolatile, discontented,white-collar element sharesstrata in neighboring Arabcapability for inciting and participatingdemonstrations over social andeven the strong hand of governmentbeen able wholly to suppress theselower class, however, constitutes themajority of city dwellers and is onunconcerned with issues not directlyIts livelihood, as are the members of the

The family remains tho basic social unit among the urban lower class majority, with the extended family clustered together In groups of contiguous buildings. The middle and upper classes, while equally responsive to family ties, recognize that family solidarityhysical sense is no longer practical in present-day urban life. Those among the lower class who areinority status because of religion or race continue, as before, to coalesce into homogeneous enclaves within the city.

There is no Insurmountable barrier in the Iraqi social structure between middle class and upper class status. The difference is largely economic. The transition from lower to middle class status is more difficult. No real meeting ground exists for the middle class Iraqi and the peasant; there is,onspicuous lack of interest orfor lower class welfare on the part of the literate middle class.

Urban society as such is relatively stable Into its class structure In regard to temper it is unstable In direct relationship to the unrest of the middle class and to the degree of government control over students and other middle class groups. The outlook for the long run. however. Is favorable. Iraq, in Its effort to eliminate middle class unemployment and underemployment through emphasis on vocational training, and ints prospects for increased prosperity from itsdevelopment program, should under normal conditions legitimately anticipate an extended period of increased employment and greater eco- ,nomic stability,

D. Comments on principal sources

U.S. Government reportsreponderant majority of the sources used in this Section. While often inadequate in those sociological subjects not obviously related to International politics or to the activities. information and foreign aid programs, they are, as far as they go, accurate and dependable. The fundamental conclusions to which they have led. both In Ckaftcr IV and in Charter I,re believed to be sound.

U.S. mission reports on the reactions of the people in general have been excellent, but more data could be used on individual and groupto native and foreign radio and press and to the new Iraq television network. In the matter of religion, information Is generally lacking on the international influence of Iraq through its roleorld center of Shiah pUgrimage. Data are continually desired on the number, economic status, and temper of the changing agricultural and pastoral majority.

Official Iraq statistics on which reliance must often be placed, while more dependable than those from neighboring Arab states, are Incomplete and sometimes inaccurate and contradictory. The estimates relating to population and manpower used In this Section arc, for example, based on figures supplied to the United Nations by Iraq which themselves are projections from7 census. The statistics and data released by the Iraq Development Board are reliable and serve as an Invaluable guide to the degree and direction of Iraqi social betterment through public works.


Present-day Iraqreation of the mandates system of the League of Nations. During Worldhe Hashimit* Sharif Husayn, former King of the Hl]az and the hereditary protector of the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, supported by two of his sons, 'Abdallah and Fsysal, and other Arab leaders,evolt against tbe Ottoman Turks and aided the Allied cause in the Near East. This uprising was in response to British promises toingle, independent Arab statemost of present-day Iraq, Jordan, Syria, former Palestine,ortion of the Arabian Peninsula. The terms of this pledge, rather vaguely definedorrespondence between Sir Henry McMahon and Sharif Husayn, werewith the secret Sykes-Plcot agreement by which Britain, France, and Imperial Russia6 agreed to respective spheres of influence in the Arab possessions of the Ottoman Empire, and which was published soon after the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia. It also conflictedritish Government undertaking, formalized in the Balfouroa "national home" for the Jewish people in Palestine. An Arab government under Husayn's younger son. Fay sal, was actually formed in Damascus9 but was ousted by Frenchpressure

Faysal pleaded tho Arab nationalist cause at the peace negotiations In Versailles: but, in thereat power interests prevailed. At the San Remo Conferencehe Levant region (now Syria and Lebanon) was awarded to France; and Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine were similarly awarded to the United Kingdom under League of Nationsaysal was placed on the throne of Iraq. His elder brother 'Abdallah became ruleremi-independent Amirate which later became the kingdom of Jordan, and western Palestine was opened to large-scale Jewish immigration. The irreconcilable commitments of Worldnd the postwar developments underlie much of Arab hostility toward the United Kingdom and thepowers generally. The feeling that the Allies had betrayed the Arabs was much heightened by the emergence of Israelovereign political entityts speedy recognition by the United Kingdom and the United States as well as the

U.SS.R. the defeat of Arab armies in the fighting that ensued, and continued Western support of the Israeli slate-Iraq attained independencehen the United Kingdom surrendered its mandate and sponsored its former ward for membership in the League of Nations. However, Iraq remained closely bound to the United Kingdomreaty which, although ostensibly between two sovereign powers, contained unequal provisions Intensely resented by most ^Iraqis. This treaty wasunder popular and political attack until it was ended in5 with entrance of both parties into the Baghdadegionalwhich placed the relationship with tho United Kingdom In the contextultilateral Informally, the United Kingdom continues to exert some influence or Iraqi policy by reason of Its longssociation with most of thefigures still influential In the government as well as Its dominant position in the management of the Iraq Petroleum Company and in Iraqi foreign trade.

The physical security and high fertilityby tho Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which flow through central and southeastern Iraq (ancientave rise to man's first citiesnd the first experiment* with government and organized armies (the Sumerlan kingdom,0. Fromh. the wars and dealings among the kingdoms in thisBabylonian,among the world's earliestIn International on the route of migration and conquest, the area received infusions of Persian and of Greek culture and was reconquered by Arabs in the name of Islam in the seventh. Baghdad, as the seat of the,orld center of learning and commerce, as well as the political capital of an empire that embraced much of the then civilized world until, already in decline. It was finally overrun by Mongols inh century AD.

Arab-Muslim patternshave predominated in Iraqi life since the eighth. Yet the course of empire has left Its sedimentation of ethnic and rellgio-cultural groups. Sometimes in conflict, but more often in mutual tolerance



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NIS 30


with dislike and distrust, they havetheir separate identities with remarkable persistence. Both the Caliphate and the Ottoman Porte allowed the various minority groupsautonomy as separate millets, with which the government dealthole through their leaders; this system was gradually extended to the heterodox Muslim sects as well. Centuries ol fragmentation and mutual distrust have not been healed by the comparatively recent appeal of state-centered nationalism. Moreover, the long period of neglect whon Iraq formed part of the outer fringes of the Seljuk (from5ndmpires, ruled by Turkish overlords, conditioned the people to distrust all government as an alien institution

Among the numerous religious and ethnicthree major groupings are politicallyalthough no one of them can dominate the political life of the country: these ore the division of the Muslim majority between the two major sects of Islam, Shl'ah and Sunnlnd of the latter sect along ethnic lines between Arabs and Kurds. Theountain people whoajority In the northern provinces of Iraq and In adjacent areas in Turkey and Iran as well, have long cherished separatist inclinations. Despite fragmentation, the reality of the Iraqi state has been gradually accepted as physical control of the central government has been extendedIts territories and tbe central authority has begun in the minds of the people to stand for some positive benefits (schools, health services,services) as well as for conscription and taxes. However, the Iraqi Government continues to be under the necessity of balancing regional andInterests; and this Ispirit of compromise and disinclination to extremes akin to that found in Lebanon, which has similarbalances among population groups.

The government is highly centralized, with political power concentrated In the conservative, propertied elite and officials down to the local level appointed by the authorities In Baghdad. When parliament Is not In session legislation may be promulgated by decree, subject to subsequentratification.

Political attitudes in Iraq arc still not farfrom those of the patriarchal society which is the basis of both nomadic and village life. Strong individual. leadership is the rule, and in general personalities are more important than the offices they occupy or the formal Institutions framed by constitution and laws. Political parties are in reality little more than groups of clients and followers around influential persons; they seldom represent any real program or political belief. As elsewhere In the Near East, the Western-typeand laws areacade behind and. through which older, indigenous patterns of clan and family factionalism have operated as the real political dynamic. However, In Iraq the throne, at first with British support and more recently in its own right, hasegulating andforce.

B. Constitution and structure of government

The Iraqi Constitution was voted4 and promulgatedver considerableopposition, since It was associated inage with the unpopular Anglo-Iraqi Treatyhrough which the United Kingdom operated Its mandate for Iraq. Despite these earlyIt has proved toatisfactorylaw for the Independent state and hasbeen amended. It established amonarchy of parliamentary type. The constitution specifies that "sovereignty resides in thend the Cabinet is made responsible to Parliament. The legislature Is bicameral, with on upper house appointed by the Kingower chamber elected by universal male suffrage on the basis of proportional representation. Legal voting age Isew electoral ordinance2 changed the system from indirect to single-stage elections by electoral districts of00 registered voters. As ofhis ordinance was in process of confirmation by Parliament, as required of all legislationby decree during parliamentory recess. Two elections have already taken place under the new ordinance.

The King has considerable authority, deriving largely from his power of appointmentide range of officials. Both the King and Prime Minister also have extensive emergency powers. Suspension of the ordinary laws forof martial or emergency rule has beenBy these means the executive branch (the King or, at othertrong Prime Minister) has nearly always assumed the predominant role In Iraqi politics, despite the Intent of thethat Parliament should be the principal locus of power. Similarly, provisions of theBill of Rights are frequently evaded without protest from ordinary Iraqis, most of whom are unfamiliar with Western concepts of personaland accustomed to more or less authoritarian attitudes on the part of public officials

The legal system, also devised during theIs based on Ottoman, Anglo-Indian, andEuropean prototypes. Portions arebeing recodified to eliminate some of the Ottoman features. As is common in Near Easternripartite system of courts Is provided:




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ordinary civil and criminal system; ad hoctribunalso Interpret laws and regulations; and special courts, including those for the tribal and religious jurisdictions and for constitutional Interpretation (the ad hoc Highertain special provisions wereinto the legal system in order to adjust Its predominantly Western concepts to indigenous customs and practice: non-Muslim religious(which were semlautonomous millets during Ottoman times) retain their own courts for matters of personal status, applying their own customary law; nonorthodox Muslims are similarly entitled to trial by the legal system in use by their sect; and special arbitral tribunals apply tribal rules and precedent to the nomadic population. The court system, although subject to someInfluence, is relatively free of pressure and, by Near Eastern standards, efficient and honest. Some bribery and peculation are Inevitable under local social standards and pay scales and arc more or less condoned.

Administratively. Iraq is dividedhich in turn are subdivided Into districts and counties (see Local admlnislra-



6 ro 3 ;



live as well as functional officials, such as school and health officers, are regarded as representatives on their respective levels of the several cabinetto which they are responsible. Three desert areas {Badiyah) are given special administration because of their primarily Bedouin population. Provinces and districts have advisorycouncils comprising certain officials serving ex officio plus members electedomplicated four-stage system (see. There Isenera! Council in each province, again partially electeduite different method, whose duties are chiefly budgetary and fiscal. Municipalities also have elected councils which are empowered to levy certain taxes and dispose the revenue.

uiiutuiwir I uvi'


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incnori or botatixo members or novrxcui.

administrative cocn&x8

C. Political dynamics


Unlike Syria, Egypt, and to some extent Jordan, political power In Iraq remains In the hands of the Arab world's traditional rulinglarge merchants, and tribal chiefs. The chief figures among this group to achieve political stature are those who as young men were the companions in arms and political supporters of Faysal, first King of Iraq and grandfather of the present king. Arbiters of the affairs of the ruling group, and consequently the centers of political power In the country, are Nurl al-Sa'ld, the ablest politician and frequent Prime Minister of Iraq, and 'Abd al-Ilah, Crown Prince, uncle, andadviser of the King and regent during his. The combination of Nflri and Abd al-Ilah represents In the main anN jr. has devoted his life to the Hash Unite dynasty and his loyalty is unquestioned.these two men agree on principal objectives for their country: bothtable political life with steady economic development; bothestern alined and Western-protected position of security, and the enhancement of Iraqi prestige in the Arab world. Nevertheless, they differ from time to time on the means of attaining these goals; and there are periods of mutual and IntenseNuri has occasionally demonstrated that the parliamentary machinery cannot be operated without his consent. 'Abd al-Eah on his part resents tooonopoly of power In the hands of any one person; and he, too, endeavors to keep some personal following in Parliament. He uses the Palace's constitutional power of appointment and dismissal to prove from time to time that the tenure of anyone ofis dependent on the King's pleasure; he sometimes has Indulged in petty political harassment and Intrigue. This interplay, like personal clashes and factionalism among the leading politiciansis not so deep as to threaten the Interests of the ruling grouphole. The traditional ruling circle of Iraq is thus less vulnerable than that pf Syria to challenges from other elements bidding for political power.

