OCCURRENCE AND AVAILABILITY OF HELIUM IN THE USSR

Created: 6/27/1958

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INCURRENCE AKD AVAILABILITY OF HELIUM Of THE USSR

78

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THIS HATEROBTAIHS lHFTFMATIOiHE RATIOEAL DEFERSZ OF THE IHITEC STATES UIIBIH THB HEAR KO CF THEJE3PICHAGE IAWS, TITLE IB, USC,, THE THAHSMISSlOB OP REVE1AT >C* OF wBiCH IN ANY MAimER TO AH UNAlJIBORfZEJ) PERSON IS mCBXBTTSi BY LAW

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS8

CEETRAL IBTELLIGERCE AGESOY Office of Research and Reports

no CHANOt is class

i

CLASo changco to ts s

nextrevicwoate:

AUTH Hfl

tvenok OimP

In7 th* Economic Intelligence Committee (EIC)onssigned high priority to ante raining the level of produotlon of helium in the USSR becauae of the use of hellua ln guided miceilea and nuclear energy and its other strategic applications. aa the only knovn commercial source of helium le helium-bearing natural gas, the problem vaa referred to the EIC Subcommittee on Petroleum.

In7 the EIC Subcommittee on Petroleum agreed that the level of produotlon of helium In the USSR could not be estimated on tbe baala of tbe Information available. It vas recommendedeport be prepared oo helium ln the USSR vith emphasis on theoccurrence of helium-bearing natural gas and on the amount of helium vhlch might be extracted from such gaa. This report undertakes to meet that need.

J

art

1. Helium-Bearing natural Caa In the

Potential

Occurrence and Distribution

Peohora River

Stavropol'skly

h) Dnepr-Don Basin

2. Availability of Helium In tb*

of Extraction .

free Saturn!

Appendix A. Production of Helium In tha US

Appendix B. Production of^Helium In the

Appendix C.

Appendix D. Gape in

Appendix E. Source

Tables

Production of natural Gaa In Selected Area*

of the USSR,

Contest of Natural GasAo Wells in the

UB,

Recjuiraraents for Helium in the US, by Con-

sumer, Fiscal

h. Estimated Requlrasents for Helium in tbe US, by Use,

Flecal Tear

- IUT

roXXorlDK Pape

Figure 1. Data on Helium Shipping Containers Used ln

the5

Figure 2. Simplified Flow Diagram of the Bellum

Figure 3. Photograph of Largest UB Bellum Plant,

Broil, Texas,Uso North of AmariUo,

- It -sC

t"

(ORR

CCCURRBCE AHD AVAILABILITl OF HELJUM TJ TBE USSR*

Summary

Tba USSR probably hasillion cubicf helium available from the helium-bearing naturaleing produced ln that country InUlloo cubic feet of helium are available each year, although tbe capacity of helium plants has bean developed to extract only5 billion cubic feet annually. By the fiscalowever, it le expected that the capacity of these plants vill be expanded sufficiently to permit the extraction ofillion oublc feet In order to meetrequirement a.

Although there are several indications of produotlon of helium In the USSR, data are not sufficient to develop an estimate of the volume of Soviet production. If helium Is being extracted from one-fourth of the hellum-bearlng natural gas believed to be available in the USSR, Soviet production wuld be about equal to that of tbe US, oron* million cubic feet par day. Ho other country Is known to produce heliumarge scale.

j

1. Helium-Bearing Natural Gas in the USSR.

a. Geological Potential.

* Ibe estimates and conclusions contained ln this report represent the best Judgment of ORR as

Volumetric measurements of helium and gas throughout this report refer to tha volume at standard atmospheric temperature and Theoretically, helium can be extracted from tb* atmosphere, but the coat is axhorbitant. 1/ (for aerially numbered source references, see In this report, all references to tba availability, recovery, and production of helium apply exclusively to helium In helium-bearing natural gas.

Data on the US are reported on the baele of fiscal years by tbo Bureau of Nines of the Department of the Interior, which is charged with production of helium in the US.

