THE GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE SOVIET TANKER FLEET, 1 JANUARY 1951 THROUGH 31

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THE GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE SOVIET TANKER FLEET 1 JANUARY 1 THROUGH 31 MARCH 7

Office of Research and Reports CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

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CONTENTS

aa of6

tinder the Sixth Five Year Plan,

. .

Appendixes

Appendix A. Statistical. Appendix S. Gaps ir.. Appendix C. Source References.

Tables '

of POL Out oi the Black Sea by Soviet

6

Movement of POL from Western USSR

to the Communist Far East by Tanker

of Hew Soviet andcean-

going Tankers of More ThanRT

of Tankers Added to the Soviet

Tanker'

of the Soviet Tanker Fleet by Tonnage,

6

of the Soviet Tanker Fleet by Age,

6

of Vessels in the Soviet Tanker Fleet (Nonnaval

Tankers of More ThanRT Outside16

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8

THE GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE SOVIET TANKER FLEET 1 JANUARY 1 THROUGH 31 MARCH

Summary

la1 the tanker fleet of thoonsisted of onlyross register tone Moat petroleum shipment* of the Soviet Bloc from the Black Sea to points in Europe ind the Near Eaat ware at thla time being carried in Free World tankers, although Free World shipowners were refusing to charter tankers for runs to the Communist Fart the same time, there was an increasing demand for petroleum in Communist China and in the expanding economy of the Soviet Faro answer the growing need for tankers, an intensive program of tanker building was undertaken la Soviet and foreign shipyard*. Under this program the USSR addedRT. to Us fleet between1 and

Moil (BO percent) of the total tonnage added consisted of Soviet-builtRT tankers of the Katbek class. The remainder, with two exceptions, consisted of foreign-bciU tankers: - andRT tankera built byRT tankera built by Sweden.RT reinforced concrete tankers built by Bulgaria, andRT tankers built by Denmark. With adjustments for lossss.and transfers, these additions Increased the site of the fleet toankers,RT, by the end

esult of this expansion, tbe cargo-carrying capacity of the tanker fleet roseetric tone, and the average

* The estimates and conclusions contained in this report represent the beat Judgment of ORR as

ncluding seagoing tankers of moreross register tons (GRT) assigned to the Ministry of the Maritime Fleet and the Ministry of the Fishing Industry but excluding those tankers operating In the Caspian 5ca or serving as naval auxiliaries.

Gross register tonnageeasare wherein the entire internal capacity of the vessel is expressed in register0 cubic feet to the ton). Not Included in the measurement are certain space* *ucb as peak tanks and other tanks of water ballast, open forecastle, bridge and poop, hatchway excess, certain light and air spaces, anchor gear, steer-ing gear, wheelhouse galley, cabin* for passengers, and other minor spaces specified bylaw.

Communlet Far East refers to Communist China, North Vietnam, and thc Soviet Tar East but does not Include North Korea. Soviet Far East refers specifically to the Far Eastern portions of thc USSR

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age par tanker droppedoears Although Soviet tankers are newer in terms of average age lhan the tankers in the world Heel, their average speed and tonnage are not as high This is the result of tbe Soviet decision to continue production of the outmoded Kaibek-claee tankersime when other nations were beginning to produce larger and faster supertankers.

6 Soviet tankers were employed in tbe export trade to Western Europe and the Near Cast and in deliveries of POL to the Communist Far East;ther tankers remained virtually at all times within Communist waters;ankers served the Soviet fishing fleets in and out of Communist waters. With few exceptions the tankers active out of thc Black Sea included all of the large tankers in the fleet (more thanRT). Virtually all of the remaining tankers ia the fleet were less thanRT. 1 the important changee in theof the fleet nave all Involved tankers making voyages out ol the Black Sea. During the postwar yearsoviet tankers made few voyages out of the Black Sea. Activity began to Increaseowever, whenankers departed for the Soviet Far East andChina. The higheee number In any previous postwar year had been three. oviet tankersovement of POL to Egypt andovement to Western Europe. During the latter year. Soviet tankai movements out of the Black Seaew high withankers departing for Egypt.or the Soviet Far East, andor

Western Europe.