The chief challenge to the traditional ruling group rises from the growing middle class (minor officials, white-collar workers, small merchants, the professions, teachers, students, middle officer ranks in the armed services) who. Impatient and hypercritical, stung by the Arab defeat Inand resentful of the West, are eager forand national status. In this segment of the population, especially among youth, the Issues of Arab unity, enmity toward Israel, and antl-lm-perlallsm, most often directed against the United Kingdom and the United States, attain theiremotional force and have become the princi-









thomotivations. On these issues spokesmen for this group, usually the extremists and demagogues, have been able to arouse the street mob and bring pressure on the government by the threat of civil disturbance.this technique In the past (our years by strong governmental security controls, this nationalist segment is at present without organization orleadership, but its latent emotionalism threatens renewed and possibly violent protest should It be facedess determinedTo this group, Nuri al-Sa'Id personifiesmethods of an older generation, and his long and friendly association with the Unitedrepresents collaboration with imperialism. In their view, the government's policy of alining Iraq with the West in the Baghdad Pact has dissipated the bargaining position of Iraq between Bast and West and has alienated it from the main current of Arab thought and aspiration, which to them Is exemplified by Egyptian President 'Abd ol-Nasir.

The conservative oligarchy has been able to maintain Itself against the heady emotionsby Arab nationalism at home and abroad because the loyalty of the armed forces has been vigilantly maintained; judicious tampering with the election machinery hassafe"and an expanding economy has helped to absorb and channel the energies of ambitious,youth, which everywhere In the Near East constitutes the most restive political element An additional factor, perhaps the most important in maintaining the status quo, has been the political skill of Nuri al-Sa'ld. Sometimes called adictator, Nuri does not maintain himselfby force, although the knowledge that he is prepared, if necessary, to use force istrong deterrent to civil disorder. NOri's unique position rests upon his ability to anticipate, deflect, and contain the sources of opposition by playing one against another. Nuri often voices the classic anti-Israeli and Arab nationalist themes more loudly than his attackers; he never leavesin sole command of popular Issues. Aided by tho highly centralized character of thehe has built up through the years anand highly personal system of patronage through which he Is able to block or buy oft* much potential opposition and thus prevent formation of successful combinations against him. Chronic frustration adds to the emotional heat of NQrl's opposition, but his methods also compel grudging respect and admiration. As long as the present firm controls are exercised, there is littleto organize any parly or movement against him.

Although several younger men, such as Khc Kannah, are being given Increasing responsibilities as potential future Prime Ministers, NQrt has no heir apparent capable of manipulating Iraqiwith the same mastery. It is generallythat his departure from active political life will be followedroubled period of Jockeying for placeumber of potential successors, with the Palaceestraining moderating role and endeavoring to prevent sharp divergence from the present pro-Western policies. There are some signs that inoyal opposition in the Western parliamentary sense is beginning toIn Parliament, and even among the restive elements of the middle class, thereody of opinion which opposes Nuri personally and some aspects of his domestic policy, but which supports the throne, abjures extremist and violent means, and accepts with reservation the pro-Western orientation of Iraq. At present, however, persons of this political viewpoint lock leadership; and they have Utile immediate potential for achieving political organization.

All Iraqi political parties, including theUnion founded by Nuri al-Sald, wereby martial law decree inollowing an episode of preelection violence. Party groupings have continued in shadow form and actually functioned by taclt.consent In twoelections, but there has been no effective party life since Government officials have recently expressed themselves as willing to charter any moderate group which would agree to act within the constitution and the nationalbut the few applications received have been turned down. Political parties, like all otherare subject to very stringent laws; the government may suspend summarily, either permanently or temporarily, any association deemed detrimental to public security and may confiscate its funds. Another ordinanceinistry of Interior approval of any association's officers and regulations; prohibits membership of students or government employees in politicalopens records and prenuses tosearch; limits fees, subscriptions, andholdings; and Imposes other restrictions-Remnants of the former extreme nationalist (IstiqUU) and National Democratic (al-Hiib al-Watani ai-Dimuqrati) parties still meet informally with their respective leaders. Both ore to some degree Communist infiltrated and at times respond favorably to the entreaties of theCommunist Party of Iraq for common action. However, formationnited front has been blocked by the government's refusal to legalize any combination of opposition groups. Visibly unable to offer the present governing group any real con-

Pace 31


test, those leaders identified withtrallst opposition in the last decade have lost stature and public confidence. The Communis'. Party itself, after several years of rigorous andgovernment suppression. Is virtuallyThe Party has worked out an alliance with the Ba'th Party (Hlzb al-Ba'th al-'ArabiSocialist Resurrectionistirnllarly outlawed by the government,evival of membership and activity in both parties is likely if government controls are relaxed.

D. Public order and security

Internal order in Iraq depends upon the police and army. The police, executive arm of theof Interior, are considered the first echelon of internal security. The maintenance of security is considered their primary mission; and they are, consequently, centrally organizedilitary striking force commandedormer armyIn event of severe or widespreadas in the period following the Anglo-French military action in Suezolice areby army units in maintaining internal order. Inolitical functions such as countersubverslon and passport control werefrom the police proper and regroupedew Directorate Oeneral of Security. Positive intelligenceunction of the army. However, political intelligence activities, especially thoseother Arab states, tend to be carried on outside the organizational framework byor special missions loyal to the Palace orarticular minister or interested official

Police and army have always been separately maintained and at times interservice rivalry has been encouraged in order to use one force to coun-,terbalance and check on the other. This was In part the aftermathfarmy Interference in politics when several governments were placed or unseated by coup and countercoup. Although It is always possible in* Arab countries that political discontent will find expression through the army, both services in Iraq are at present considered nonpolltical and loyal to the regime. As is common in Near Eastern states, police are underpaid; and bribery and petty graft are commonplace. Slow advancement,and uncongenial duty, and the universaland disdain of the populace for the police all make for low morale andelativelytype of recruit. Top officers estimatef ordinary policemen are Illiterate.

The services of British advisers on duty with the police have gradually been terminated (only one remained as of. Internalensuing from the Suez crisis highlighted weaknesses of the police organisation. The Iraqi


Government urgently requested and is toolice training mission from the United States through the Technical Cooperation Program, and. also some needed police equipment.

E. National policies

Policy Is determined and executed within the/ small ruling group which directs Iraqi affairs of state. Ordinary Iraqis are aware only of the more' emotional regional issues in the field orolicy and largely ignore domestic affairs. Or. emotional Issues which directly affect internal poll-.the Baghdad Pact versus Nash's "positiverab unity andthe most conservative political figures find it expedient lo espouse the popular side' publicly, whatever their actual policy intentions may be. Through much of the brief history of Iraq, consistent policymaking and orderlyhave been hindered bynexperience and by frequent Cabinet changes.

nternal policies

Only two major lines of internal policy emerge with consistency. The earliest Is that of welding the heterogeneous peoples of the country Into one population Infusedeeling of nationhood. Constant effort on many levels has not yet fully achieved this goal; most Iraqis still Identifyprimarily with the tribal, religious, or ethnic groupings to which they are born. Those who have positive feelings of patriotism are generally drawn to the vaguely defined ideal of Arab unity rather than to the country of Iraq as such.

he government's principal domestic policy aim has been the utilization of much of its oil income toroad program of economic and social development. In0 theDevelopment Board was created under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. It Includes. and. member, and It has been entrusted with the allocationf the annual Iraqi oil revenues. The Board spent the equivalent ofillion on Its first program extending over fiveecond plan, covering six years, is under way. budgeted atillion Because of considerable intra-government criticism of the development program, Initialon long-range capital development has now given way to greater emphasis on direct-impact projects such as low-cost housing. Majorundertaken by the Board are in the fields of flood control and irrigation, drainage and(Including the distribution of newlyland to landless peasants asoad and bridge construction, electrical powerand encouragement of small industries. Improvement of agricultural methods, and exten-

PACt 32



sionof education and of health services.policies have been revised toward greater emphasis on trade and technical training geared to. the needs of the development scheme, and efforts are being made to minimize political agitation in schools and colleges. These multifariouswhich wouldore expertsystem than that of Iraq, are not wellnor are they proceeding with equal

Under the stimulus of the development scheme, change is taking place In Iraqi life at an unsettling rate. On the one hand, many Iraqis are having difficulty adjusting themselves to the changes, while on the other, new desires arc being created faster than economic expansion can beexpected to satisfy them. Iraqi Government officials do not fully comprehend the resultant problems with their potential for violent political protest.

oreign and defense policies

The principal aims of Iraqi foreign policy, as defined by the present ruling group, continue to be the promotion of the interests and prestige of the Hashirnite royal house and the preservation of the delicate balance by which Iraq strives to keep Intact its economic and defense ties with the West and at the same time tooyalof the Arab community. The maintenance of this careful balance has been thus farunction of Nuri al-Sa'Id's adeptness inas well as local politics.onsiderable extent it depends also on the ability andof the United States and the United Kingdom to provide the Iraqi Government sufficient support to justify its present policies In the eyes of the public.

The Baghdad Pact was initially executed5 (ratifiedreaty of mutual defense between Iraq and Turkey: Pakistan adheredeptember and5 the United Kingdomarty to the Baghdad Pact by meanspecialwhich replaced the Anglo-Iraqi Treatyrimary target of the nationalistic segment of Iraqi opinion. This Special Agreement with its annexed notes, which Is binding only as long as both parties are Baghdad Pact members, defines the terms of defense collaboration between Iraq and the United Kingdom; and the Pact is the only remaining formal link between the two countries-Baghdad is the permanent seat of the Pact(seend of its regularThe United States, although not adhering to the Pact itself, is associated eitherull member or observer with all of Its operative bodies except the security organization. Jointin the Baghdad Pact has submerged many minor but longstanding frictions between Iraq and Iran and Turkey, and Its relations with these countries are becoming Increasingly cordial.

The membership of Iraq in the Baghdad Pact prevented fulfillment of Egyptian President 'Abd al-Nasir's dreamolid bloc of Arab states under Egyptian leadership committed to neither East nor West and.oncept of nationalism, undermined Nasir's dogma that true Arab nationalism must stand aloof from any great power system. The Pact thusistoric animosity between Iraq and Egypt over hegemony in the Arab world anditter personal contest between Nasir and Nun al-Sa'ld. Nasir's more flamboyant leadership, with Its note of defiance of the Arabs' one-time "imperialistasreat restorative to Arab self-esteem after the Palestine defeat and has had greater popularin all Arab countries than the real, but less spectacular, progress of Iraq. Popular adulation of Nasirime threatened to isolate Iraq In the Arab world and brought widespread criticism of its policies at home. However, Nasir'sto encourage the Arab peoples in movements against their own governments has alienatedleaders in Lebanon. Jordan, and Saudi Arabia; and the gradual reversion in their policies has permitted Iraq tolace in the Arabenturies-old dynastic quarrel between the Hashirnite house and that of King Saud has been resolved, and cordial relations between Iraq and Saudi Arabia have beenLebanon has given pro-Western Iraqi policies (although not the Baghdad Pact per se) open and consistent support. King Husayn ofa Hashirnite cousin of Iraqi King Faysal n, has had to rely occasionally on Iraqi assistance against Israeli pressures and also to contain chronicunrest. Mutual support between the two governments, givenreaty mades assured as long as Husayn remains in control of Jordanian affairs, although the Iraqi regime is widely unpopular In Jordan and has undertaken major commitments there only reluctantly under impetus of Egyptian-Syrian pressures.

