CPSU Coordination of International Cororouaist Movement: implementation of CPSU Directives for Action by Latin, American Communist Parties Following the7 Moscow Meetings
Summary: At the celebration ofh Anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution in Moscow inn action program for the Latin American CP's was planned under Soviet Communist Party direction. Stress was placed on strengthening the Peace Movement, the main purpose of which is to weaken the United States economy, planning anti-imperialist cultural and economic campaigns, and improving regional coordination and fraternal support among the CP's. eneral upsurge in Communist planning and activity lu Latin America patterned after the major decisions reached in Moscow has followed. An intensification of anti-American activities, improvements in regional coordination and increased attention to "solidarity" and other issues have been manifested. Conference of the North"6 significant recommendations were made including: the identification of the peace struggle, the main purpose of which is to weaken the United States economy, as the most important single effort of international Communism; the continuation and strengthening of the CTAL; the expansion of trade with the Soviet bloc; and the establishment of an information-exchange office in Mexico City to serve the CP's of the Northern Zone of Latin America. The peace congress held in Buenos Airesay under the title Argentine Congress for International Cooperation, General Disarmament and National Sovereignty probably was the occasion for further high-level planning involving both northern and southern CP's with respect to the development of the new economic and cultural offensive. It is possible that at thisermanent hemispheric Peace Secretariat was established in Buenos Aires. onference "in defense of culture" and an economic conference "of all forces capable of opposing imperialism" discussed at the Moscow session, are still in the early planning stages*
h Anniversary celebrations of the CPSU in Moscow were attended by delegates from at leastoreign countries and at leastoreign CP's. The CP's of the Soviet Bloc, meeting separately,welve-Party Declaration. Another conference, involving all CP delegationslenary session on the order of an international Control Commission, resultedeace Manifesto signed byoreign CP's. In addition to these conferences larger multilateral meetings of CP representatives took place, involving for the most part CP's of specific geographic regions in order to discuss common problems and programs. One such regional Cfifcrence involved the CP's of Latin America.
The Moscow directives
In general it may be said that for the Latin American CP's the major directives deriving from the Moscow meeting fella) the Declaration and Peace Manifesto themselves;(b) the Suslov speech; and (c) the discussions and programs covered in the regional meeting.
The Declaration and Manifesto
Both the Declaration and the Peace Manifesto were intended as general directives for the International Communist Movement. Their importance in this regard was reiterated in various CPSU media following their initial publication, in speeches by numerous CPSU official! commenting on the conferences, and in the attitudes of CPSU officials toward the visiting foreign Communists in Moscow. The Latin American CP delegates were urged to return home as soon as possible in order to explain fully to their respective parties the meaning of the resolutions and to begin work to realise them. It is known that in8 one Latin American CP reprinted about fifty copies of each resolution and planned to hold extensive discussions about them within the top echelon of the party. roader party
discuasion took place, tbe party leadership desired to insert alongside the resolutions the proper application of the party line in that particular country. In another CP, preliminary discussion of the resolutions and plans for implementing them, were assigned to groups of party functionaries, each group composed of individuals most knowledgeable about the respective documents.
The Sualov speech
The Sualov speech ong one constituted an authoritative assessment of the International Communist Movement and clarified for the delegates the over-all direction of the movement and the general tasks of all CP's particularly as these tasks affect the CP's in the colonial and semi-colonial countries. Suslov compared the influence of the Socialist and capitalist camps, commented on the favorable conditions for consolidation of Communism, stressed the peace offensive as the counter-offensive to be taken against Western military pacts, and criticized the neglect of "mass problems" by the CP's. He analyzed the theory of different roads to socialism, discussed the real meaning of the cult of personality, and stressed the role of the bourgeoisieommunist-directed "revolution." Copies of the speech were circulated among the delegates at the conference but were collected afterwards. However, notes taken on the Suslov speech were smuggled home by some Latin American delegates, and it has been evident that the contents of the speech bave been drawn on heavily by returning delegation leaders in their reports on the Moscow meetings made to their respective parties.
The regional meeting of Latin American delegates
Specific directives for tbe Latin American CP's derived from tbe regional meeting of tbe Latin American delegates, where the practical implementation of the general programs waa discussed, snd specific regional issues were considered. The meeting was attended not only by all the Latin American delegations and by certain
CPSU officials, but also by Chinese delegates. The presence of the latter wai undoubtedly associated with the increased responsibility assumed by CP China for aiding the Latin American CP's. It is known, for example, that at some time during the Moscow meetings plans were made for the training of Latin American Communists ln China as well as ln the USSR.