When the Sues Canal was closed at the end ofof employment began to change. oviet tankerthe Far East between6 andhedeparting during that sameear before Thismadeurther Increase in the movement of POL toEurope, especially the latter. Another aspect ofpattern of employmentharp Increase la the numbertankers chartered by Fro* World interests. In the spring ofthe firstoviet tanker returning from the Far Eastargo from the Persian Gulf to

the Continent. 6 andine more Soviet tankers were similarly chartered. Earlyoreover, seven Soviet tankers under Free World charter were to go to the Caribbean area to load petroleum for the Continent.

In spite of (he expansion which look place, the Soviet tanker fleet remains Inadequate in certain important aspects. Because ti lacks sufficient tanker tonnage, the USSR ia Inconvenienced both inSoviet Bloc POL to the Free World from tha Black Sea and in supplying, the Soviet Far East and Communist China. oviet tankers carried onlyercent of the exports of Bloc POL from the Black Sea to the Free World; tha remainder was carried In Free World tankers, many under charter to the Bloc. This situation decreased Bloc earnings of foreign exchange. Furthermore, the petroleum requirements of the Communist Far East still had to be met largely by rail. It isthatercent of the total amount of petroleum shipped :oChina and the Soviet Far Eael6 was shippedonsidsrablj higher cost on the Trans-Siberian Railroad because of insufficient tanker tonnage.

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;*ll is impossible to estimate accurately the expansion contemplated for the Soviet tanker fleet outside ol tbe Caspian Sat under the Sixth Five Year Plan because neither ice planned deliveries to the Ministry of tbe Fishing Industry (MRP) nor the proportion of the planned deliveries to the Ministry of the Maritime Fleet (MMF) that will go to the Caspian arc known. Under the Sixth Five Yearhe MMF is expected to, OOO'GRT of tankersotal cargo-carrying capacityetric tons. This figure will also include deliveries to tha MRP for which there are no Plan figures available Progress inroduction In the first yea? si thc current Five Year Plan has beer,i. 'dellverlda'to the MMFl CRT. includingRT dalivsred for use on the Caspian Sea. At this rate the planned additions to'the Soviet canker'fleet will be realised

Even if deliveries of Kacbeh-clessRT steam turbine tankers are the equivalent ofasbcfca during Ihe Plan period, how. aver, the USSR will StUI be short by betweenndankers of tha number estimated to he required to carry all POL exports from ths Black Sec and all POL shipments to Communist China and the Soviet Far East In Soviet tankers

I^^lniroauction.

I'the Soviet tanker fleet consisted ofesselsi register tons (GRT). Ofere German tankers acquired asS lend-lease tanker which was not returned after the war.ecause of wartime losses, the fleet was little larger1 than It has beenn spite of the'addltlohsMurlngJand alter the war. At the same time. Soviet tanker rioeds' continued to mount. POL production in the USSR had been rilingnd tbe USSR was beginning to increase Usof POt toe World. The requirements of the Soviet Far Eaetfor POL from western USSR were mounting bscause ol increased economic and military activity ia the ares, and the entry ot Communist China Into the Korean War made that country, which bad previously had access to Free World supplies, dependent on the USSR for its POL needs Largely as the result of enti*Commuftlsi sentiment engendered by the Korean War. the USSR encountered another complication in its POL movement el this t'.tns. The development among Free World nations of controls on East-West trade was accompaniedenial to the Soviet Bloc of Free World tankers for charter on voyages from the Black Sea to the'Communist Far East. efore any sizable movement ofhe Communist Far East by sea had begun, at leastRT. had been chartered toloc'POL from the Black Sea to Free World destinations. Thusvenarge'comrr.itment of tankers to the Far East run. the USSR did not have sufficient tanksrs to carry its POL exports. 4/ Ths maritime fleets of the other Bloc nations ware of little assistar.es because, among them all. there waa only one tanker of more thanRT. the Polish Karpaty.