Petroleum, In the form of both crude oil and natural gas, is found ln commercial quantities only In sedimentary basins or other

sedl-entary areea of th* earth. Both the US and the USSR have nore than are-aga incidence of eueh sedimentary areas. Tha US. vith 5of the total land tm of tha world, haaercent of the totalarea,illion aquare miles. The USSR, vithar-cent cf tho total land area of the world, ha*ercent of the total sedimentary area,illion aquare/ Thua thearea of the USSRime, that of tha Of, and therefore tha potential reaourcee of natural gaa in the USSR nay equal or exceed those of the US. fl. wide dlverelty of geological condition, under which these resources occur In the USSR nay be coopered to tha raajw of geological condition* Inlaentary area* of the US. 3/ oT

Si*in th* US, theretrong evidence that ^USSR possesses natural gaa containing hello. In recoverable quen-

b- Probable Occurrence and Distribution.

On the baale of experlenc* in tho US, two Indication* ofhelium in natural gas in the USSR ar* tha presence ofln quantitiesercent or more in th* natural gaa and the pro-auction of natural gaa fro. th* older sedimentary rock* of th* Paleosoic age. Such deposits of natural gaa are at illllkaly to contain helium in recoverable quantities if they ovarii* buried granite ridges or ar* in an area of Igneous intrusion*.*

Af the areas in the USSR which produce natural gas haa resulted ln the selection of four areas ae the tout likely to posnase recoverable quantities of helium.

Area.

ral-V.

scientific monograph appearing5 contain* the only published analyses of natural gaa in the USSR that specify th* hallun content, kt The nonograph raported thatnalyses of natural gaa from the Ural-Volga areaelium content rangingercent. Seven of th* analyseselium content of nor*ercent.**

See Appendix A.

** In the US the Bureau of Mines ha* determined that, under existingelium cannot be recovered economically from natural gaa that contains leesercent helium.

*

Scrutiny of Ik analyses of natural gaa produced in this area showsitrogen content of lessercent, and less

P-

content of less than

/ Another source ahovs that In four important field, producing natural gaa in thle area (Buguruslan, Iabimbey, Syzran-and Tuymazy) the nitrogen content of the ga. varied fron5 percent. 6/ Host of the natural gae produced ln the area cone, from

f ^the Devonian formation overlie0 granite, ana other crystalline basement rooks. 8/

River Baain.

Blv8rnorth of the Ural-Volga

for eeveral year.. The geological con-

ditions in this basin ax* reported to be similar to those In the Ural-Volga area. 0/ Published analyses ofamples of natural gas froT this areaitrogen content rangingo

te of an unreported plant for the extraction of helium.

Kray.

roadcast from Koscov claimed the dis-

^ Stavropol'akiy Krayarge deposit of pure helium at a

below the roncToducing natural According to the broadcast, Belov, the chief geologist of

stimated that STdeposl? vas very large and added that deposits of pure heliumery rare

bten"re!aased *ddIti0Bfll ^formation on this reported

* In analyses of natural gas ln both the US and the USSR the percentage shown as nitrogen includes helium and other rare gases unless auch eases are shown separately. In the US, helium is shown separately in the analyses reported by the Bureau of Mines.

There is considerable doubt aa to the reliability ofatUral telnet of pure helium ishel"overed in the US* percent Furthermore, although large deposits of natural gas have been found and developed in recent years in Stavropol-skiy Kray north of the Caucasus Mountains, most of the published analyses of natural gas produced in this area do not suggest the presence of helium,the nitrogen content Is lees ut of lb analysesitrogen content rangingercent. Although there are indications that older Paleozoic rocksart of the areapur of igneous intrusions extend into the area

from the Caucasusoat of the natural gas produced in thla area la obtained froa rooke formed since tha Palaoaolc age, awhich does not favor the occurrence of helium. lU/

W Dnepr-Don Basin.

. _ Recent discoveries of natural gas ln the vicinity of Khar'kov In the Dnepr-Don basin baveitrogen content ae high9 Some of theae newly discovered deposits are of the Paleoaoic age,ubstantial Paleorolc section maythla

ualco adjoining the area on tbehese positive Indications of helium-bearing natural gaa in the new and extensive deposit, that are being discovered end developed in this area suggest that substantial quantities of helium may be available.

of the four area, cited above does not pre-

clude tbe existence of other undiscovered or undeveloped deposits of natural gas which may contain helium in recoverable quantities.

