CURRENT APPRAISAL OF THE CIVIL DEFENSE SHELTER PROGRAM IN THE USSR

Created: 11/5/1957

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Cwmit Appr&lBai of tbt CItU Btfem Bfaelttr Progrw la tte

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CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE IN8

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has ma active mad extanelTedefon mtm ta tbapoetimr years, elril defease mw mtetlYely doant. ftwaw, la

ft* jwiw mago

laprmre If cesnnlsatloa, to anderteks defencivs const*utUon. and to Increase training. eflait* acceleration In Sorlot etrllhas occurredeocaipaoied bypublicity mA emphasis oanst nuclear .uoojcra.

Civil defense, as aa Integral part afai Soviet dr

tha rosyooslbiUty of taa mala Mninietrntlon of local Mrtl-Alr

aa um of taa Ministry of Interna Afndn (MVS), Underody of MPTO (civil defense) stuff officers vho an aselasaa te poata at all lmli of acaanaent, MPVO officers ara alao praaant la many major emternrtaaa^mai.lilag elvilreparations Is large xsaterla*,canters, aad steer key inrtaUettoae.

Th*system provides ajmwllaldaal training for cdril jafsaaa pereonnel and aurviral training for the General populatloa. afcool for olvU defenee staff officersoperated In Lenlnered. QVtVVOentral Scientific laboratorysdlcal research Installation. Tneao tw lastelUUnns aodoubtadly develop technique.for dm defense.

- tlon ulth tbe ijmj. Air ft*rca,(BOSAAT) ia tne orsanieetiood vith giving elril defenseto the general popnlatlan. Tola orgsnl aUco la cleaely linked toayetee. DOSAAF ornanlcatlona ere foroed la faetoriee,collective andfeme, warnIns tractor otetlons,availing unite. Ite membership la estimated to bahe preeeat tine. Boat of ito msbers *r* probablyivil defenee training course, which Includesof civil defease, including elaa elgaolsi types of attackdefenseontuslmHl.in first aid* atoate end biologicalsad fire-control

Flrat-nld training is conducted by the Red Croat and Red Crescent Societies. Heabers cf these societies *ould be used extensively as auxiliary personnel for medical orannlcations vhlch have civil defenee roles.

9 the USSR hadrogrws to include air raid shelters in the construction of ne. public buildings, factories,nd epert-nont dwellings. Reports cf returning priconere of var whoon ouch contraction indieate that tbe Inclusion of air-raid shelters in no-heatandard practice, f theoe report,enent shelters aa saving sufficient strength to withstand the complete collapse

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of baUdinge. Th*tansd to fasor* fitted with hernotlcnlly sealed, doable floors. Tbsr am oonatracted te utlUw filter

systems, hat oort report* da .mot teUert* actnalttnn, eem each eyirtea*to Isy Sorts* or Waenee Installation has Waa dafarradater date. the coortrocUom of each shelter* Lb continuing ct the arassnt tlae, and thc population haa bean advised thatr* satisfactory protection againstpooa.

'-fall, lt la obrloual?l* to know tha precise extent of tha Sovietprosran. It la believed that meated housing ef maonry eon-stmrtlon built1 iacladad bob* provision fortar. Oa th*tton thatacfa bousing lacliidad aheltara thia progrm couldafford sosa protection to aboutxtfe of the arVen population and this ratio oould rise to about on*-third by tha aad In addition, than era atwltars la factoris* and public tadldinas, hat ao aetlaat* ef their wpsaity la arBilsMs. * Soriet jaMJaatJaa aa weU aa lnforaatlan oa aas^haa.7 vUdlas activities la tha lMrujiaa satellite* indict* that heavier avakareMil aids tunnel aheltara have bsae designed.