'ct serially numbered source references, see Appendix C-

It roseillion metric tons5illion/

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Under these circumstances, lc is not. surprising that Ac USSRarge-scale expan.ion of its tankerirs* year of-

the Fifth Five Year.

expansion of thc Soviet tanker fleetlishsd almost entirely by new construction, liaclud shipyards in the USSR. Bulgaria. Finland, Denmar; The Soviet role in the program wastherwise have been because of COCOMKCoori International ExportFrae World shipbuilding naHons to

Wi

mark was tbe only COCOM nation which did buildIt was permitted to do so because of commitmentsregulations went into effect. Although neitherthe other Free World nations which built .tankers Imembers of COCOM, il appears likely that their

re members of COCOM, it appears uuuyre limited to smaller and slower tankers .in deference to COCOM

sentiment.

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Thus far thc major effort in the USSR has been devoted toofasbek.class tankers, with0etric tons. These tankers are powered by twinhorsepower (hp) diesel engines whichingle screw through reduction gears and whichaximum operating speed in ballastnots.he prototype ranker of this class was the Kaabck. delivered by Shipyardn Niko'.ayev in By the enderial production of these tankers waa under way inikolayev!and? Leningrad,

i -

1 GRT. andhe tankers* of this

A certain amount of confusion has axis tanker Is sometimes referred to as -Knack grad. The two classes are actually the same tankers in this class are identical inimensions, there are variations among thsro causs of differences In non-cargo-carrying spec itselfRT. thersemainder (moreRT.

class which have been delivered since5 have measured

GRT.

By the snd o!6 tankers of this class5 to the MMF. and>oMinistry of Defenseavaletweenand6 the production program of the Katbckthe cargo-carrying capacity of the Soviet tankeretric tons. Tankers of thisherefore, accounttwo-thirds of the total cargo-carrying capacity of thewhichetric tons. As ,the workhorses of.the*

* See Appendix A. Table.elow. GRT rounded to nearest thousand when referring to classes of

tankers.

4 -

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they were uaed6 chiefly on the long run* from the Black Sea to the Far Eaat and Western Europe. During thin period the USSR alsohallow-draft Ko she voy-class tankers of aboutRT for use in tbe Caspian Sea traffic.

The largest tanker-building program for the USSR abroad was carried out In Finland. The Finns produced two classes of tankers. The first class consisted ofRT tankers built at the Repola Shipyard in Rauma. Each is equippedinglep Swedish-built diesel engine* and ie designed to operate atnots. 9/

assigned to the MRPo the MMF. Although atf them has made the round-trip voyage to the Far Eaat.ssigned to the MMF were restricted in their operations to the Black Sea for most

Theankers of the second class built la Finland for tho USSR ire slightly larger thanRT. Five were built at the Crlchton-Vulcan shipyard in Turku andt the Crlchton shipyard in Valmet. Except for elight differences In GRT and length, the tankers built at these shipyards areach is equippedinglep dlesel engine whichaximum speed0 knots. fave been assigned to the Ministry of Defense as navalo the MMF for use on the Caspian Sea.o the MMF and MRP. largely for use in coastal waters or with the fishtoghe disposition and ministerial subordination of the remaining two aren

2enmarkankers having cargo-carrying rapacities0 metric tons for theankers, the7 GRT) and theere equipped withle? diesel engines which permit speedsoth of these tankers were assigned to thc MMF upon delivery.

Under the terms of the Soviet-Swedish Credit Agreementixilt(or.Oiehipyards in Sweden1 These tankers are quite similar to the small tankers built in Finland. Theircapacities and speeds are almost the came, and their engines are of the same make, although slightly larger in stroke and displacement. our ofankers, are currently assigned to the MMF and MRP for use outside of the Caspians assigned to the MMF for use in the Caspian Sea, andormorly assigned to thc MRP, was rammed and sunk off Hokkaido, Japan,

2ankers made iof reinforced concrete with car go-carrying capacities ofetric toas wore built for the USSR at Varna. Bulgaria. Their low maximum speednots and their frequent breakdowns are likely reasons for the Soviet decision tothslr procurement. All fhree'ttantiere'.Of this type one restricted In their operallone to short runs on the Black