The regional meeting was arranged by the CPSU andover by the CPSU's Latin American specialistt the session selected Latin American delegates spoke on various aspects of party work in different countries, but the major commentary was delivered by "Sivolov." Many points made by him proved torelude to subsequent CP activity in Latin America.
criticized the Latin American CP'sack He pointed out that the last week inbeweek of solidarity with the The CP's were also told they shouldeffect the liberation of the imprisonedFaria;
declared that not only must the CP's attemptinterchange but also must increasein the area in order to destroy thethe principal imperialistvery CPthe Latin Americaa people against
stated that it was absolutely necessary to holdof they which was meant ainclude the CP's from Panama to Canada. TheCuban CP's were given the task of preparing andthe plans foronference.
"Sivolov" undoubtedly refers to the head of the Latin American section within the CC/CPSU Foreign Section, who may be A. M. Sivolobpv, who has written several articles on Latin American CP matters.
also declared that it was absolutely necessaryand revive tha peace movement. Hea peace conference be held in Argentina Preparations for the conferenceto the Argentine CP;
connectionldcussion of an9onference of CP's alsofor the purpose of opposing OASCP conference should be called somethingfor defense of culture. "
In addition, the delegates discussed the holding of an economic conference of "all forces capable of opposing imperialism. " The time and place for this conference was not set. Considerable discussion also centered around the Confederacioa de Trabajadores de la American Latinaith some delegates recommending that it be abolished and other suggesting that it be strengthened.
General effect of the Moscow meetingsnti-Amcrican activities
Tha general impact of the Moscow conferences, the exchange of views among the Latin American CP's, and especially the action program put forth by the CPSU appear to have infused the Latin American CP's with new vigor and strengthened their desire to prove their effectiveness in ths International Communist Movement. The .intensification of anti-American propaganda, recommended at the Moscow meetings, is being carried on with the aid of direct and indirect assistance from the CPSU. Onarchust prior to the northern CP conferencehe Secretary General of the Mexican CP confidedew friends that CP's throughout Latin America were receiving specific instructions regarding the strategy to use in the present US economic crisis. He made it clear that the instructions emanate from some high-level agency* devoted to the planning of
The Mexican Secretary General reportedly referred to this agencyhigh command". No further details are available, but it seems likely that the reference is to the Foreign Section of the CC/CPSU.
political-economic strategy for Latin America. The CP's were being instructed to utilise the effects of the US crisis in order to stimulate further the already smoldering revolutionary spirit evident in some Latin American countries; and were to intensify anti-US propaganda and agitation in all those countries. It is also known that the Panamanian CP Secretary General, while in Moscow, was interviewed by CPSU members who quizzed him oa tbe activities and works by Panamanian authors dealing with the Panama Canal sovereignty issue. enezuelan Communist ln Mexico offered to pay the Panamanian CP for articles on this subject. (Other information on this Venezuelan Communist shows him to be involved in negotiationsosta Rican Communist author and publishers in an Eastern European Satellite.}
Soviet financial support
ractical point of view, it is also apparent that the Latin American parties are confident that subsidization from Soviet sources will enable, them to underwrite their new activities. While details are lacking, it Is evident that arrangements for CPSU economic aid must be counted among the accomplishments of the Moscow meetings. Such arrangements were made at bilateral conferences between party delegates. In tbe case of the one CP, this matter is known to haveopic of conversation in the talks held between CPSU officials and ths secretary general of the party, the CPSU stating that It waa "disposed to offer economicn the basis of reciprocalvidence suggests that among the various channels to be employed in this respect will be: (a) payments made through international front organization a; (b) the use of "royalties" paidHcJ- Communist writersesult of "publication" of their -works in ths USSR; and (c) gafts to smaller and weaker CP's via larger parties.
Party improvements and fraternal support
The Moscow meetings not only resulted in new activities for the Latin American CP'shole, they also appear to have sparked
varioua improvements within individual CP's, The Dominican CP, operating in exile, has shown unprecedented organisational activity. Since the Moscow meetings, it has clandestinely published party statutes, commenced the publicationarty theoretical organ, and has revitalised its newspaper. ew political "unity" front has been formed in Venezuela to attract non-Communist Dominican exiles,arty Central Committee meeting is being planned. Fraternal support among the parties is also being directed in part at the improvement of individual CP's. The Venezuelan CP is known to have offered to help the Panamanian CP, while the Cuban CP has offered to help the Konduran CP; in bothrinting press is involved. The Cuban CP has also offered assistance to the Guatemalan CP, but it is not yet clear what form this assistance will take. The Braailian CP is preparing to aid the Bolivian CP. The Costa Ricafi CP, which offered help to the Nicaraguan party, has reportedly been called upon by the latter to send an experienced leader to assisteorganization of the Nicaraguan party and in its labor penetration program. Other improvements to be expected within individual CP'se-vamping of certain CC section (Liaison, Agitprop, and Technical departments) in order to handle party work mors effectively. I
Specific follow-up activities
The Moscow meetings have been followedeneral upsurge in Communist planning and activity in Latin America which has been patterned after the major decisions reached in Moscow: increased regional coordination and exchanges among the CP's, stress on the "peace" issue, strengthening the Communist-controlled laborand exploitation of anti-American and imperialist issues.