Iraq is especially concerned toriendly regime in Syria because the pipelines which carry much of the Iraqi oil to Mediterranean outlets pass through Syrian territory. Syria has, therefore,ocus of the contest between Iraq and Egypt. As ofhe pro-Egyptian and. element had achieved the upper hand in Syria; Syrians sympathetic lo Iraq were silenced, demoralized, and politically Impotent; and the possibility that Syria wouldase for




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Ficbui II. Orcankatios or the Baghdad pact.

penetration and subversion was causing acute alarm in Iraqi Government circles.

The prospect ol nearby Western air basesin the defense aspects of the Baghdad Pact animated the VSSJL toew and more dynamic Near East policy. In5 the-So-viet Foreign Ministry publicly stated Itsto the Pact and since then has affordedsupport, arms, and limited economicto Syria and Egypt, adversaries of the Pact. The Pact partners have In turn pressed for. and are receiving, new reassurances and increased support from the United States and the United Kingdom.

The acerbity of the differences between Iraq and Egypt has also exposed latent stresses in the Arab League, formed5 with Iraq as amember. Egyptian influence hasfrom the outset in the League, which has tended to become more and more an instrument of Egyptian policy. Exceptehicle forthe already universally felt attitudes and actions against Israel, the league has becomeInoperative All League members except Jordan also belong to an Arab Collective Security Pacthich was intended to form the basisoint military command structure directed primarily agulnst Israel. Tho military

Page 34

arrangement, frequently alluded to by Iraq, has been sidestepped by Egypt, which Instead haseries of bilateral and trilateral military agreements aimed at Isolating Iraq andin Egyptian hands the military leadership of the Arab world. The extent to which these several Joint command systems actually function depends on the shifting allnements of inter-Arab politics.

Toward Israel. Iraq emphatically supports the common Arab position; it does not recognize the Israeli stateegal entity. Iraq has supported the economic boycott to the extent of maintaining closure of the leg of the oil pipeline that terminates in Haifa, despite the financial sacrifice involved. However, the Iraqi Government Is loath to see Arab-Israeli Issues become active because each flareup calls Into question the alinemcnt of Iraq with the West.

4 Iraq suspended diplomaticwith. without formally severing relations and now has no representation with any Soviet bloc country. Unlike other Arabthat of Iraq feels itself directly exposed to Soviet military threat because of geographicThe government's attitude toward-













one of Intense suspicion, although many Iraqis outside the government obviously would like tothe USSRenevolent giant, welltoward the Arabs (see Chapter IV. Sectionnder Attitudes of the People).

The United States, once highly regarded in Iraq, has lost some of Its standing because of popular resentment over US. support of and supposed bias toward Israel. However, in view of the contraction. power since World War II, Iraq has been anxious to see the United Statesore active participant in Near Eastern affairs and would, In fact, like the United States to be the principal guarantor of Iraqi security. To that end, Iraqi leaders liavc exerted all possibleon the United Stales to join the Baghdad Pact and toreater burden of military assistance, although this pressure has abated somewhat since enunciation of the Eisenhower Doctrine and is played down during periods when Iraq Is preoccupied with inter-Arab relations. Iraqi military leaders appear to have sensed and to resent the secret. agreement by which Iraq continues to receive mostly British equipment partly through offshore procurement.

The planning of defense policy, which is the functionpecial Defense Council assisting the Minister of Defense, has also received impetusesult of the Baghdad Pact, In which Iraq has had opportunity to compare its defense concepts with those of other member countries and to participate in the preparation of strategic plans for tbe Pact area. Most Iraqis regard Israel as their principal military threat and would probably prefer not to be involved in any global conflict; however, those in responsible positions recognise that Iraq, by reason of its geographic position and oil resources, would almost Inevitably be drawn Into any majorembracing the Near East.

F, Comments on principal sources

U.S. Government reports from Iraq, together with numerous published sources including Iraqi Government laws and publications used in the preparation of this Section andn abundance of dataide range of the social and political spectrum.uller assessment of anti-Western sentiment and its political potential would be desirable. With this exception, political data on Iraq Is bothand reliable.



Iraq has asong-run economic outlook as any other Near Eastern state. Although most of its area ofquare miles Is desert, there ore large areas of Inherently fertile land awaiting only an adequate supply of water to make It productive The twin-riverthe Tigris and thepotentiallyof supplying this water. Earnings from the vast oil resources are being utilized tnarge-scale development program. With asparse populationillion) into resources, prospects forubstantial increase In per capitaare favorable.

. The Iraqi economy has been traditionally based upon agriculture, but by Worldhesector of the economy had begun to assume major Importance.0 the petroleum sector had outdistanced agriculture and accounted forf an estimated national income of million Iraqi Di-

The Iraqi Government embarked upon aneconomic development program1ongears or more) plan; the first stage.ew six-year plan, to expendillion, was adopted. Thus far, the government's rate of expenditure has tended lo fall well below expectations; but it is anticipated that this rate of spending willduring the next four years. On the whole, It appears that the developmentpecially created Development Board,



6 3

Tab I






is well suited to the long-run basic needs of the country and is reasonably well covered byresources. Seventy percent of theearnings from oil operations provides the financial backing for the program. The new six-year development planf over-all expenditures for irrigation and floodoror publicor mining and Industry,orprojects.

As yet, however, the government's efforts tonatural resources have hadodest Impact upon the economy, doing little to eradicate the widespread poverty which prevails In Iraq. The annual per capita incomeay have approximatedbove the general average for the Near East but far below thepotential of the country.hereas agriculture constituted only about one-fourth of the national incomethree-fourths of the population is directly dependent upon agriculture or animal husbandry. Consequently, the average per capita Income of the farm population Is probably far below the national average. The traditional sociological setting of the country, with tribal customsits activity, tends to resist economicemifeudal land tenure system that prevails throughout most of Iraq hinders the adoption of modern techniques, and the appeal of higher wages in the cities has helped stimulate aof farm labor to urban centers.

Foreigntechnical aid programs, sponsored by the United States and the United Nations, have been concerned primarily with the development of human and natural resources rather than by grant of budget support and other types of aid strictly, financial in nature. Both extend technicalin 'agriculture, education, public health, and land and community development. While there has been progress in these fields, actualhas fallen behind originally projected schedules because of unforeseen problems which have developed as the complex Iraqi development plan has progressed. Advancement Inone of the major fields of technicalhas laggedesult of the typical reasons cited under Subsection B, Agriculture, below.

The amount of aid granted by the Unitedwhile Important, is considerably less than that extended through ICA. The operations of the two agencies generally do not overlap but rather complement each other. In addition to the above-mentioned fields in which bothoperate, ICA also extends technicalin the following Important fields: highways, railroads, flood control, communications, public and Internal security.are provided through the ICA program.

A Baghdad Pact Nuclear Center was established in7 at Ash Shalikiyah, near Baghdad, for the training of students in the peaceful use of the atom. During the first year of operation, there are tolasses oftudents eachach from Iran, Iraq, Pakistan andt is planned to increase the number of classes In succeeding years. The six- to eight-weeks' course includes the study of nuclear structure, nuclear reaction, production of radio-active isotopes,of radio-active substances, and suitability of radio-active materials for specialized applications. The Center is equipped with the variousand electronic devices used in the field, and students are trained in their use.

Whereas in the long run Iraq should be able toore balanced economy, the present dependence upon oil revenues makes the economy vulnerable In the short run to serious disruptions should the export of oil be interrupted for anyperiod. The sabotage of the IraqCompany (IPC) pipelines in Syriaould haveuch more serious blow to the economy had it not been for tbereserves held by the government and had not Iraq been able to obtain loans up toillion from IPC. The rate of expenditure set forth in the new six-year planharpin reserves over the next few years.

B. Agricultureeneral

Despite the fact that agricultural outputmeets the basic subsistence requirements of the country andubstantial surplus of some commodities for export, its relativeIn the economy has declined sharplyhereas this relative decline is attributable largely to the boom In oiluasi-feudal absentee land tenure system, the lack ofamong the rural population, primitive health standards,carcity of private capital have discouraged any rapid increase in agriculturalMore recently, the lure of the cities and the Increased demand for labor in connection with the government's development projects havea migration of farm labor to moreoccupations and has resultedhortage of agricultural labor in some regions of the country.

mall percentage of the total land area of Iraq is suitable for crops or intensive animal husbandry.utotal area ofillion acres, approximatelyillion acres



G 3


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were registered as agricultural land; less than half of this area was cultivated at any one time, mainly because of the fallow system of farming practiced In Iraq. In addition to this registered acreage, part of the large sernlarld regions of the country is utilized for seasonal, nomadic grazing of livestock.

About two-thirds of total cultivated acreage lies in an Irrigated zone along the Tigris and theRivers in the central and southernof the country. Somewhat less than one-third isain-fed zone in the north.Irrigation and drainage projects now under construction or planned should eventually greatly increase the total annually cultivated acreage (see.

One of the main causes of the low productivity of the agricultural sector Is the system of land tenure. Except for some fairly limited areas in various parts of the country, there are almost no peasant proprietors In Iraq. Although there are some' Indications of change, most of the arable land Is held by quasi-feudal landlords, who either own it outright or have it under lease from the government on terms that approximate ownership. These large estates ore cultivated by sharecroppers, who, in return for use of the land, surrenderf their harvest to the landlords. Most land-

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lords show little or no Interest In Increasing the productivity of their estates. The land assigned to tbe fellah, or peasant, generally changes from year to year, so that he has little incentive to improveThe depressed economic condition of the fellah tends seriously to limit the market forindustrial products. While the sharecropper Is legally prohibited from leaving an estate so long as he is indebted to the landlord, as he usually is, more remunerative occupations are nevertheless causing some of them to seek employment elsewhere.

The confused tenure system covering grazing lands has seriously handicapped the developmentajor livestock Industry in Iraq. Sincerights and areas arc not clearly denned and are allocated to various tribal groups, no efficient management of pastures can be maintained. With virtually no forage or grain feed grown, and only inadequate watering facilities, large numbers of livestock are lost in years of drought.

The power of the Landlords has prevented an adequate implementation of many laws enacted4 to improve the land tenure system. More recently some effort was made to supervise the settlement of newly opened lands.0 families had been settledillion acres in various settlement projects and areas by the endhe Dujaylah settlement in southern Iraq, the earliest of such projects, encompasses0 acres operated by small peasantTo date, the Dujaylah project has been costly and only partially successful.

The scarcity of private capital and theof large landowners to mechanize have tended to restrict the adoption of more productive agricultural methods. Because of the shortage of resources and the shortcomings of its management, the Agricultural Bank, establishedeparate institution by the government0aid-up capital ofillion, has notital role In the economy. For the most part, it has concentrated its activities on making medium-term loans to the more substantial landowners of the country. The government has recentlyooperative loanoint undertaking of the government and the agricultural cooperatives, with the governmentf the bank's capital ofhe cooperative movement in Iraq, begunas met with littleotal ofooperatives were registeredith activity limited to isolated consumer.