- This engine is reported to have given Sovietreat deal of trouble. 8/

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Not every tanker added to the Soviet Heele* of new construction. It appears that at least two converted older ships were added also. The first, the0s reported toank barge of prewar construction which was convertedelf-propelled tanker at Tuapee4he second, the0iesel-electnc tanker placed in service int had been in the Odessa Shipyard since the endl_/ Itsdisplacement and cargo-carrying capacity lire vory close to those of the diesel tanker Varlamhich was last reported/ Because the Avanesov was one of the newer tankers in the fleet at the time it was last reported and becacse there has been no Indication of its having been* possible that the vessel was selected for an experimental conversion from diesel to diescl-electrlc propulsion and has now been renamed the Ural. It is aliothat the Ural is Ihe formerRT, built, which was apparently sunk or seriously damaged in World War II. 6 the MMF announced Its intention tolesel-electric Unker for use on the Caspianor use outside tbe The tanker for Caspian use was deliveredut neither oTihe others appeared until the delivery of the Ural

There Is evidence that as many as seven tankers were eitheror transferred. The only known lossesMRP tanker Ishimhichndhich was seised by the Chinese Nationalistsldest tankers Includednot been reported

to Lloyd's and have not

Those ships, presumably retired, are the anauauar. u. 1'i CRT. built, theRT, built" and the ValerianRT, built

Two tankers assigned to the MMF outside of the Caspian Sea were transferred during the period of the expansion. TheRT) was transferred to the Ministry of Defenseaval auxiliary, and theRT) was transferred to the

Characteristics as of

1 and4RT were added to the Soviet tanker fleet. Afterfor the tankers assumed to have been lost, retired, orthe net Increase In tbe slae of the fleet amount* toankersRT. esult of this increase, the tonnage of the fleet almost quadrupled. Its size increased fromankersRT loankersRT. In spite of theof thie expansion, however, the Sovtet tanker fleet remains little more than one-tenth the siie of any one of the three largest [anker fleets In the world. * The more Important changes In the

As ofountries in tbe world with the largest unker fleets were as follows; he UK, ankers totalingbe US.ankers totalingRT.orway,ankera totaling

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characteristics" of the fleet which occurred16 are aa follows:

6

Cargo-carrying capacity

(metric

Average

Average age

Average speed

A recent study of the world tanker fleet sponsoredajor US oil company provides the basisomparison of some of these characteristics of the Soviet tanker fleet with those of the world tanker fleet. Because this study considered only those tankers in the world fleet larger thanRT as ofheof the Soviet tanker fleet used in the comparison apply only to those Soviet vessels largerRT In the fleet as ofomparison of these characteristics is as follows:

Fleet World Fleet

Average age

30/

Average

This comparison shows that, although the tankera in the Soviet flee: are more modern in terms of age than those of the world fleet, they arc actually less modern In terms of design as reflected in speed and tonnage. This lag is largely the effect of thc Soviet policy ofto mass-produce the Kazbek-class tankers while the rest of thc world Is producing larger, faster, and more economical.supertanker* The Kaabck-class tankers are neither as fast nor as large as the now-outmoded World Warnkers. It is possible that thc USSR has continued to produce these tankers because of the difficultiesin putting intoowerplantarge and faster tanker. Until recently, at least, the USSR has been producing no non-naval marine powerplants more powerful than those In use on thc Kalocks because of emphasis on powerplants for naval use.

IV. Employment.

Thc three principal ways In which the Soviet tanker fleet was employed6 were asor voyages outside of Communist waters originating in the Blackor voyages

* For more detailed characteristics of the various classes ofsee Appendix A, Tableelow;reakdownfleet by tonnage, see Appendix A, Tabicelow; for'akrtown of the fleet by age, see Appendix A, Tablefor more detailed characteristics and other informationtankers, see Appendix A, Table

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largely within Communistor support of the fishing fleot. both Inside and outside Communist walers.