Conference of northern CP's
By early January, plans were underway to implement the conference of "northern zone CP's" which was demanded by "Sivolov" in Moscow. The Mexican and Cuban CP'sharged with responsibility for the conferenceegan the necessary arrangements. Mexico was chosen as the site. Duringuban Communist traveled to all the
northern CP's to brief them on the arrangement* for the meeting, the agenda, and the financial assistance to be given to cover transportation costs of delegates. The conference was held clandestinely onndarch and was attended by delegates from the CP's of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica,Salvador, Panama, Cuba and Venezuela. The Nlcaraguan and Honduras CP's sent written reports. Whereas Venezuela chose to attend this conference, CP Colombia apparently preferred to be linked with the "southern zona CP's" whose own regional meeting had been held some time before. Arrangements for increased regional coordination with CPUSA and CP Canada were planned for the near future. (Iai April it was learned that two Canadian Communist functionaries, both members of the party's sub-committee oa -international relations, were scheduled to visit Mexico and other Latin American countries ln order to systematize relations with the Latin American CP's. )
The conference agenda generally followed that of the regional session In Moscow. Delegations prepared written reports on the party situation in each country, and these were mimeographed for use during the conference; all copies were subsequently destroyed except for one copy of each report which was forwarded to the CPSU. The delegates reached the following major conclusions:
a. Peace tactics
that the peace struggle is the most important single effort of international Communism because peace will weaken the US economy which is based on war production. It was decided that the previous method of emphasizing national peace committees would be dropped in favor of using all available media and fronts which are subject to party influence and direction. Steps toward hemispheric coordinationropaganda campaign were to be initiated at the Argentine Peace Congress which was scheduled for mid-May. (This congress was also one of the actions proposed by "Sivolov" and the Argentine CP had begun preparations to hold it in Buenosf necessary, further coordination discussions could take place at the World Peace Congress in Stockholm in July. All CP's were to send to the Argentine Congress one delegate empowered to make party commitments;
of the CTAL
that the CTAL should be continued, with headquarters io Mexico, unless andnification with the anti--Communist ICFTU regional affiliate (ORJT)ingle hemispheric labor organization. Further discussions were scheduled to take place in September at the next CTAL anniversary celebration, by which time each CP shouldetailed written report on how to improve the organization;
office and exchange of representatives
that an "office" be established in Mexico to receive and disseminate northern zone CP comments and reports. It was also agreed that the occasional mutual exchange of party directors should take place. (The described function of the "office" suggests that it willegional "information bureau", the organisational mechanism once ascribed to the Corninforxo).
Conference of Southern CPs
It is knownonference of the CPs of the southern zone (South America, except Venezuela) was held prior to the Conference of CPs of the northern zone. However, no details concerning it are available, except that delegates from the northern zone also attended it.
Hemispheric Conference of All CPs
It is known that the CPs of the two zones planned toemispheric meeting of CP leaders under the covereace congress in Buenos Aires in Parties were to send representatives fully-empowered to make agreements regarding coordinated Communist activities. At the peace congress the possible establishmenteace Secretariat in Buenos Aires was to be discussed.
A peace congress was held in Buenos Airesay. Its official title was the Argentine Congress for International Cooperation, General Disarmament and National Sovereignty. Reports on its proceedings have not as yet been received, but-intensive investigation is underway to obtain the essential facts.
in regional coordination
general improvement in liaison arrangements among the cp'a has been evident. during january, an argentine representative of the wfdyrip through various latin american countries. the purpose of his trip was to discuss plansatin american youtli congress to be held possibly in mexico or brazil; he was also traveling in order to encourage local latin american cp's and youth organizations to utilize every opportunity to infiltrate and influence non-communist organizations and congresses. the international congress of americanists, to be held in costa rica in. and between various individual cp's liaison arrangements are evidently undca review. the nicaraguan cp, for instance, has asked the costa rican party toarty representative to nicaraguaonth in order to maintain inter-party liaison; it has also asked the costa rican cp to arrange similar liaison visits from other central american cp's, in another example, the guatemalan and honduran cp's are planning joint discussion of common problems.
issues of "solidarity"
"solidarity" issues among the latin american cp's are being given some attentionesult of the statements by "sivolov" in moscow. irst step in implementing the "week of solidarity with the cubanhe cuban cp issued an "open letter"anuary to cp's throughout the world. this discussed the party's policies and its positionis the "bourgeois and petty bourgeoist disclaimed communist support of violence but placed emphasis on the party's role in striken and mass action.
tangible results of this letter are unknown, but it is possible that support was received through this channel from other parties, including those of the USSR, the Satellites and China. Moscow's continued interest in this issue was shownebruary circular received in Cuba from tbe WFDYin which the WFDY proposed that all youth and student organizations in Latin America celebrate the weekarcheek of solidarity with Cuban youth.