In recent years the Iraqi Government has been giving increasing attention to agriculturalollege of agriculture and an experimentalhave recently been established near Baghdad. There are at present four other experimentalin the country.eterinary college was

Page 38

opened latehe Iraqi Government also provides scholarships' for training abroad. New methods of agricultural extension are being coupled with programs in crop diversification. Theservice Is now promoting the establishment of supply depots where small farmers may buy seeds, fertilizers, and farm machinery. The IraqBoard has allocatedillion Inudget to finance the Deginningsomprehensive land drainage program. With the cost of drainage estimated at abouter acre, this appropriation should make ittoillion acres of arable land.

Iraq Is currently receiving substantial technical assistance from the United States In the field of agriculture.. programs beingby the International CooperationIn this field are plant quarantine,operation and maintenance, village watera farm mechanics workshop, livestock and dairy production, and agricultural extension. Achievements have been limited: one of the major problems is inefficiency of the Iraqi Government administration. Technicians are seriouslyin their work by lack of transportationslow procedures, procurement problems,to delegate authority and tendency to shun responsibility on the part of lesser officials, and lack of trained personnel or even personnel qualified for immediate training.

The United Nations Technical Assistancein Iraq, withpecialists, is also concerned with increasing agricultural production. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has provided experts In forestry, rice cultivation, poultry husbandry, soils, dairy production, forage production, marketing, and agricultural extension.


Agriculture In Iraq Is characterized by generally poor yields, attributable to. In addition to problems noted above, the uncertain supply of water, the salinization of the soil because of poor drainage, the marginal fertility of some soils, and theantiquated methods of cultivation. Little fertilizer Is applied to the soil. The system of crop rotation is inadequate and makes little provision for soil-building crops. The soil is often poorly prepared because of the Inadequate supply and poor quality of draft animals.

Soil and climatic conditions vary considerably throughout Iraq and account for the regional specialization In various crops. Date production is centered chiefly In the Basra region and inIraq; tobacco Is grown primarily in the north; and most of the rice Is produced In the south in the Al 'Amarah province.

Wheat and barley are more widely dispersed; and they are by far the most importantcommodities, normally grown on moref the cultivated acreage, and togetherforf Iraqi exports (excludingutputetric tons, and barley,etric tons in recentto rainfall and supply ofwater. Yields are well below those of the United States. Rice, another leading cereal crop. Is produced particularly in the Al 'Amarahwhere large estates predominate and where irrigation Is usually adequate. Outputlightly below-average year,etric tons.

Iraq producesf the world supply of dates.hen the countryetric tons, dates comprised moref total exports, excluding oil, and stood second to barley in importance as an export crop. Dates also constitute an important staple food for the lower Income groups of the country.

Tobacco, grown principally by KurdishIs of someovernment monopoly determines the acreage devoted toproduction, which7 amounted to0 acres. Production rangesons annually, and7 it is estimatedons. Local output of tobacco satisfies the built of normal Iraqi requirements.netric tons of cotton, another minor crop, was also produced. Recent trends in tho production of leading agricultural commodities are illustrated in Fighe sharp reduction5 Is attributable to adverse climatic condltlons.

Sheep and goats are by far the most numerous types of livestock in Iraq. According to3 livestock census thereillion sheep (more recent estimates place the number atillion)illion goats in the country, as well as lesser numbers of cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, buffaloes, and camels.

C. The petroleum industry I. Importance

In recent years the Importance of the oil sector In the economy of Iraq has grown very rapidly. In7 Iraq ranked fourth among crude oil producing countries in the Near East, exceeded only by Kuwait. Saudi Arabia, and Iran.f the total production is exported as crude petroleum, principally to the industrial centers of western Europe.

2 Pipelines

Crude petroleum operations have been initiated, developed, and owned by foreign companies, by far the most important of which Is the Iraq Petroleum Company, Ltd.ocation of the mainfields far In the Interior of the country has necessitated the development of an extensivetransportation system to ocean ports. Most of the oil must be moved atiles. The operating oil companies have developed twopipeline systems: the northern, withon the eastern Mediterranean, and themuch smaller,ersian Gulf outlet.

The IPC constructed the northern system ofandf Itscarry crude through Syria andto the Mediterranean and thereby save several thousand miles In tanker haul to western Europe as well as eliminate toll costs at the Suez Canal. This shortcut enables IPC to compete successlully with other Near East petroleum on the western Europeable,hows the ultimate destinations of the petroleum In recent yean.The small amounts of crude pumped off for Syria and Lebanon are refined at an IPC rc-






at Tripoli, Lebanon, to supply products needed in Syria, Lebanon, andouthern IPC pipeline going to Haifa has been inoperativeil produced by the Mosul Petroleum Company is exported through IPC pipelines. The southern pipeline, owned by Basra Petroleumterminates at the Iraqi port of Al Ffiw and does not transit any other country. Most of the oil goes to western Europe and must, therefore, make the long Journey around the Arabian Peninsula and pass through the Suezecause of the sabotage of the three pumping stations in Syria during the Suez crisis, total exports6 amounted2 million long tons, compared6 million


The trend of petroleum production has paralleled the course of pipeline developments. Commercial production beganery small scaleable,races its growth since Worlds facilities have been increased. It had been expected thatillion long tons would be reached



november .

ut sabotage to the three IPC pumping stations in Syria in6 and the closing of the Suez Canal affecting tankers from Al Fftw caused severe cutbacks, as shown by the following figures on output in million long tons:








Output has continued to recover with the partial rehabilitation of the IPC pipelines, beginning Innd the reopening of the Suez Canal in April; but it remains below the peak reached in Octoberperation of the trans-Syrian pipelines in7 wasf capacity, or at an annual rate ofillion long tons.

The value of Iraqi oil exports and the foreign exchange receipts of Iraq from the petroleumincreased much more rapidly35 than the physical output.

Pads 40




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Tho difference Is duehange In the financial agreement between the government and thecompanies- Theigh figure ofexchange receipts5 includesillion due on4 oil exports under the terms of the revised agreement signed in

Refining of petroleum products in Iraq is mainly for local consumption. With the exceptionelatively small bitumen export transactionefined products exported are for oil company use only. Imports are now limited to lubricants not produced by the Dawrah lubricants refinery and to aviation gasoline. Figurehows the total amounts of crude consumed in domesticConsiderable Improvement andof refining capacity took place5 when the Government Oil Refineries Administrationew refineryapacity0 barrels daily at Dawrah, near Baghdad, designed to supply domestic needs. It is entirely owned by the Iraqi Government, utilizing the services of us. contract management. Further expansion0ay charging capacity is planned0 by which Urns Increased domesticof petroleum products is expected Dawrah Is the only major refinery in Iraq, having replaced the obsolete Alwand refinery, previously the principal source for domestic supply. Other government-owned refineries are Muftiyah and Qayyarah. IPC owns topping plants at Kirkuk and Al tjadlthah that refine products largely foroperations.

expansion plans

IPC's export plans call for overillion long tons per year crude exportsraqprefers to expand existing facilities beforeroposed pipeline which would skirt Syria and terminate In Iskanderun, Turkey. Iraqi attitudes on this Turkish pipeline vary,on internal and external politicalExpansion of existing facilities, with full restoration of the trans-Syrian lines capacity ofillion long tons, would increase Iraqi oil exports5 million long tons annually, or morever the pre-Suez crisis level.

D. Other industriesomposition

Apart from oil Iraq has few Industries of any They consist of the production of electricity, cement, textiles, sugar, soap, asbestos pipe, beer, vegetable oil, and matches and6ereillion,. to the nationalAn Industrial census4 showed that

the largest enterprises are those supplyingand water and those manufacturing bricks and cement, while many small-unit industriesconsumer goods. Concentrated in and around Baghdad,0 persons wereby Industrynd their number has expanded considerably since then. This does not include the many handicraftsmen without fixed workshops.


With the impetus of development plans,advances have been made In Iraq both by the private and the public sectors. Industrialhas been raised considerably; and It isthat four additional cement factories, two of which will be privately owned, will come into operation7 and increase capacityetric tons per day. In textiles, present capacity is aboutillion square yards perwhicharge part off this capacity is state owned and has only recently been commissioned. Electric power capacity Isilowatts.


It is generally recognised that the realization of the government's industrialization goalsroad participation of the private sector, but so far this has not occurred. Private capital participation is at present somewhat hampered becauseraditional predilection forthe lack of technical and managerial skills,eemingly higher rate of return in trade, commerce, and real estate formation Is further handicapped by the absence of an organised capital market. Stated government policy is to establish and prove industrial projects, then turn them over to private industry. This course would minimize the risk of failure and encourage private capital to seek industrial risks.

Steps also have had to be taken to encourage private Initiative in Industrialaw has been enacted whereby private enterprise may participate in projects established and initially operated by the Development Board. The law also provides that raw materials and machineryshall be exempted from tariff vital to the economy will be given protection by the government from foreignOther financial incentives to privatetake the form of Income tax exemption, rent-free sites, and access to the resources of the Industrial Bank whichere increasedoan of ID3 million from the Development Board. The resources of this bank can be used either in the form of loans to private entrepre-

Page 41






neurs* or In direct equity capital participation. As of7 the bank had disbursed Industrial loans totalingillion and had equityofillion. In the summer7 the Industrial Bank was placed under theof the Third Technical Section of theBoard to permit coordination of financing and planned Industrial development.

Government participation under the revised six-year development plan approvedllocatingillion for Industrialin the.

E. Foreign tradexports

Principally because of its large exports ofIraq regularlyerchandise tradeummary of Iraqi foreign trade9 through6 is shown In5 total exports were valued atof whichillion,. consisted ofreakdown of Iraqi petroleumby pipeline systems is shown In

Agriculture accounts for all of the remainingof any significance. Such exports havecontinuously3 becauseise in domestic consumption, marketing problems, and decline in the output of some export commodities (see. Cereals and dates accounted for moref the non-oil exports in4he percentage6 waslower because of the effects of5 drought on cereal production. Until5 Iraq had difficulty In disposing of Its dales, but since then substantially smaller crops of highhave permitted disposal of surpluses.has Improvedesult of an agreement with the United Kingdom under which the latter abolishedd valorem duty on pitted dates.67 Iraq accumulated large carryover stocks of barley.

During the last three years the Unitedthe Federal Republic of Germany, andtook more than one-third of the nonpetro-leum exports, the United States aboutf the total, and the Sino-Soviet bloc practically nothing.


The large receipts, through royalties fromexports, enable Iraq toiberalpolicy and thereby satisfy in part the demand generated by large-scale development expenditures. The propensity to import in Iraq Is high, largely because of the limited variety of consumer goods produced locally and the dependence upon foreign suppliers lor most capital goods.

Preliminary data indicate that imports6 toutedillion,ore thanhe large capital goods% of total Importsas originally due to large-scale imports by petroleum companies Inwith the construction of pipelines and other installations.3 such imports havebut they have been offset by large-scale capital goods Imports associated with thedevelopment program. Sugar, tea. and


or oxium



Republic of


ftl ft

n i

#* T


ion o



SO a

accounting lor moref total Import* of consumer goodsre the more important of such Imports. Textile imports,have tended to decline In recent yearsof the increased domestic production.