2. Availability of Helium in tha USSR.

a. Technology of Extraction.

Ihe availability of helium depends not only upon theand production pf helium-bearing natural gaa but also upon the technical ability to extract the helium from such gas. Theng chronological review of signifloant developments regarding the extraction of helium fron natural gaa in the USSR will Indicateevel of Soviet technical ability ln the use of thia process.

he USSR wan sufficiently Interested In helium ^contract with US nationalseport on the extraction of helium from helium-bearing natural gas. Although the report wa. preparedecognized authority in thia field, it contained little that had not been publiahed previously.

There is evidence thatlant was built in the USSR near Moscow on the Saratov-Moscow gasto liquefy largeof natural gas. The liquefied gas la stored for subsequent use during periods of greatest demand. Because liquefaction of helium-bearing natural gas Is essential to the recovery of thelant which liquefies natural gaa may Include the relatively mmtU aaount of additional equipment needed to recover any helium contained In the gas.

HE-T

6 the USSR ordered equipment for tha liquefaction plant fron suppliers in tha The equipment vas designed to liquefy natural gas at the rateubic feat per hour, to be storedetal cylinder* eacheet Inndeetew of the item* requested bad been embargoed to th* Soviet Bloc by the US, moat of thia equipment won shipped to the USSR. An article publiahad in Moscow6 lndicatea thie plant waa completed substantially as planned and va* operatingatisfactoryhe design, construction, and operation of the liquefaction plantthat the level of technology in the USSR is adequate tolum from natural gaa.

A limited survey of the relatively large volume of technical Russian-language literature which became availablerief article on the extraction of hellw from natural gaa In the The article Indicates that in the pretreatment of natural gas preparatory to th* extraction of helium, operatingin the USSR6 waaevel with that In the US. The authorthat the alkali batch process was being replaced by tha continuous mono*thanolamine process in production of helium ln the USSR. Thie pretreatment involves the use of the continuous Girbotol process using monoetbanolaxlne, which was patented in the US and which replaced the alkali batch process during World War Another article appearing in Russian-language literature describes the US heliuc industry andltem bibliography of data or helium published in the US during23/

That the USSR haaignificant technologic advance over the US la th* production and transportation of liquid helium la indicatedecent/ This report quotes Dr. Peter L. Kapitaa, Director or the Institute of Physical* saying that liquid helium is ao abundant in the USSR that lt la shipped ln railroad tank cars. Helium must be cooledemperature ofF,ew degrees of absolute xero, in order to liquefy lt, and it must be maintained at that temperature if It ls to remain in tb* liquid state. Although liquid bellum le produced In the US for laboratory usee, production of liquid helium ln large quantities and itsby railroad tank car* ls beyond actual operating technology in the US. The advantages of liquefying helium for transportation, however, ar* recognised ln the US by the Bureau of Mines and the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics. Conventional methods of transporting helium ln th* US5 are shown In Another report indicates that Soviet ability to liquefy hellian in large quantities waa potential rather than -actual as late as

" Following p. 6.

Tbe foregoing evidence demonstrates that the USSR possesses toe technical ability essential to the large-scale extraction of helium from natural gas.

b. Recovery from Natural Gas.

Ae previouelyour areas in the USSRgaa that probably contalne recoverable quantities ofof production of natural gas in these areas duringshown In Table

As ahovn in Tableroduction of natural gaa In the four areas of the USSR moot likely to possess recoverable quantities of helium amountedillion cubic feet6 and la expected to increaseillion cubic feet roduction of natural gaa in similar areas of the USwestern Texas, western klahoma, western Kansas, and Nev Mexicoamountedillion cubic It ie estimated that the helium available for recovery from that portion of this gaaercent helium or more amountedillion cubic feet, Zjj9 percent of all of the natural gas produced in thene areas of the US

See, p.bove.

ollows on p. 7.

If the areas of tha USSR producing helium-bearing natural gaa ahouldotential for recovery of helium ccmparable to that of areas in the US listed in the preceding paragraph, the USSR vouldb billion cubic feet of helium available for recovery he absence of more specific dataelium in tbe USSR, an estimateillion cubic feet per year is believed to be the best that can be made at this tine.

tftSfitt

helium is shipped to pants a1 consumption in railway tank cars, automotive trailers, and standard compressed gas cylinders.