Support of "Sivolov'e" other solidarityoordinated effort to secure the release of Jesusas evidencedesolution passed by CP Argentina in The need for coordinated action, however, was largely negated by the release of Faria and other political prisoners during the general strikeanuary which overthrew the Venezuelan government. The success of this strike, ledpatriotic front" in which CP Venezuela was represented, has been widely hailed by other CP's. The Costa Rican CP, for instance,eeting onanuary to express "solidarity with the Venezuelan people in their struggle."
Latin American Communist journalists are playing an increasingly important role in the coordination of Communist propaganda, and arc currently seeking toegional Latin American writers' organization. It is reasonable to attribute the Intensity and theof the anti-Nixon demonstrations in Latin America, as w< as the non-Communist support they enjoyed, in part to the ability of Communist and pro-Communist journalists and writers to convert popular issues into grievances, particularly in those countries until recti iunder strong authoritarian regimes. It is believed that tbe anti-Nixon demonstrations in Peru were organized largely by Genaro Cameoery important Peruvian Communist journalist with
.intensified anti-American activities in Latin
mTet nEVtoW* bCCn'inccMo cow
WrLan c 8 UtdirCCl CODUctSoviet and Latin American Communist agitprop specialists. Inravdt
representative arrived in Mexico where he coots etc dTornmuSeader.
oviet delegation,ormer vice-president of the International Organisation of Journalistsember of the International Department of the Union of Soviet Writers, arrived in Uruguay. Tbe stated purpose of their trip was to "establish friendly relations with youth andubsequently, betweenprilroup of Soviet journalists arrived in Argentina. This group, which hopes to visit other Latin American countries.
some .who have historiescTtcring "struggles against the US anand others experienced in the USSR's cultural offensive abroad. At the sameemberroup of Soviet trade unionists now in Latin America is believed to be identicalnown Latin American specialist in the International Department of the USSR's Ail-Union -Central Council of Trade Unions.
Communist anti-American activity in Latin America Is also expected to be directed at the following points which were discussed at the conference of northern CP's (a) expanded trade with the Soviet Bloc; (b) the claimider market provides safeguards against the fluctuating economic conditions in the US; and (c) increased party efforts against US companies operating in Latin America. The conference "in defease of culture" and "the economic conference of all forces capable ol opposing imperialism" are apparently still in the early planning stages. The northern CP's discussed the holdingPeople'similar to those held In Bandung and Cairo, but nothing concrete ha* yet been accomplished; the CP's of Brazil, Argentina and Chile are reported to be responsible forthis effort.
For example, A. V. Sofronov, chief editor of Ogonek,7 travels in the Middle East to be arranging Tor Commit struggle against the US F Another member of the group,
Pravda, wa. reported8 to be one of the editors of the Corainform journal.
Among the results of the Moscow meetings, special mention muiI be made of the arrangementa for training Latin American Communists in the USSR and China. Although Latin American Communists have In the past attended CPSU training establishmentsew have also received party training in Chinan expanded program was evidently decided upon in Moscow. One partyhe Panamanianas allotted two training slots, one in the USSR and one in China. Some ten or more additional slots were allotted other Central American CP's in China. Although contradictory reports have been received as to which CP's are involved in the current Chine.se training program, the best evidence specifies that the CP's are those of Costa Rica,Salvador and Ecuador (ln addition to Panama). It is known that the trainees have already departed for China and that the Soviet Embassy in Mexico assisted in theand provided financial assistance. The Chinese training is reported to be only of one month's duration and is to be concerned largely with peasant work, in which the Chinese CP is particularlyecond session is believed to be planned later in the year for other CP's.
Within the USSR, training of foreign Communists is generallyuch longer duration (two to fourovers many subjects, and is known to be centered largely at tbe CPSU's Higher Party School. The Panamanian trainee, for instance, will be gone for two years and will attend the Higher Party School. Trainees from several other Latin American CP's are known to be enrolled here at the present time.
J. HENRY SCHRODER BANKING CORPORATION
You were kind enough lo tell me (he oilier day thai you would giveoiter of introduction to Ambassador Thompson in Moscow.
I have just been Informed Uinl my Russian visa lias come through som now definitely planning lo lake off. Incidentally, this isleasure tripm traveling alone.
My itinerary calls for arrival in Leningrad from Helsinki on Augustnd then Lo Moscow on Septemberm scheduled lo leave Moscow onor Vienna.
I shall be ever so much obliged if you will write our Ambassador.
Wilh many thanks for your trouble and with best personalm
Mr. Allen W. DullesOriginal document.