In the postwarankers madeout of the Black Sea. With increasing tanker tonnage available because of the expansion of the fleet, however, and with Sovietof POL risingillion metric tons1 to0 million, the USSR was able to increase its exports of ?OL to the Free World and to Communis! China and its shipments of POL to the Soviet Far These increases-were naturally accompanied by an upsurge tn Soviet tanker movements out of the Black Sea. the only loading are* for Soviet tanker shipments to the Communist Far East and the Free World.

6 Soviet tankersRT were utilised on voyages out of the Black Sea. These ships included all of the large postwar tankers and. with two exceptions.|TJ were betweenRT. They fall into three distinguishable age groups, as

follows:

pro^-i im

ears o. "

oears .

Total

Number

aabak class)

7 I

46

A second group of Soviet tankers normally operates only within Communist waters in the Jurisdictions of the various steamshipof the MMF. thesc tankers wore distributed ae follows:

Number Total GRT

Black Sea

]

Far East

and White Seas

Arctic Ocean

Sea

504

566

1hipments of POL by Soviet tankers from the Black Ssa to Communist China and the Soviet For Eaat roseetric tons. During the aame period, Soviet and Rumanian exports of POL to the Free World (including shipments by Soviet tanker) rose fromoetric In6 the Iskra () RT) departed from the Black Seaarco for Hatphona

voyageonjunctionnsier to the Far East Steamshipn6 the Gu-dermesRT)argoes of petroleum to

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y in

Wilh the exceptionRT.fceswc ndears old. the tanhere which operate only In Cr-nist waters are all underOO GRT. These smaller tankers vsi ageear toears old.

The remaining tankers in the Soviet lanker lleet are assigned t< the MRP. hese tacksrs were distributed ae follows:

Total GRT

Baltic

Soviet Tar

Barents and White234

These shipsinnish-builtO0-GRT tanker delivered6ankersRT. Of thesereears old and tho other isears old. Although confirmatoryis not available, it la possible thai an additional number ol the small tankers listed as subordinate to the MMF in the Baltic andhite Sea areas are actually subordinate to the MRP.

Theovements of Soviet tankers out of the Black Sea and the subsequent changes in the pattern of employment of the tankers normally used on long voyages out o( the Black Sea arc she mostfeatures of the employmsnt of the Soviet tanker fleet during the period since the expansion of the fleet hegan The first year1 In which Soviet tanker voyages out of the Black Sea increased substantially Ths increase largely involved tankers bound for ths Communist Far East.4 the greatest numbsr of Soviet tankers departing from the Black Sea for the Communist Far East In any postwar year washe following tabulation shows the Increase In the number of such departures in the period4 through the firs: quarter

Firs: Quarter

Destination

China North Vietnam Soviet Far East

U L2

3 43

4-

53

2 1

As shown above, most of the shipments to the Comsat East are to the Soviet Far East. Because ofo theFar East is shown in greater detail a.

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onth 7

January

The above tabulationhow abruptly the movement to the Soviet Fir East stopped after the closure of the Sues Canalnd how little it had revived by During this period, only one Soviet tanker departed from the Slack Sea for. the Soviet Far East. During the sameear before, there weree pa-tores.

The only other two movements of POL from the Black See. by Soviet tankers6 of magnitudes comparable to that of the movement to the Communist Far East were the movements to Egypt and to Western Europe. As shown in the following tabulation, the movement to Egypt began late5 andery high level by6 with little decrease by

Month 6^

January

The movement of Soviet tankers from thc Black Sea to Western Europe did not begin untilut by the beginning7 its volume was exceeding that of the movement to Egypt as shown:

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Month 1

b

-

The destinations of Soviet tankers departing from the Black Sea for Western Europe during this time period are as:

1 January Throughanuary Througharch

Country

.Tankers

. Number, of Tankers

Germany

Germany

Apparently thereumber of factors behind the Sovietto curtail shipments of POL. from the Black Ssa to the Soviet Far East beginning in The first is that the closure of the Sues Canal increased the time required for an average voyage from tho Black Sea to the Soviet Far East fromoays and raised the cost of shipping POL to tho Soviet Far East by ssa from* loster metricther factors arc suggested by the curtailment itself, which indicates)etl'-mated tor slightly,less than, etric tons per shipment for the6 throughas made up entirely by increased railhat consumption in the area actually fell by the amount of thehat petroleum stocks in the Soviet Far East were adequate

" Dollar values are given in terms of current US dollars throughout

this report.