IrWlrVAYCAR, AVEPASE CAPACITY

0 CUBIC FEET

0 ML

Standard compc{SSID gas cylindersubic feet cost

FpElOIT CAR LOAD ^CYUNOERS^rfeOOOaiFT.

Trvolarr.

Estimated Production of Natural Gas lo Selected Areas of tho

nn Cubic Feat

Area

Pechora River basin Stavropol'akiy Kray Dnepr-Don baaln

e/ 42

b/j

j

c/

/ IU t/

/

1/

1/

by as analog an increaae9 peroant, the rataproduction In the USSRhole7 exceeded that

by assuming an increase9 percent, the rateproduction In the USSRhole8 ie expected

reported production of natural gas in Komi ASSRillion cubic

reported prenuction of natural gaa in tha Horth Caucasus in

illion cubic It is believed thatubic feet of this total cooes from the gaaflelds in Some natural gas la produced ln the old oilfields at Groznyy

and Maykop ln the North Caucasus outside Stavropol1akiy Kray.

planned increase In production8 compared with that in

illion cubic

by assuming an increase ofercent, the rateproduction ln the Ukrainehole7 exceeded that32/

1. .Derived by subtraction of production in the four selected areas from the total production in the USSR.

l'. %

IMWV

PRODUCTIOH Q? HELIUM TH THE UG

1. Distribution.

a helium content rangingrace (leas1 percent)ercent le found throughout the US. During the7 the Bureau of Mines obtained sndample of natural ges from each0 veils Intates. The distribution of the helium content In these samples is shown In Table 2.

Table 2

Helium Content of Natural Gaseils In the US a/

Proportion of

HeliumSamples

Number of

Trace (less

9

nd more v

aT"S7

Analysis of thee* samples above that helium in. percent end aore) occurs almost exclusively where tb* natural gas Is produced from the older sedimentary rocks, primarily those of Paleozoic age, and where the natural gasercent or more of nitrogen.*

For methodology see Appendix C.

Theae conditions indicate only the possible presence of helium; natural gas produced under such conditions doas not necessarily coo-tain helium, natural gases containing recoverable quantities of helium also ere found usually in areas overlying burled granite ridges or associated with igneous

8- Availability. JQJ

Bie Bureau of Mines estimates that, on the basisrinimum helium contentercent, there areillion cubic feet of recoverable helium in proved reserves of hellua-baarlag natural gas in the US. illion cubic feet of helium vere available from the natural gas produced and marketed from these proved reserves. Because or tne lacs or plant capacity, jess thanercent of this available helium vas recovered; the remainder was irretrievably lost. The Department of the Interior is planning an ajrpension of plant capacity vhlch would permit the conservation of moot of the helium now being wasted.

3- Production, Technology, and

Moreillion cubic feet of helium have been produced in the US since large-scale production began Before World War II the annual production of helium In the US neverubic feet and averaged less than one-half of that amount. roductioneakassflCM cubic feet as tbe result of en extensive expansion of plant capacity. 3 the wartime peak was surpassed and in tbe fiscalfl2 minion cubic feet of helium were produced.* The current rate of production of helium is approaching one million cubic feet daily.

The technology for extracting helium from natural gas, which has been developed by the Bureau of Mines, la based on well-known physical laws and involve* the use of extremely low temperatures and high pressures. Tne inromlng natural gas le cooledemperature below tbe liquefaction point of its hydrocarbon At this temperature the mixture of helium end nitrogen is recoveredapor and treated to remove hydrogen. This vapor is compressed and furthercooledrocess which liquefies the nitrogen and yieldsercent pure helium vapor. Thla helium then la refined5 percent purity by coolingiquid nitrogen bathA final purity of moreercent le achieved by passing the helium through activated charcoal maintained at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. This process is shown graphically in* An aerial view of the largest helium plant ln the US is shown ln*

This amount includes aboutillion cubic feet of heliumfrom underground storage ln tha Cliffside Field and reprocessed, ** Following

Tbe gradual improvement of technology for extracting helium and the increased volume of natural gas processed for this purpose have

served to reduce tbe coat of producing bellum la the US. TbeIn production and decrease In cost are Indicated by the

Coat

$ Per Thousand

Tear (Thousand CubicPeet)

51

it

to 7

The foregoing costs represent primarily expenses incurredandand determined the prices at whichsold by the Bureau of Mines to other US Governmentof helium to private consumerscharges

to cover the estimated costa of depreciation and interest, andthese costn also have been included in the prices paidGovernment agencies. The current price of helium isubic'

Usee.