The United Kingdom is by far the mostsource of imports since Iraqember of the sterling area- The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany are the next most important suppliers. In aggregate these three countries account for moref total imports. Imports from the Slno-Soviet bloc are of little Importance, accounting for onlyrillion, of the total

f which more*

F. Finance I. General

1 Iraqember of the Indianarea, and Indian rupees circulated as the internal means of payment.1 the IraqBoard was established to handle the Issuance of the national currency. The dinar was set up as the currency unit, and its exchange rate was fixed at par with the pound sterling. While theBoardupervisory agency, it had no authority toonetary policy aimed at influencing domestic economic activity. It was the foreign exchange situation that mechanically determined the volume of currency In circulation.7 the National Bank of Iraq was createdona fide central bank, but It was not9 that the bank actually started operations.

The National Bank Law7 provides that the central bank shall:anage the currency and ensure its stability,erve the state finances,

facilitate internal and external payments, and

promote and facilitate credits for trade,and agriculture. Although its legalcontains all of the necessary prerequisitesona fide central bank, the National Bank of Iraq has generally been very cautious in exercising its authority.

In addition to the National Bank there are at tho present timeommercial banks and 5credit institutions operating in Iraq. Of the commercial banks eight are branches of foreign banking institutions, two are privately owned by Iraqi businessmen, and one (the Rafl-daln Bank) is state owned. In addition to the banking Institutions noted above, there are sarrafs (moneylenders) who supplement the commercial banks. Banks and larrafs are subject to control by the National Bank of Iraq In accordance with the Law for the Control of Banking

onetary situation

During recent years Iraq has enjoyed adegree of monetary stability, despite theInflationary pressures growing out of the rapid increase In royalty payments by oilWhereas the steady rise In thesehas stimulated substantial governmenton economicarge part of the receipts has accumulated as reserves having no direct impact upon the money supply.becauserogressively liberalizedpolicy, imports have risen greatly during the period. Consequently, increases in the moneyand in the cost of living have not been un-


usually large In recent years. The relationship between oil production and the monetaryis Illustrated in -

As ofhe total money supply amounted toillion, an increase of morelthough deposit money hassubstantially during the past six years, central bank notes still comprise moref the total money supply. Iraqi law provides that atf the cover for currency issued shall consist* of gold or foreign currencies. Inover of mores maintained in order to guarantee confidence in the Iraqi Dinar. As ofuch holdings by the National Bank of Iraq amounted toillion, or more than twice the amount of the total note Issue.

Although total money supply increasedetween6 andeneral feeling of monetary stringency has prevailed. This stringency apparently resulted more from anin demand for loans than from anydecline in the supply of loanable funds. Most commercial banks increased their interest rates fromolegal maximum)hereas the liquidity position of thesystem In general has remained satisfactory, this has not been true of all banks, some of which have endeavored to attract demand deposits by paying as much% Interest oh them.

' The claims of the commercial banks upon the private sector of the economy amounted toillion inhis was nearly three times the level of such claimsut onlyillion above the level ofhereas the National Bank of Iraq is the lender of last resort and offers rediscounting serviceshe generally favorable liquidity position of commercial banks has lessened the necessity of such borrowing. Consequently, the central bank's control over commercial banks Is rather limited.

nternational finance

a.f theexchange earnings of Iraq are sold to the Bank of England in return for sterling claims that are invested primarily in British GovernmentIn return for delivery of the bulk of its foreign exchange earnings to the common pool, Iraq is permitted to draw foreign, eludington general, Iraq has found the payments arrangements of the sterling area sufficiently liberal to permitpurchases from the dollar area.

Mainly because of the large sterlingthe oil companies. Iraq normally enjoys,foreign exchange position.otal gold and foreign exchange holdingsby morer fromtoillion. Sterlingmoref the totalhe gold component has increased*h

The sabotage of the IPC pipelines in Syria in6 significantly reduced foreignearnings in the following months. As ofoldings had declined to aboutillion. The anticipated increase inexchange expenditures oniscal year mayoredrop in over-all foreign exchange holdings



nnd 6







expenditures ofillion are contemplated, distributed as follows, in millions of dinars:

Flood control, irrigation, and drainage






Industry, mining, and electricity ."

Buildings and Institutions


Direct expenditures during the first two years of this six-year period have amounted to onlyillion compared to the planned total ofillion, mainly because in the early years the plans and specific projects were not yet ready forImplementation and becausehortage of competent domestic labor. The drop in oilafter6 has delayed theof some projects, but the adverse effects have been minimized by the fact that the Development Board held reserves amounting to aboutillion on

As of6 Iraq had no external debt.owever, the IPC extended loans of up toillion to compensate for the decline in oil revenues. If the loan is repaid before the end9 no Interest will be charged. Thepublic debt, amounting toillion ons held mainly by the central bank.

G. Comments on principal sources

u* ty .far the most Important expenditure item under "the ordinary budget. Costs for maintaining completed Development Boardnot yet fully recognized, will doubtless con-tltute: an increasing expenditure of tho ordinary

^During the four-year periodotal outlays of the Development Board ^jet amounted toillion compared with nuiues"of overillion daring the period, the six-year period

Principal sources In the preparation of this brief have. Embassy and Consulate reports, studies by the international Monetary Fund and the United Nations, as well as official IraqiCensuses and other compilations directed by Dr. K. O. Fenclonritish national).Expert to the Oovernmcnt of Iraq, have been Invaluable.

Available sources of economic Information on Iraq are generally adequate and reliable except for current statistical data. Publication of Iraqi official statistical periodicals Is generally tardy and analytical and statisticalin the Meld of petroleum and otherscanty. There were many errors and omissions as to unit, such as failure to specify kind of tons, and conflicting statistical data among different sources.


18. Armed Forces


The armed forces of Iraq, above the Near East average in training and equipment, consist of an army, whichmall river force, and an air force which is subordinate to the army. The armed forces are inexperienced in combat, butpersonnel are seasoned to hardship. Anreserve and mobilization system has not been developed. The level of general andeducation of enlisted men is relatively low, and therehortage of professionally qualified officers.

Currently the armed forces are receivingquipmentutual defense agreement concluded between the United States and Iraqost of the training assistance, however, continues to be given by British Loan Personnel stationed with both the army and the air force, in accordanceemorandum ofbetween the United States and the United Kingdom.


Modern Iraq was foundedeparate state at the close of World War I, after having been under the* rule of one or another foreign powereriod of centuries. There Is, therefore, little national tradition in military affairs.

A force known as the Iraqi Levies was raised5 by the British Government to assist itaofficers In maintaining law and order under military government. Levies officers wereand the organization was similar to that of the British Indian Army. This policy was changed1 when the Iraqi Army was activated withrecruited from Iraqi officers who had fought In the Hedjazhe British Militaryguided the army1 to the present British Loan Personnel have served with the Iraqi Armyontract basis to assist in training.

* The Hedjaa Army was an Irregular tribal forceduring Worldrom deserters from the Ottoman Turkish Army and the followers of King Huaarn. the Hashimlte Snarl of Mecca. It waa financed and partially led by the British, one of whom waa the noted Lawrence of Arabia.


Royal Iraqi Air Force (RIAF) came Into existenceollowing the arrival in1ritish Royal Air Force (RAF) officer and several British-trained Iraqis who flew Ave Gipsy Moth trainer aircraft from England to Iraq. By the end2 the newly formed air forcetwo organized squadrons. From Its earliest days the RIAF has, except for brief periods, been advised by. and under the supervision of. RAF personnel.

Military ground action was confined largely to campaigns against unruly tribal elements within the national borders1xceptrief periodoup d'etat fomented by German Nazis In Iraq resulted In the overthrow of the Iraqi Government and initiation ofagainst the British in the area. Thefighting took place when the Iraqi Army besieged the British Habbanlya Airfield. The British garrison drove the Iraqi Army from itsand, supportedmall British and Arab force from Palestine and Transjordan, again brought the country under British control. An armistice was signed between Britain and Iraq, and the army participated In no activities during World War II other than operations against rebellious tribes within the country.

00 Iraqi troops were sent to aid the other Arab armies Inagainst Israel. Supplyajorfor Iraqi units, and their efforts were not particularly successful. The operations werehowever, In pointing up logistical weaknesses in the army. The RIAF made only severalbombing raids on Israeli towns and troop concentrations during the Arab-Israel War.

8 the aim of the Iraqi Army has been to modernize its forces. This modernizationhas been predicated upon British assistance in training; and,pon the modern materiel obtained through. Military Asslst-ance Program (MAP).

In anticipation of hostilities with Israel on the Jordanian front during the Sucz-Sinal crisis of October and Novemberhe Iraqi Army sent one reinforced infantry brigade to Jordan andine of communication from Baghdad along the oil pipeline to the area of encampment. These troops, did not become Involved In anyaction and withdrew at the request of the Jordanian Government In

efense organization

Under the Constitutionhe King is the Commander in Chief of the Iraqi Armed Forces-Government control of the forces, however, is exercised by the Prime Minister through theof Defense, with the Chief of the ArmyStaff as the Defense Minister's.

Although little is known of the functions and composition of the Supreme Defense Council, its membership presumably includes the King, the Crown Prince, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, and the Chief of the Army Oeneral Staff. Apparently it establishes broad military policies but at times also makes what appears to be minor decisions, such as- the selection of the officers to attend foreign military schools.

There isefense Council, an advisory board to the Ministry of Defense, whichalso coordinates the work of the highThe Council has not convened for several years, however, and Is apparently of littleIt has as permanent members the Chief of the.Army Oeneral Staff, who functions as its president, the deputy chiefs of staff, and the Air Officer CommandingIAF. Divisional commanders, directors of staff sections, theGeneral, and the Advocate General may be called as advisory members.

The Chief of the Army Oeneral Staff isto the Minister of Defense. Hethe army and is tbe Iraqi permanenton the Baghdad Pact MilitaryThe RIAF Is Integrated into the army at division level and, accordingly, has no high-level position within the Defense Ministry. Policy and interservice coordination are effected by theof Defense and Chief of the Army Oeneral Staff whose decisions are transmitted directly to the Air Officer CommandingIAF.

The only other organized force is the Iraqi Police Force,ersonnel strength of about

nlyf this number, however, could be counted as effective support for the army. The responsibility of the police force is vested in the Director General of Police, who is answerable directly to the Minister of Interior.

ilitary manpower and morale

a ManpowerPersonnel strength of the armed forcesas remainedotal available manpower as7 Is estimated as follows:

kumder itt


military saanca






average number reaching military ageIs

Iraqi personnel show very little mechanicaland training policies and procedures are affected by this limitation. Some Iraqi pilots, for example, particularly new ones, haveendency to display recklessness and poorwith their newly acquired "proficiency" in operating aircraft. In situationsuick changeourse of action, the Iraqiendency to react either too slowly or too quickly. He has not developed the ability to takecoordinated, and prompt action.

b. MoraleThe morale of army enlisted men is higher than would normally be expected. For unmarried men whose civilian existence would be rather miserable, the army, however restrictive,igher standard of living. Morale among young company-grade officers Is high; their spirit is good and their devotion to duty Among field-grade officers morale drops off

to some extont because promotions and assignment opportunities are limited. Duty with the river iorce Is considered desirable, and morale is high.

RIAF morale, although subject to frequentis considered generally poor. It seems to be extremely sensitive to political changes in the country. Generally, the morale of the officers is lower than that of airmen because of limited opportunity for advancement, lack of prestige, and insecurity. Several capable officers have resigned in the past because of these factors. Theseconditions apply more to the seniorthan to the Junior officers and enlistedin the RIAF. The Iraqi Government has made repeated efforts to improve the air force situation but without success.

Any physically fit civilian or any conscript at any stage In his duty may volunteer for thearmy for periods of from two to ten years depending on the branch. At the completiononscript's Initial three-month basic training he may indicate his intention to buy out ofinarshe reason given for this relief from service is that the normal two-year tour wouldevere hardship on many men supporting large families.