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to meet requirements;hat the deficit was made up by aof these alternatives. It is not certain which of theseis closest to the truth. If reports of deliveries by tanker to the Dal'stroy area around Magadan for the firstonths6 arc correct, however, it is possible that consumption theres reflected in deliveries fell by as muchetric tonsf this pattern continuedt is quite possible that decreased consumptionole in the curtailment of deliveries.

Whether it was decreased consumption or increased rail shipments which caused the curtailment of tanker shipments of POL to the Soviet Far East) the advantages to the USSR of using the tankers which were diverted from the Soviet Far East to Egypt and Western Europe should bc considered: he political gain Involved in assisting Egypt,he opportunity to conserve and acquire additional foreign exchange by using Soviet instead of chartered Free World tankers In petroleum deliveries to the Free World. This conservation of foreign exchange was especially important in thc period after the closure of the Canal, when rates of the tanker charter market rose to higher levels than were reached during the Korean

ln keeping with sound fleet management, the USSR hasto reduce the number of voyages its tankere make ina number of years, Soviet tankers returning from the Farloaded soybeans in Dairen for delivery to Western Europe. however, for the first time, seven tankers returning from thein ballast were charteredpick up cargoes

for Western Europe in the Persian This new In theonths,dditional Sovietreturning from Indochina and tho other from the Soviet Farup cargoes in tho Persian Gulf for delivery to Europe.these voyages. Soviet practice changed, and the principlevoyages in ballast appeared to be less important. Afterot the Canal, throe'Sovict tankers were .scheduled to ga loGulf to load for Western Europe immediately afterin Port Sues delivered from thc Blackone ofof movesew Soviet willingness to diverttheir usual voyage patterns in order to reap the advantagesto Free World shippers of petroleum. The bestthis willingness occurred dunns Fobruarv andSoviet

to make trips to the Caribbean to load cargoes for Westernike the increased use of Soviet tankers in delivering POL to Western Europe, these cargo Operations are enabling the USSR to conserve and Increase its holdings of foreign exchange. This is an importantbecausend to an even greater extent during Iheonthshe USSR showed an increasing need for loreign exchange, as Indicated by the following increase in salee of gold to the Free World:

46/

49/

quarter?)

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Soviet sales of were motivated both by the need to pay forpurchases Irom the Free World6 and by theof aid to the European Satellites, part of which took the form of freely convertible currencies to enable them lo purchase goods from the Free World. The USSR also assumed some of the debts of Hungary which were payable In Free World currency- Thus it appears likely that the USSR has been influencedonsiderable degree In the employment of its tanker fleeteelr* to earn more foreign exchanj

V. Adequacy.

In spile of the Increased capacity resulting from the expansion of the Soviet tanker fleethe .USSRecessary6 to move considerable quantities of POL by less desirable or more expensive means because it did not have sufficient tanker tonnage of its own to do the Job. This deficiency of the tanker fleet shows up particularly in tha movements of POL from the Black Sea to importing countries in the Free World and to the Communist Farhows the movement of POL out of the Black Sea by Soviet tankers

Table 1

Movement of POL Out of the Black Sea by Soviet Tanker

Thousand Metric Tons

To the Free World

By Free World78B

By Soviet

To the Eusoppar. Satellite s

By Free World

By Soviet

By Polish

To the Communist Far East

By Soviet

By Polish

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Table 1

Movement of POL. Out of the Black Sea by Soviet Tanker a/

Continued)

Thousand Metric Tons

the Antarctic By Soviet tanker Subtotal Total

2?