Historically the US Bavy haa been the principal consumer of helium, having received Sk percent of total production, primarily for lighter than aircraft. Consumption by other components of theof Defense, by the Atomic Energy Commission, and by private induatry la rapidly Increasing, however, aa shown by* Soma of the strategic ueea forecast for the fiscal0 are shown in

iscount is allowed to hospitals and certain other speeialixed consumers of minor quantities.

ollows on p.ollows on

In recent yeare the scarcity of hallum has limited commercial oaloe to essential needs, usually related to national defense. Such uses, predominantly metallurgical, include heli-arc welding and the production and fabrication of magnesium, titanium, and other metals inelium atmosphere is essential. Other essential uses are the detection ofedicinal purposes, and experiments inlaboratories.

ummerarn nHurJgtaes produced the Sou thu* mi

meiermed^kMi

kthm-ndrtgm

ees.

f thethvm pimt..

pipt/ine

eneMMumeedmf*tropcn mtmjt/Hd.

hymeitr,

hujas is producedpnnofjdfly Ar its fud *d#ransported to ht!arge ptpetrm

m'furtherfy opmtmiatoi emtratm treed

um-

lutrafen mature

etmm mmtodtdeufim.

^punMtmiy

bpvsepetirvtf

cbrceefathe teeperatuft ef heutdtitmgn

1

rrtermjihtMimHeremet ard/rjti'vfM. atthe mtnfenmthe5tH0

i^rW

mmmmmmtmwma^mj^mtmmtk

Figureimplified Row Diagram of the Helium ProductionKtT

table 1.

Estimated Requirements for Helium ln the US, by Uae a/ Piece!0

Amount

Cubic Feet)

Department of Defense

OUlded

Aaronautlcal research

Oenoral

Breathing

Nuclear

Energy Commission

Production

Military

Davelopmast of

Total

other

Grand

hiding the national Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

-

FPODUCTIOM OF HELIUM IK TEE USSR

Thereimited aaount of fragmentary data on production of helium in tha USSR. Inasmuch as this information is generallyrather then quantitative and frequently of questionablethese data are inadequate for estimating the volume of Soviet production. The information now available may be summarised as follows:

As previously Indicated, Soviot Interest in production of helium dates back at least*

erman engineering Journallant at Dergachevakiy /Rayon/ thst extracted helium from naturalhe capacity of the plant was given4 cubic5 cubic feet) of natural gas per day, and the helium content of the gasercent. Compared with the gas processed in the US, thia helium content is very low. At helium plants in the US the residual natural gas remaining after the helium has been extractedercent helium. If it le assumed that one-half of

the helium in the natural gas was extracted in the plant ln Dergachevskiy and that it operated continuously at the stated capacity, the annual production of helium would have amounted0 feet. Thisabout one-third of the helium produced ln the US

3- During World War II, four helium plants were observed and described by prisoners of One of these plantssaid to be experimentalwas located at Ifcrgaehl, which is in Dsrgaahevakiy Rayon, Ehar'kovskaya Oblast, end may be the plant previously identified as being in Dargachevakiy. Another helium plant, reportedly on the island of Zhiloy in Axerbaydihan ASSR, processed natural gss from local veils3hen the gas was depleted. Additional helium plants ware reported at Saratov and Stalingrad, but no adequate information was given concerning their size or operations.

*. risoner of war employedonstruction helper In Moscow from7 to9 reported he workedelium factory. This factory may have been connected vith the plant that received UShere the liquefaction of naturalarge scale was reported to have begun natural gas

* &ee, p.bove.