The Iraqi Army reportedly plans to continueIts strength at least to the extent of filling all understrtngth units. Because of the extreme shortage of qualified personnel, it is not likely that the present strength of the RIAF will be exceeded to any appreciable extent; nor is it likely that the full extent of the demands of the army for an expanded RIAF will be fulfilled

Iraqi military strategy is basically defensive and relies on strong albes for immediate support in tile event of hostilitiesajor power. The position of Iraq on one of the major routes of approach from the Soviet Union through Iran to the Mediterranean Sea and the Sues Canal makes It the logical route for an enemy invasion, utilising passes in the northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Present strategy, formulated with British guidance, calls forof the transportation facilities in theof two passes along the northeastern Iraqi-Iranian borderobile defense of the major route from Iran. The objective of these plans is to delay any attack from the north as long as possible until assistance is rendered by other powers, principally the other members of the Baghdad Pact (Turkey, Pakistan. Iran, and the United Kingdom; for discussion of Pact

Iraqi military plans probably also envisagesupport to Jordan in ihe event of an Israeli attack or to maintain the Jordanian King'sposition. Logistical problems and internal security commitments make It doubtful, however, that more than one division could be supported outside the country over an extended period of time.

conomic support

Iraq Is easily capable of supporting Its present armed forces in time of peace and of feeding and clothing them from indigenous production in time of war. However, as the country produces no iron, has no heavy industry, nor, inignificant industrial complex, it is dependent upon foreign sources for all military materiel except small-arms ammunition, the components of which areUS. MAP support and.esser extent, purchases abroad, principally from the United Kingdom, provide the required materiel. Aviation fuel, which also must be imported, comes from Iran. In peacetime, this situation creates no support problem, as Iraqi revenues from its petroleumprovide ample foreign exchange forituation arise, however, in which Iraq could not sell its oil abroad or import munitions, support of Its armed forces would depend upon Its munitions reserves and materiel stockpiles. Iraq is presently engagedell-admiiustered development program (Initial phase due forhich, when achieved, will materially strengthen the economic potential of the country for the support of its armed forces.

There ore no facilities for ship construction, but minor repair work and spare parts are provided by the Basra Port Directorate.

ilitary budget

The Ministry of Defense submits an annualbudget to Parliament, which has finalover all financial affairs of the armed forces. The budget is based upon estimates ofof salaries, allowances, and services andmost of the funds used by the armed forces. Generally, the military budget has beenf the total budget of the country. Tho Accountant General, as the chief fiscal officer of the armed forces, supervises the allocation of military revenues.

An additional source of funds for militaryis the Iraqi Development Board, whichthe total oil revenues derived from royalties paid by foreign oil interests in the Iraqi Petroleumf this money may be used for current government expenditures. From, the armed forces may receive grants to aup-








Under the military defense agreement between tha United States and Iraqemorandum of understanding between the United States and the United Kingdom, training activities of. MAAO in Iraq are limited to those activitiesrelated to the operation and maintenance. materiel furnished under MAP, while the remainder of the training assistance of the Iraqi Army are under theodification of this arrangement may be made, however, in the future. The Iraqi Army hasimited number of army personnel. service schools. Thehas not yet been sufficient to produce an effective nucleus of instructors to conduct training in US. equipment.

Most recruits are illiterate; and training requires considerable time to provide for instruction Inwriting, andhe average soldier is inured to hardship, can subsist on little food, andatural understanding ofHowever, the naturally Individualistic Arab resists strict discipline, Is prone to make rash moves to satisfy his cravings for glory, and is quick toause that is not readily seen to beBasic recruits receive their initialIn training battalions of the division to which they are assigned. Artillery recruits are trainedraining battalion under the Director ofSchools are organized on the Britishbut there continues toerious deficiency in adequate Instructor personnel, training aids, and classroom facilities.

Officer, candidates are trained at the RoyalCollege, near Baghdad. Advanced specialized training for officers is given in the various branch schools and.imited extent, in service schools In the United States and England. Staff training is given principally at the Iraqi Staff College and also at the British Staff College In Cambcrley, England.


The supply services of the Iraqi Army areafter those of the British Army; because of lack of equipment and of skilled technicians,the Iraqi supply system bears littleto the model. The army has no facilities for the development, design, manufacture, orof major items of materiel. In recent years, however, it has been attempting to lessenupon foreign procurement by Increasingproduction of some quartermaster anditems.


The system of recovery and repair of vehicles and equipment Is patterned after that of theArmy. Failure on the part of the Iraqi Army school system to produce the required number of

drivers and mechanics is adversely affectingIraqi ability to perform organization, field, and base maintenance. Evacuation of equipment Is handled by theovery and repair system. Personnel evacuation is handled by the Medical Corps according toconcepts. However, duty In the Medical Service is unpopular with both Iraqi officers and menof lack of prestige; and, consequently, its efficiency is impaired.

Most army equipment must be Imported. Since British tables of organisation and equipment are followed, the United Kingdom has been the chief source of weapons and equipment, although an increasing amount of engineer and signaland general-purpose truck transport Is being purchased from the United States. In addition, the Iraqi Army is being furnished some US.light tanks,m recoilless rifles, mortars, and radios through. MAP. British equipment Is procured either by directby the Iraqi Government or through the offshore procurement program of US. MAP.

The army relies on local contractors to supply the various units with rations at the times and places specified. They usually do not go beyond themaintenance areaivision. Iffail to supply the various units withor if the army needs extra rations, local purchasing committees are selected to makeThere have been no deficiencies Infacilities in Iraq. Any accelerated increase in materiel shipments through. MAP would, however, create storage problems. New storage facilities have been constructed In the past In each case when required.

, The Palestine War showed that logistic support was the major weakness of the Iraqi Army, Since then, Iraq has been trying to Improve theof its military transport and supply; any large-scale movement or operation, however, still requires extensive use of civilian vehicles. The fact that the railroad from Basra to Baghdad and Kirkuk is narrow gage and the line to Mosul from Baghdad is standard gageransport problem in that It necessitates transfer at Baghdad of any military supplies shipped from Basra or Kirkuk by rail to the northwestern part of Iraq.

iver force

Iraq has no navy, and its river force is an integral pert of the Iraqi Army. The river force7 and consistsiver gunboatsachten. All five vessels are in very good condition and arc maintained in an operational status. No additional ships are

Page 51



The river force Ir adequate to perform its mission of assisting the army in maintaining internal security and preserving order In the tribal areas bordering on the rivers of Iraq. Movement over swamp-Lute inundated areas is not feasible for army units, but these trouble areas are easilyto tbe river force.

' The river force is manned wholly by army" Officers are assignederiod of two years, and enlisted men serve indefinite periods. Artillery personnel arc especially desired by the river force because of their gunnery experience, and assignment to the river force is considered to be preferential duty. At the present time,and signal corps personnel are also assigned in limited numbers. Officers selected for duty with the river force are sent to the United Kingdomeriod of six months to two years fornaval training. In addition to regular army training, naval training of enlisted menof drills and inspections ashore, followed by short on-board familiarization periods.

C. Air forceeneral

The RIAFmall, fairly well-equipped unit. It has beenultiple role of supporting the army in defense of the country againstaggression and aiding In the maintenance of interna] security, i

The capability of the RIAF to provide anair defense of Iraq against Syria and Iran Is marginal; against the Saudi Arabian andAir Forces, good; and nonexistent against either the Turkish or the Soviet Air Forces. The RIAF's capability of furnishing effective close air support to the ground forces is considered to be fair. The RIAF has no paratroop capability as the transports in the RIAF aircraft Inventory are not suited to paratroop operations.

The RIAF Is handicapped by its inadequate maintenance system; poor morale; poorly managed training system, which Is hamperedack of qualified instructors; and Its Inadequate supplyThe most glaring deficiency, however, la the lack of delegation of authority.

The maintenance system of the RIAF Isto meet its needs, and equipment on hand is not adequate to perform the work required- All aircraft engines due for major overhaul are shipped to England. The fact that the RIAF canany aircraftlyable condition is largely the resultritish RAF advisory andmission in Iraq.


The Air Officer Commandingycustom, originates and establishes such policy as is permitted him by his senior armyanders; few if any of these policy decisions are delegated to his staff. The operational command of the peacetime air force is vested in theof the Tactical Group. AHof the RIAF are subordinate to thisBy precedent, the Commanding Officer of the Air Tactical Group Is the second-ranking officer in the RIAF, normally moving to the AOC position when it ishe staff officers act as specialized administrativeaids to the AOC rather than as general staff officers.

The RIAF is presently attempting to.taff concept utilizing the Airhief of Staff and his four directorates (administration, training, operations, andas staff sections. Until such time as planning activities are' expanded and the establishment of policy Is In fact delegated, the air staff will exist in name only.

composition, and disposition

The RIAF has an aircraft strengthand an approximate personnel strengthfficersnlisted men; ofaboutre trained pilots. In addition,adets are in pilot training.

The equipment currently available to the RIAF consistsewly received Hawker Hunter Mark VI jet fighters andbsolete jetenom,9 piston fighter bombers3 transport aircraft, andiscellaneous trainer and liaison-type aircraft. Tactical units consist of three squadrons of Fury fighter-bombersne squadron of Vampire fighter-bombers, and one squadron of Venom fighter-bombers. In addition, there are twosquadrons, one of whichommunications and transport squadron; the other, liaison.some radar equipment was purchased from the Britisht has never been assembled and Is rapidly deteriorating in storage.

The RIAF jet fighter-bombers are based at Hab-banlya Airfield and the piston fighter-bombers at Shaibah Airfield. Both the transport and liaison squadrons are based at Baghdad.

RIAF training is patterned after that of the RIAF training system; British instructors areas are British manuals and curriculums. Service schools, excepting the flight trainingand unit-level schools, fall under theof the Ministry of Defense and their policies





are established by the General Staff The flight training college Is under the supervision of the AOC and the unit-level schools are supervised by unit commanders. The principal operational training Includes navigation, formation, and high-altitude flying, as well as air-to-ground gunnery. RIAF training is poorly managed by the Iraqis and is hamperedack of qualified Iraqi instructors and supervisors.hortage of funds and spare parts has made it mandatory to keeptypes of training and operationsinimum.

Normally, each year the RIAF and the Iraqi Army engageaneuver. These maneuvers are almost completely directed by RAF personnel and are fairly well executed.

The RIAF has access to two excellent bombing and gunnery ranges located at Habbanlya and Shalbah Airfields,hortage of ammunition, rockets, and bombs has held this phase of trainingare minimum. All training In the past has been geared to tactical support of the army. No consideration is giventrategic air offensive force. Little attention is given to the mostelements of air-to-air training such as aerial gunnery, or coordination between airand ground radar units coupled for airTechnical training for the RIAF Isat Rashid Airfield, Baghdad. The British alsoew selected personnel at RAF schools in England.


Logistic support for the RIAF Is the jointof the Iraqi Army and the RIAF under the Minister of Defense and is centralized at Rashid Airfield. Logistic supportajor problem for extensive military air operations'in Iraq. The RIAF lacks an adequate supply reserve and would be unable to support sustained airunless considerable outside aid wereshortly after the outbreak of hostilities.

Procurement for the RIAF usually consists of an allocation of money by the Iraqi Army to the RIAF to be used for the purchase of certainand munitions. Some RIAF materiel isthrough the British RAF by exchange of credits against oil royalties owned by the British, who sell surplus materiel to Iraq. All transactions are closely monitored by the government.most RIAF aircraft have in the past been procured from the United Kingdom, there recently has been Interest in procurement. sources.