Although tankers comprisingercent of thc tonnage of thc Soviet tanker fleet were employed in carrying POL. out of the Black Seahey carried onlyercent of the total. With the exception of lessercent carried in Polish tankers, thc remainder wasin Free World tankers. In the case of deliveries to the Free World, Soviet tankers carriedercent, and Free World tankers carriedercent. Although some of the POL carried in Free World tankers was sold on. basis'fpurcbasers charteringhe remainder was sold. basis (sellers chartering tankers!,. The USSR was thus forced to ship some of its POL on chartered Free World tankers because there was not sufficient Soviet tanker space available. 7 percent of the Free World tanker tonnage which carried POL out of the Black Sea was under charter to tho USSR and other Soviet Bloc countries. This continuing need to charter Free World tankersof the scarcity of Soviet tankers obviously limits theof the USSR to earn foreign exchange,

The need to rely on overland movementubstantial part of the requirements of the Communist Far East for POL result* in costs which could be eliminatedarger tanker fleet. Tablehows that Soviet shipments ofy rair and tanker to the Soviet Far East and Communist China" are estimated to have totaled aboutillion metric tons Of this tonnage, possibly moreillion metric tons were carried on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The remainder came by sea on Soviet and Polish tankers. The costs of tho shipments by rail averageder metricigher than theoat per metric ton of the sea shipments from the Blackhis pattern is in sharp contrast to the US practice, where6 the movement ofillion metric tone of POL from the Gulf Coast to the East Coast was made almost exclusively by

ollows on p.

Exclusive of POL originating in the Soviet Far East

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Table 2

Estimated Movement of POL from Western USSR to the Communist Far East by Tanker and by6

Thousand Metric Tons

China Soviet Far East

a///

Soviet Far East

Total

sea to Vladivostok and thence by rail

increase above the level

extra movement Inbecause of the Sues crisis.

i.

It has been pointed out that the Soviet tanker fleet ie Inadequate in that the USSR hae toarge portion of Its POL exports to the Free World in chartered Free World tankersarge portion of Its POL to tbe Soviet Far East and Communist Chinaonsiderably higher coat by rail instead of by sea becausehortage of tankers So long as such alternatives as chartered Free World tankers andail shipment remain available, however, there ta little possibility that the USSR will encounter any serious bottlenecks in moving its POL and. in fact, the Soviet fleet is now sufficiently large that itscan be altered for such ends as economic penetration In Egypt and the earning of foreign exchange by charier lo the Free World.

n. Expansion Under the Sixth Five Year.

During the period of the Sixth Five Year) the USSR plans toRT of new tankers.otalcapacityetric tons, to the MMF. The number and capacity of tankers scheduled for delivery to the MRP have no; been specified, and II Is not certain what portion of the deliveries to the MMF will end up on the Caspian Sea. Because of this uncertainty and the lack of information on Soviet retirement plane, it ie impossible to determine the exact amount by which the Soviet tanker fleet outside of the Caspian will have expanded by the end of the Plan period

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a, anker,otal CRTotal cargo-tarrying capacityetric ion. were delivered to the MMF Thla figure includesaabek-claa.RT shallow,draft Oleg KcsaeToy-class tanker, for use on the > -

5ea. and oneCC-GRT Fin nnh-bu-.lthe only delivery to tha MRP6 waaRT Finniah-buill tankerargo-carrying capacityetric tone M/ Thus6 the Soviet tanker fleet outelde ol the Caspian was increasedinker!otal GRTotal cargo-carrying capacity. ZOO metric tone.

If the USSR goes ahead with present plans, the tankers remaining to be delivered to the MMF under the Sixth Five Year Plan willinclude two types scheduled to go into productionrastically revised version of the Oleg Koshevoy class for use on the Caspian SeaRT steam turbine tankerargo-carrying capacity0 metric tonspeed

Itt known how many of these types the USSR plans to pioduce during the remainder of the Plan period. Because of thcew ship with an untested powerplant into production, however, it appears unlikely that morerflarge steam turbine tankers will be delivered by the enda Plan period Four it :he revised Olfij Kosievoy tankers are scheduled forut the numberf anyo be delivereds not known.