-

is available to this plant from two sources, the Daahava-Moacovand the Saratov-Moscow pipeline. Th* nitrogen content of tbe gaa fron Daahava3 percent, and that of the gaa fron Saratovercent. The Saratov-Moscow pipelinene of the principal outlets for natural gas fron th* Oral-Volga area, which baa been identifiedrobable sourcelun.* It nay be assumed, therefore, that the natural gaa froa th* Saratov-Mo scow gaa pipeline contains recoverable quantities of helium. On th* basis of th* data available tg/ the plant at Moscow could produo* ae much aaillion cubic feet of helium annually, which amount ls equivalent to production in the US

5. ulletin published by the Bureau of Mlnaaibliography covering all technical and scientific articles pertaining to helium that war* known to hare been published beforeotall6 items were cited from hoBln th* US and abroad. Of thia total,tems were cited from Soviet Journals. Oftem* classified under "Production ofha USSR accounted for onlyhich were listed aa follows:

script ion

Item6

. (Separating Heliuma* Mixture). Russianarch

G.I. (Tn* Helium Industry In the United

Statea). Gaxovoe Byuroetrograd. Prlrodnui* Garui, Vol.. ^aio/

This bibliography Indicates that7 very little information on production of helium waa published in the USSR, at least ln unclassified publication*.

See, p.bove.

- la -

6. An article published in the USSR In7 discussed briefly "the productivity of the preaently-operating installations for separating helium" from nature! gas, but tb* article did not reveal the Eaasber of plants or quantity of helium being produced, or the amount of the nature! gaa beingtatement that certain pro-posad "technological and design changes will permit loweringthe cost of commercial helium, whichaving up5 mill1 onear ln the operation of on* aggregate" might Indicate th* approximate level of Soviet production of heliumoapariaon

of the costs of producing helium In the US end the USSR. Th* official rate ofubles toouldaving ofore realistic rate of exchange,oaving of In the fiscal5 tha total cost of producing helium in the US waa about UShese figures do not permit an estimate of production of helium in the USSR, but they suggest an avenue of approach if additional data become

7. Int the All-Union Conference on Lowur* Physics in Moscow, Dr. Peter Kapltaa stated that the Institute of Physical problems wa* expected to provide large quantities of liquid helium in the very near

APPEHDXK C

METHODOLOGY

The method employed to estimate the availability of helium waa that of analogy with conditions In tha US. Except for tha effect of technology onhe analogous factors are natural rather than artificial and therefore are not subject toln the economic capabilities of the two countries. These natural factors are primarily geological and are wall established withto the occurrence end availability of helium in the US. Data on the geology of the USSR are sufficient to establish the analogous conditions governing tha occurrence end availability of helium In that country.

Data on the distribution of helium ln natural gas In the US and thc geological conditions under which itere derived from the source cited and vere discussed vith technologleta in the Bureau of Mines, who verified then in principle. Theee conclusions were verified alaotudy of the manuscripteport prepared by the Bureau of Mines and scheduled for publication.his report contains analysesnnples of natural gaa analyzed7

See, p. h, above.

See Tableppendix A, p.bove.

j

GAPS EJ CTTELLIGgHCS

^Wyveap Intelligence on helium In ths USSR 1bI^uction of plants

basis for estimating the quantity of helium available from a

gaalnaVaUable

to Ind^iSl^lT^i6 QDB^BeBtural gaa in the USSR refer o fIeld0 or ^ser areas. With one

^ natural

lyoeo follow tha practice of including helium with the

* See, p.bove.

f any,be estimated

U. . "Data, for the Geocbenleal Study of the Natural Gaaee of Several Petroleun Depotita of the Kuybyahev Oblast.and the Tatarb ualovlyakh obrazovanlya neftl po materlalam Volga-Ural' ekoy oblasti fOn Conditlona for the Formation of Petroleum According to Data of the Ural-Volga. u. Eval. RR 2.

s. . "Chemical Charactarlatlca of nature! Gaaee froa the Volga, Southeastern Tatar la, Western Bashkir, and tbe northernaxovayn promyBhlennost', Moscow,. U. Eval. RR 2.

6. Ryabtaev, Nikolay I. aJniaatvennvye gaxy (natural and Artificial. U.R 2.

7- CIA. CIA/RR 6l, Petroleum Resources of the Ural-Volga Area

of the USSR,- 6. w. fl. Interior, Geological Survey. Short Buanary Geologic Report

on the Ural-Volga Region with Enphaala onad Gas

U, OFF Eval. RR- p.. Eval. RR 2.