19. Map and Chart Appraisal


Mapping of Iraq lias been carried out chiefly by agencies of the United Kingdom and the Unitedhe few maps resulting solely from Iraqi initiative have been of poor quality and overly generalized. The lack of adequate data on many subjects, the scarcity of technically qualifiedand deficiency of funds have combined to limit map production In Iraq. Most mapsby Iraq have been the result of British or US. cooperation with agencies of the local

The British and Iraqi Governmentsapping program that will provide accurate up-tc-date topographic coverage for parts of Iraq at scales0. This mapping is to be based in part on aortal photography suitable for stereophotogrammetrlc mapping that is currently availablef the country; some new control is being establishedart of this program.

I' Surveys and aerial photographyeodetic surveys

Geodetic surveys of Iraq consist of primary, secondary, and tertiary trlangulation for theand eastern part of the country and low-order surveys for scattered areas. These surveys were conducted by the Iraq Survey Department, oiland British and Indian Army unitsWorldndost of southern and western Iraq has not yet been surveyed.he Middle East Land Forces (MELF) have observed arcs of trlangulation connecting the primary trlangulation of Iraq (which Is only of second-order accuracy) with the triangutatlons of Jordan and Turkey. Adjustment of these arcs to European datum will permit the conversion of all control for Iraq, most of which is now on Nahrwan datum; to European datum. This is scheduled for completion

Precise levels have been run by the Survey of India and the Iraq Survey Department only for the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Vertical datum for this leveling is mean sea level at Al Ftw on the Persian Gulf.

The US. Army Map Service (AMS) has values for0 horizontal-controlwhich cover onlyf the Area.

Elevations are not available for much of thishowever, since vertical angles frequently were not observed because of tho flat nature of the terrain. In addition, very little descriptive data are available for the photoidentiflcatlon of stations for stereophotogrammetric purposes. No gravity data are available for Iraq.

ydrographlc and oceanographic surveys

The Jurisdiction and maintenance of thechannel of the Shatt al Arab are theof the Basra Port Directorate. Until, re-cently, all key personnel of the Directorate were British subjects, but the Iraqi are gradually assuming control. Since Iraq does not publish hydrographlc charts, however, the results of tbe surveying and dredging operations arc stillon British charts. The Shatt al ArabUmm al Khas&stf (Islandnd Basra was last surveyedut the remainder of the maritime channel was resur-veyed. The dredgingew channel at the mouth of the Shatt al Arab was completedurveys of the Khawr 'Abd Allah were made by the Royal Indian Navy; most of this area, however, was resurveyed by the Basra Port Directorate

Oceanographlc surveys have been conducted in the Persian Oulf by Germany, the Untiedthe United States, andut onew of these surveys have data for the coastal waters of Iraq been collected. Recently, however, the Basrah Petroleum Company,astidal currents and sea. swell, and bottom conditions touitable locationeep-water onloading oil terminal. The datain these surveysre the most recent for the Area. Surveys have also beenby. Navy Hydrographlc Office in the Persian Gulf, but these have yielded practically no oceanographic data specifically for the NIS Area.

erial photography

Aerial photography suitable formapping is available in thetatesfhis photography was flown by the British Royal Air Force (RAF). For most of the country, ', photography suitable for map-revlslon purposeslso available. The most extensive of the map- 3


photography was flown by. Air Forcendf the country; the remainder comprises. Navy, captured German, and private-contract photography that covers scattered areas throughout Iraq.

Additional aerial photography for Iraq Is known to exist but Is not available in the United Stales. For some of this photography the dates, scales, or extent of coverage are unknown. The most extensive is believed to be RAF (Middle Eastphotography thatf the country and photography flown by private contractf the Area. Some of thephotography was flown by the Royal Dutch Airlines (KIM) and by other privatethe coverage is generally limited to small

C. Maps and chartsopographic maps

Topographic mapping of Iraa has been carried out chiefly by agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States, and by Survey of India units under British Jurisdiction4ost of the mapping, including the originalwork, was British; and much of theucnt mapping has been based on British sources. British agencies currently engaged in mapping programs of the country include the Middle East Land Forces (MEIJ) and the Directorate Survey. War Office and Air Ministryhe US. Army Map Service (AMS) and the IraqiGeneral of Surveys, which is under the direction of the Ministry of Agriculture, are the other principal agencies now producingmaps of Iraq.

The best available topographic coverage Is at scales.. Allmall part of this coverage requires revision of culture detail.

' Only about one-fourth of Iraq Is covered by maps at scales largernd few of these are accurate. The coverage at scales larger0 comprises series00 produced by British. Iraqi, andagencies.0 series prepared by commercial Arms cover small areas In the northern and northeastern part of the country, and an Arabic-script0 series provides the best detail for part of central and southeastern Iraq. The remainder of the coverage comprises English-language sheets and includes0 mapsor widely scattered areas and0 series forhe central and southern part of the country,,he extreme northeastern andareas, andurkey boundary area. Not all of the coverage at these scales is obtainable in quantity, and some of the sheets are In Arabic script or are at. military scales.. military scales,n many of the sheetsand relief features are poorly portrayed, and none of the sheets has the standard Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. On all of the coverage0 series, culture detail requires revision.

In0cale range, complete coverage of Iraq is provided by aof series,. Northern and central Iraq and the southeastern part of tbe country are coverederies,heetsndoverageistributed as. The desert area of southern Iraq Is covered by VSAF Aeronautical Approach Chartsndheetsas. All of these sheets are in English and arc obtainable In quantity, butew of thend half of thoheets meet accuracy requirements. Culture detail is not up to date; relief and some drainage and culture features are inadequately portrayed on the coverage for the southern desert

The best topographic coverage for Iraq at scales smallers provided by the Worlderies5 and, which is obtainable in quantity. In order to obtain the most recent and reliable coverage, Individual sheets from the two authorities must be selected. None ofheets meet the standards of accuracy for maps at this scale, and all culture detail requires revision.cale is the largest at which complete uniform-scale coverage is available for Iraq.

Z. Specialized physical and terrain-evaluation maps

Specialized physical and terrain-evaluation maps of Iraq generally consist of medium- and small-scale maps of differing reliability that cover parts of the country and several small-scale maps that provide complete areal coverage but are extremely generalized. Except for5 geologic maphat covers southwestern and part of western Iraq0 Uthology map included In Sectionfll th* available maps range in date0b. The majority were published during or before World War n.

Native Iraqi mapping In this Held has been limited, and most of the results are of little use except to mining or water-supply specialists. The mosl useful maps of Iraq have been published by Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. During World War II. German military-geology units prepared geologic, water-supply,maps.of Iraq; British Army groups also issued terrain-evaluation maps during this period. Specialized physical andmaps published by the United States include those in Sectionf,hese maps provide complete coverage for Iraqor the following subjects: soil,water supply, military aspects of relief, and suitability for construction of roads, airfields, and underground Installations. Most of the maps were based on existing sources rather than on original field work; their reliability ranges from poor to good.':

Detailed geologic maps of most of Iraq arelacking. Geologic maps prepared byPetroleum Company and Its subsidiariesnot available to users outsidemall area In the vicinityIs covered by any known soil mapfield surveys. Vegetation maps are atand highly generalized, except forsheets that show the forests ofprovinces of northeasternmaps are among the best ofphysical and terrain-evaluationIraq in both detail and extent of coverage,at scales largersforew

No detailed military-geology maps of Iraq are available. Small-scale coverage is fairly complete, but its quality is spotty. Adequate medium- and large-scale cross-country-movement maps areThe only usable ones arc the British "going" maps, which cover limited areas and are in many places very generalized.

eronautical charts

Most of the available aeronautical charts for Iraq have been published by the United States and the United Kingdom. Two series of air charts issued by the German Generalstab des Heeres (General Staff of the Army) cover the Area. but they were produced under wartime conditions and are obsolete.

Complete coverage is available in standardseriesf the Area is also covered by charts oferies. Plotting and planning series. and British origin provide complete coverage for Iraqariety of scales and Significant advances In military aviation

Page 56







capabilities and charting concepts have resulted In the design and publication of new-type, small-scale charts. Among these are the USAF Jet Navigation Chart,. the US.0 series, and the USAF Minimal Flight Planning CharU

Some of the small-scale series that coverArea have been discontinued, and somethese series may no longer be available

Radio-facility charts and other miscellaneousfor Iraq are published periodically byAir Force, US. Navy; the British Royaland domestic and foreign commercial

Target coverage for Iraq was virtuallyuntil recently, when some targetart of the Air Target Materialsbecame available.

harts of ocean, port, and shore features

A combination of eight British Aojniralty. Navy Hydrographlc Officeharts provide complete hydrographlc coverage of Iraqi waters at various scales. Sailing and general charts cover the Persian Gulf approaches to Iraq. Khawr 'Abd Allah and the immediate approaches to the Shatt ai Arab are charted.eries of charts0 cover the Shatt al Araboint aboutiles north of Basra. The principal andports of Basra and Al Flw are charted0espectively. The minor port of Umm Qasr is not coveredcale larger.

The charts selected for Iraq, although based on the latest Information available, arc not reliable. Maintenance of the charts of the Shatt al Arab is difficult because of the constant silting and dredging operations, with consequent changes in channels, depths, and aids to navigation. Most of the current charts are baaed on the NaharwSnbut those covering the river between Abadan and Basraorrection" in latitude andin longitude.

Plans showing harbor facilities reflecting port capacities for the principal port of Basra arein Sectionf NIS SO.nd6 publication of the British Joint Intelligence Bureau.

Oceanographic charts covering the waters of Iraq have been produced chiefly by the Britishthe British Meteorological Office of the Air Ministry, the Deutsche Seewarte (German Navalnd the US. Navy Hydro-graphic Office (USNHO).


ol the available oceanographic charts cover the entire Persian OuLf; with few exceptions they are drawn at small scales and Rive only veryinformation. Their reliability is somewhat questionable because of the scarcity of data0 yards of the shore The most recent charts giving information for Iraq on tidal currents,sediments, bathymetry, and biological fouling are thosencluded in the VS. Hydro-graphiCrOceanographic Data Sheet: AbadanIran (HODSome of the charts from Submarine Geology and Oceanography of the Persian Gulf.) that wereconsidered to be accurate should now be used with caution. This publication is no longer issued by USNIIO because data made available0 render much of the information obsolete.

The oceanographic charts currently beingby USNHO for Sectionf NISrobably will supersede most of the charts now available.


Climatic maps of Iraq are sufficient toeneral idea of the climate but, because of the sparsity of the station network, do not present the detail desirable for planning many military

Maps of most of the common climatic elements, such as temperature, precipitation, wind,and visibility, are available. The best source of climatic maps Is Sectionf; the Iraq portion of this Section is currently beingOther recommended sources of climatic maps include Climate of Southwestern. Army Air Force publication, and the Climato-logical Atlas for Iraq, prepared5 by the Iraq Meteorological Service. Maps In these two sources range In scale

The most serious deficiency Is the lack of maps presenting the more specialized meteorological elements (such as ceiling heights and visibilities) and combinations of these elements.

and plans of urban areas

Town-plan coverage Is available forf therincipal urban areas of Iraq designated in Sectionfnddditional urban areas No coverage is available for AI Kut, Ash Sharq&l, and Tuz Khurmatu (designated In Sections KOt Al Imara, Qal'a Sharqat, and Tuz Khurmatli, respectively).