Ia negotiations with Finnish shipbuilding firms

nessmenhe USSR indicated that It desires atCO-GRT tankers of thc type built ir./ There was no indication through the endowever, that any contracts had been let for their construction. Regarding Ihe Kaibek-claas tankers, II arc scheduled for productionnd it appears that their production will continue. East Germany has been promised delivery of two aa late as September and November of that year

6 the USSR had to depend an Free World tankers toarge part of Soviet Bloc petroleum exports from the Slack Sea to the Free World and on the Trans-Siberian Railroad toarge part of the POL shipped to Communist China and thc Soviet Far East Dj>-itvg that year the equivalent ofarge tankers (moreRT! was active in the movement out of the Black Sea. It is estimated thatora Katbaks would have bean required to put the movement ef POL to the Free World entirely Into Soviet tankare and anothero put thc movement to China and the Soviet Far East entirely into Soviet tankers

* The estimates of the number of additional tankers required were calculated on the basis of thc amount of POL which had to be carried and the distances it had to be carried. In addition, the following assumptions were made: he average speed Ln nautical miles per dayaebck-claas tankerhe average length of time in port per round-trip voyageaabek-clase tankerays,typical Kaabek-class tanker spendsear in repair

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Assuming thatetric tons of cargo-carrying capacity remaining to be delivered to thc MMFill be made up of Kaibeka, elxRT Finnish-built tankers,mall numberC-GRT steam turbine tankers, the greatest increase in number possible for Soviet tankers operating out ofea would be slightly more thanazboks or the equivalent. If exports to the Free World and shipments to Communist China and the Soviet Far East grow at the same rate as that estimated for Soviet crude oil production, by the0 the deficiency will have increased fromoankers in spite of planned additions-

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Table 5

i New Sovtelot More ThanRT

the USSR v.

Recipients a/

Ministry ofltlmc Fleet

of

Fishing Industry Caspian Soa

Tankers GRT Tanker* GRT

of Defense

Caspian

est est

Tanker* GRT

RT c/ KaebekRTl/ KoshevoyRT e/innishRTRT h/RT7/

Sib-

1SI

098

234

130

374

145

V.'.

265

/

645

Rounded to the nearest

69/

w

73/

rOP^CRE:

]l| MS

m

.

ill im

SI

y

If IJIBS

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Table 5

Breakdown of tho Soviet Tanker Fleet by Tonnage a/6

Tonnage

Tankci

to

o

o

(0

o

o

o

20

to

841

COO0

047

Compiled from data In Table.elow.

Table 6

Breakdown of tbe Soviet Tanker Fleet by Age a/6

(Yean)

to 5

025

to 10

to 20

to 30

to 40

40

520

Complied from data In TableolowT

-

Table 7

List at VmmU in the Soviet TankerNormavalf More ThanRT Outside ol tbe Caspian Sea) II6

of

ron

047

Sea to Far

Sea

3

Sea to Far Ea.

rhay<lxlian

East

Sea. White !

0

Sea

36

0

Sea to Far Ea.

0

Sea

ruovtsy

3

Sea to Far Eas

3

Sea to Far Eas

ogobych

Sea

3

Sea to Far Eaai

Arctic

rla

Sea.

J

Sea to Far East

3

Sea to Far East

Vakoleochuk

3

Sea to Far Eaet

3

Sea to Far East

route ft'

Sea. White S-

Sea to Far Eaei

-

340

Sea lo Near Ea*

if Stalin

Sea to Far East

Stalin

Sea to Fa* Ea*

Footnote" forollow on

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" in I. * " * * " S WS

! ii

S2 ,

7, o O c i . ii i s n i v TC t i

io

l| iiiiisIssiliSlliSslIs l| HfflKilllllHllliKllli

1 M

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i u u u a

U, b, b, b b. h

j 2 o o o

S;Ji

I-

Ut lf> o

o o

N

-l

mi

_

- j- v

t

S5

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top^ecri

13

APPENDIX C

SOURCE REFERENCES

ollowing tha classification entry and designatedave the following significance;

Source cf Information

- Documentary

ompletely reliable

sually reliable

airly reliable

ot usually reliable

ENot reliable

FCannot be judged

- Confirmed by other ec-ircts

- Probably true

Poseibly true

- Doubtful

robably false 6Cannot be Judged

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this repott. No "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

I.

- 11

TO^SEC

RE;

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C

Original document.

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