Karpov, op.bove).

CIA. FBIS, Economic, OFF USE.

Eval. RR 3.

Bureau of Mines. "Helium-bearing Natural Gases of

the Unitedy CC. Anderson. Blason,

I, p. $a. u. R 1. (hereafterto as Interior. )

A.K. "Chemical Characteriatice of Natural Gases from

he Ukraine, and Stallngradakayaaiotfaya prccr/ablennoat', Moscow, U. Eval. RRk. USSR, Ministry of Geology, >ad Resource Conservation. Geological Map of the tlSSR, U. Eval. RR 2.

V.Ya. "Qualitative Characteristics of natural Gases

of the Dnepr-Donetsopovldl Akademll nauk Uxrayns'kol SSR, noiev,. Eval. RB 2.

nda. "Geology

of the Gas-bearing Formations in the Lower Permian of the Dnepr-Donetsejovaya ProayahlennoBt', Moscow,. U. Eval. RR 2.

Ministry of Geology and Resource Conservation. Geological

Map ofR U. Eval. RR 2.

CIA. C. Eval. RR 2.

CIA. y C. Eval. RR 2.

Bokaerman,nd. "Liquefied nature!

axovaya proeysblennost', Moscow,. Eval. RR 2.

S. "To Increaae the Production of Helium,"

n, U.R 2.

22. Mill. "Helium Productionhemical _

lngul 4S,. U. EvbITrr

23- . "Helium Induatry of theaiovayaoscow,. U. Eval. HR lT

CIA. 5 C. RVel. RR 3.

CIA. C. Eval. RR 3.

American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum

Engineer*1 Statistics of Oil and Gaa Develops ntew (j. Eval. RR 1.

Bureau of Mines. eport for the Secretary

of the Interior, C. Eval. RR 1. (bare-after referred to aa Interior. Helium CIA. FDD Translation,ho National Economy of the RFSFR, OTP USE. Eval. Doc.

USSR. SovetBkaya rosslya.. 2. U. Eval. RR 2.

CIA. FDD Translation,FF USE. Eval. USSR. Ha stroltel'stve truboprovodov.- 2. U.

Eval. RR 2.

32. CIA. FBIS, Dally Report (USSR and Eastern

p. OFF USE. R j

34. USSR. Tsantral'nbya Statistlcheskoye Upravleniye pri Sovet*

Mlnietrov SSSR. Dootlzhcnlye sovetskoy vlastl saet v

tslfrakh (Achievements of the Soviet Reign Duringears in

U. Eval. USSR. Bakinskiy rabochly,. 2. U. Eval. RR 2.

36. Tbld.

37- Interior. , above).

tell, R. A. and. Jr. ncyclopedia of

Chemical Technology, volow York,. U. Eval. RR 1.

Interior. Heliumbove).

Interior. Hclluta. above).

Ibid.

Interior. Helium Conservation (l, above). Ibid.

Ibid.

Hayer-Guerr, A. rigin andournal of

the Association of German Englneere,3. Eval. RR 2.

Treasure, Doc 4l. S. Eval. RR 3.

Amy, USFA. Report7. Eval. RR 3-

CIO. FDB, SDS Doc, nd. Info C Eval. RRir. Intelligence Information1d, info R. Eval. RR 3-

AIS Reportnfo

R. Eval. RR 3.

Bokaerman and, above).

fild.

Interior, Bureau of Htnea. "Helium: Bibliography of Tech-

nical aad Scientific Literature fron Ita) to January" by Henry P. Wheeler,nd Louise S. Svenarton, U. Eval. RR 1.

firsrlrahatov, op., above).

Interior, Bellum,nd 8. U.

Eval. RR 1.

53- CIA. C. Eval.b. Interior, Bureau of Mines. "Helium-Bearing Natural Gases of the United. Boone,upplementanuscrlpt only, unpublished aa U. Eval. RR 2.

j

*"

ccontiT

Supplementary Bource List for CIA/RPCCuRREBCE AMD AVAIIABILITY OF HELIUM IB THE USSR

Tbe source references listed below constitute tbe only sources froa which identifying nunbers bare been deleted ln the 8ource References appendix to the report.

CIA. C.

CIA. C.

Original document.

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