* The selected coverage, most ol which wasby the Iraqi Directorate Oeneral of Surveys, and the Municipal Planning Bureau of the Iraqi Ministry of Interior varies from good to poor In reliability. It ranges in date96 and in scale Much of the coverage comprises Arabic-script plans that have become available"ew plans show relief, have graticule and grid information, oregend. For the four key strategic urban areas of Baghdad, Basra. Kirkuk. and Mosul, however. English-language plans of recent date and good reliability are available.

ailroad, road, waterway, and pipeline maps

A transportation map of the Near Easthat was revised by AMSver-nil one-sheet coverage of fair reliability for railroads, roads, and waterways.

Railroad data of good to fair reliability areon available maps for Iraq. Specialmaps ranging in scalefford the most recent information on gage, stations, distances between stations, and number of tracks. Topographic maps0rovide the most detailed information available for railroad bridges, tunnels, gage,of tracks, and alinement.

Maps showing road information vary from good to fair in reliability. The most recentdata arc providedoad mapublished5 Topographic maps0urnish alinement details andclassification data-Information of good reliability on navigability of Imqi inland waterways is shown4 mapcluded in Sectionfritish Admiralty hydrographic charts provide complete inland-waterway coverage of goodfor the Shatt al Arab.

Available pipeline maps of good reliability range in scalend in date34 Iraq Petroleummaphows,ipeline routes from Kirkuk west to3 maphows oil concessions, oilfields, exploratory wells, refineries, pipelines, pumpand concession7 mapublished by Orchard Lisle Company shows pipelines, producing areas, oil and gas fields, drilling kx*tions, refineries, pump stations, and proposed lines.

elecommunication and postal maps

Telecommunication map coverage of Iraq Isgood, and the maps include fairlydata on all phases of the system. The best maps were prepared by. Army Signal Intelligence Agency for Inclusion Inndcompilations of all available Intelligence data as of the data prepared One of these maps, which provides the best overall telecommunication in-


Pack 57

formation available as ofncludes bothGovernmentand petroleum-company wire andThia map is supplemented by two detailed maps snowing wirend radioespectively. The other two maps,nclude the wire and radio facilities operated by the Iraq Petroleumlthough the maps are not entirely current, they show the basic telecommunication system and are considered fairly accurate.

No recent postal maps of Iraq are available. The Iraqi Directorate General of Postsurrent map which Includes post offices, but has not made copies available to the US. Government.

ociological, political, and economic maps

ociological, political, and economic maps are available in limited numbers and vary widely in subject coverage and quality. They have beenlargely by Iraqi. British,. sources.

maps deal entirely with international boundaries. Although large sectors ternational boundaries of Iraq have not demarcated, the corresponding large- and map portrayals are adequate for internal administrative boundaries red In-an administrative atlas and on official maps recently published In gesin aOTnlnistrativcareas which7 are not reflected In these publica-

Many of the special-purpose maps published In recent years hove been producednder contract to the Development Board, by the Iraqi Directorate General of Surveys for other agencies of the Iraqi Oovemment, or inwith the NIS Program. Althoughout of date, the largest single collection of sociological, economic, and political maps of Iraq Is found in the published Sections of theimited number of special-subject maps of this type have also appeared in United Nations, German, -French, and Soviet publications.mapping has concentrated ondistribution and racial or religiousn us The most recent maps of the settled popu-dation<are based on the censushe bestibal maps available draw heavily on sourcesackeveral maps relating tohealth facilities have been produced. Some of the maps of disease and popula-^xompiled by the Iraqi Ministry of Health and tfeTMinisJry of Interior have not beenovernment.

Economlc mapping has been primarily concerned with agriculture and-petroleum. Irrigationare mapped in considerable detail, in many instances. concerns. Coverage of petroleum activity in Iraq is abundant, but few maps provide current information Water-supply maps dealing with programs to Increase the availability of water for human consumption and for agriculture have come from the Government of Iraq and. concerns, but tho Iraqi Ministry of Mines has not made its latest compilations on water supplyavail-able to. Government. Oencral economic and industrial maps produced In Iraq are few in number and are extremely generalized.

armed-forces maps

Storage installations and military *nd associated nonmilitary installationsew areas ofimportance are shown reliably on annotated editions. Target..

models. .

Plastic relief sheets) cover lessf Iraq. These sheets are based on2 series, and detail Is identical. Plastic relief sheets)f Iraq. These sheets are basedheetsanging in date3nd all sheets contain out-of-date culture detail.

D. Programs under way or projected

. programs under way or projected are not included In the following discussion.

The British and Iraqi Governmentsapping program that will provideup-to-date topographic coverage for parts of Iraq at scales,.

0 seriesill consistheets covering northern Iraq. These sheets will be based0 monochrome series that is being compiled stereophotogr am metrically by Hunting Aero Surveys under contract to the Iraqi Government. The Iraq Survey Department Isnew control In the area north of Baghdadasis for this stereophotogrammotrlc mapping.0 maps were scheduled for completiont is not known whether this schedule was met.0 sheets will be converted by the Middle East Land Forces (MEI.F)nd the UTM grid will be added. Road classifications will be based on information obtained by MELF survey parlies working in conjunction with the Iraqi Government The first sheets of0 series arc to be available In


apping in the Euphrates valley Is now being done by Hunting Aero Surveys, but the completion date is unknown. . The British Directorate Survey. War Office and Air Ministry, is engaged In topographic mapping programs,.heetsre beingfrom aerial photography and field data;planimetnc sheetsre being revised and contours added. Theheets will extend present coverage for northern,nd eastern Iraq and for the area between the Euphrates River and theordanThe UTM grid is being added to theoverage. This program is scheduled for completion by The Directorate Survey also Is reprinting theeriesith name revisions and the addition of the UTM grid. This series will replace correspondingof the9 serieseriesased on the5 series, with the same sheetsystem, is being complied. New sheets of this series have been published for all of Iraq northN. Sheets for the remainder of the country are in work and are scheduled for completion in

The series will replace the Iraq Desert seril.

MELP Is revising the International Map o] theheetsovering all of Iraq. The new sheets will be published asompletion date for this program is not known.

The Iraq Petroleum Company is activelym geologic mapping in Iraq, butconcerning the areas involved or the maps being produced is not available.

art of the Air Target Materials Program, US military mapping agencies are currentlytarget materials covering major airand other strategic and tactical industrial and military target complexes.

Oceanographic charts are currently beingby. Navy Hydrography; Office for2 ofhe charts, which will be completed by the endill be the most up to dale available on the oceanography of the NIS Area, but will not include data for all knownfactors.

It has been reported that the Iraqi Directorate Oeneral of Surveys has begun preliminary work on an economic atlas of Iraq.


Paqe 59

NSA'. '




rtjHB '





Allah, Ka-alu (chan)..

Al 'Amlrah

AI1I Badirah asb ShamallTat

Al Plw

l Hindlyabimlyah.

Al KQl

Aiwaod, Nahp (iUn|


Arab. Sfaau al (sum)

Ash ShSllklyali

Ash Sharqg*.

tu -AybfcJi . ..

Bldijal al Jailrah



Euphrates River

Great Zab Rlvae-

Babbtoi,sh.l (lake).




KurdisUo (regii)




Pan) aria

Penaa Golf



BinjBr, Jabal (ml)

Tigris River...

Tui Khurmato

I"mm Qaar







3 49





7 00










44 28



17 25

73 41


Baghdad West












35 31


30 25






7 38



quare miles

nder cultivation or fallow) moil of the remainder grassland or desert PEOPLE

illionensity, aboutersons pec square mile Ethnic composition;;;ther,ellgiom;ther,iteracy,

Sanitation and public health: primitive in many areas but generally Improving;it for military service0 reoch military age onnually


Constitutional monarchy, cabinet responsible to bicomeral parliamentrovinces under centrally appointed officials

Politics generally controlled by small clique oi conservative, pro-Western politicians,-

political situation presently stable All political parties abolished3 Communist Potty and front groups actively repressed Member of UN, Baghdad Pod, Arab League, Arab Collective Security Pact


Food: self-sufReient except for teo and sugar

Mojor industry: crude petroleum (fourth largos' producer in Near East) Electric power: aboutwh per capita per year Exportt: crude petroleum, wheat, borley, ond dotes Imports: copitol goods, sugar, teo, and textiles

f government oil revenue earmarked for economic development COMMUNICATIONS:

oute miles;'b'.i" gageituminous or bitumirvous-treatedarth or gravel surface

Inland waterways: Shott al Arab navigable by maritime traffic for aboutiles;

Tigris ond Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamersinor Airfields:rincipal,ther

Telecommunications: government owned; adequate for needs of country


Personnel; army,ir; riveracht, of whichre relt

Supply: dependent on foreign sources for most military materiel




RO 3






quoro miles

nder cultivation or fallow, mail ol the remainder grassland o* deserl


illionensity, aboutersons per square mile Ethnic composition:;;ther,eligion.;ther,iteracy;

SorMtoriOA and public health: primitive io many areas but for military service0 reach mitltory age annually


Constitutionalbi net responsible to bicameral parliamentrovinces under ceatrolly appointed off rials

Politics generally controlled by small clique of conservative, pro-Western politicians;

politic ol situation presently stable All political ponies abolished2 Communisi Porty and front groups actively repressed

Member of UN, Baghdad Pact. Arab league, Arab Collective Security Pcct CONOMYi

Food: self-sufficient except for teo ond sugar

Major Induitryj crude petroleum (fourth largest producer in Near East) Electric power: aboutwh per capito per year Exports: crude petroleum, wheat,nd dotes Imports- capital goods, sugar, tea. and textiles





Ii .

Teb *








revenue earmarked for economic development

arth or


%W or bituminous-treated u

by morrlime traffic for aboutiles; thai low-draft steamers

ted; adequate tor needs oi country


6 M 3






follow;O* lh*i

i ll * r

utty, aboutaon% por



cjuofo mile*nder culilvollon or ft


illionet Ethnic cc-poWlionr; Kw Religion,; Chmlian,vblc;0 reach military age onn


Conitrtutrorvol monarchy, cabinet reirovince* under centrally appoinl Politic generally controlled byolitical iliwailon pretently stable All poll lie al porlfce* aboliihedommun'ii Po'ty and from group* ai Member of UN, Baghdad Pod, Arab


food tetf-wfncieni exec* fororoi induWy: crude petroleum (fou Electric power: oboutwh pet cojrude petroleum, wheat, bo Imporli copi'alugar,l government o


oute mi lei; aboutilumlo.

gravel iwrtace Inlandhort al Arab no

Tigris ond Euphrote* novigoble byN Airfield*rincipal,erovernment owr


Personnel (oiachl, of whichre jett Supply: dependent on foreign source











National caplUI

RaBroad, standard eefie

Railroad, narrow gage

Primary road

Secondary road

Trail or desert track 'selected:





. Intermittent stream






quare mi lei

nder cultivation or for


illionem Ethnic composition:; Kur< Religion;;iteracy:anitation and public health:;0ge onnu.


Con it ituonarchy, cabinet rotpirovinces under centrally appolnte Politics generally controlled by small

political iduation presently stable All political parties abolishedParty and front group* OCti Member of UN, Baghaod Pod, Arab I


Food: self-sufficient except for lea ant Major Industry: crude petroleum (fount Electric power: aboutwh per capit Exports: crude petroleum, wheat, borl. Import capital goods, sugar, tea. on*l government oil


oute miles;irumlnou

ii. surface Inland waterways:rab novt.

Personnel army,ir forceacht, of whichre lets

Tigris and Euphrates navigable by it Ports: Imttino0 principal.iHci TeiWu.TTTunicotiont: aovernmeni owrtc




Ion or ((


illiono Ethnic composition:; Ku






Original document.

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