In arnnu of the Euxopaaa Satellites construction of htUaida teaaala, and heavy above nndoooaret* baaken haa been confiraad. These Installation* arc generally constructedctortas und enterprlaas ofImportance urf. in proxiaity to Party and BpraiaaapA off ice* or to transport aad consunlcetlona eaotora. ddition, soae protected control caatara hove baan prepared ostald* urhea area*. hanl confiraad location* of undargrcuBd facilities aeer Sofia which ereosigaatcd for tb* us* of th* Bulaarian government ln an emergency.ch as the flctallita civil defans* pjaporetlons folio, tha Soviet nodsl. It ls believed thnt the Kremlin boa already conatructed or la now providing similar installations in th* USSR to protect essential eleneata of tbe party ead Government, the transportation and eoaaunlcations rmt-ork, nnd vorkar* in vital lodustriee. Tha aaa* eanaral type of protection is probably being afforded el Til defens*iaporteat teiecoaauniei.tiaBa teraiaal fadnd soaa radinhrcadaactlag installations.

ike fact that urban snd Industrial fir*-fi*hting forces erete tha MTS should facilitate their Integration Into Ca MPVO syatea. Fire prevention has beena th* USES, and tha new espoasls on concrete construction should grwiunllr reduce TUlnembnitr to fire. The prevalence of wooden construction, however. Isanace In urban areas.

Civil defense preparation in th* USSR has lnoreABcd Post-var trolnina for civil dofenao beaan, vith eapbnals on tbeaf Instructors. Th* yearsO2 -are iv.rked by construction of basement-type sir raid shelters, by th* publication af et least three civil defence annuals, end by tbe formation ofroa exlotlng paraallitsry

societies. Bom*lready faeea carried eatpareadiltarrnd2 *ix* cat ml Isfaaaiaaa*lo all POBAAT prtaery onlt*. 3

ma aiiiiii1*Tiiii I -

Initiated which virtually enamelled partiolp&tloa by aeabaxs of th* riMiail Air aad thaalaaJtraining waa aad* coapniaorr for all DOOAAf saaebere. * lladtad lafneaavtloa an ahoads varfar* wa* flrat rcleeasd la opaa pafellcatlone. According to aa aaaomaaaaaatt lesuol after bq aaaaajaj plenary acaaionh* provialca of modern *lrralalag for tha antir* population waadaVprloolty anal* Civil dof aaa* *atlvlty laachadhigh larel5* aaaa tha aaad for laprovad civil dafaaaa va*publicly tay ac-rlat lasdcia *nd training wa* instituted for defftoa* against stead* and ssertarlolnglcal

can-lra* th* f oa civil a* well aa tha raedjuataaata to-ard thaf air dafaaaa. aVaaparlaa lafagece bar* raportad *xt aaat Taly oa friary eunkar and gallery trpsonstructed la that eoontry*ritish rial nun raportad that nev cxtccaloa* of ta* ttaftcow snhvsj continoe to be built at great depth for no eppsrant raaaon other thanor clTil defenaa. Rev saavala, fHas,l*lon broadcasts oa nuclear civil dsfaaa* aaojwct* appeared daring Coaplation of th* initial atosdc dafcnis training program of tha Soviet population wa* announcwl. lltseaajh It is doaotfal that all cltiiena has* asea ladacArlnatad uadar tha procrea, tralnlag ha* probably bean widespread la DOAAAT, la th* CoBamlet party andadn*trls*. IO suppleaant tha enrtlex air aad cbeadoal defense coare* and th* atomic dafenae course, every cltlaen ofH over l6 yeare of aa* la to rocalrcoura of Instructionev mure* In air defease. Including atosdc, bacteriological and chad col (AE) defense. BOch training ls to be eoapletods* cities byad la th* rcaolnlng cities noday tbs end After an ahf shout alx year* nenticsv af civil defease (MPVO) afflaa* aad paracjoalltlaa base teanpaarad la th* popular psoas. Organisation and tralalag or national aaard-type'Civll defensa troopa ha* tasaa place la Poland, Hungary, and Ciachoalnrmkla sad It la therefor* probatal* thatR has taken alallsr Polish offioers war* reportedly eedno trained for thia type operetioo at th* Lenlngrwd MPTO school -hlch further reflects th* parallel oetare of Soviet and 9at*Uita progrnas.

At lceat two other import net Scriet davclnpaapta7 hare civil defense lapllontloaa although thev vere -mnounoed to be prlaarlly forecononic, or social retaone. "the partial daocatre.ilintlon oftinnd gov*rnaeotol control ln thc USSR aay Iaprove dvll defense orrcr.nl wtlon and operations by peredtting better Integration of civil defence Croup* at thc local level. The second development is the doclaloa to construct

a ring highway around towo- ad to construct by-peoa talaccgaajBleatlcaai Untt around certain ssjar cities. Bina teleccaeuaieetlaaetrsnayort rowtea aroand aejor eitiee tore definite passive defenee

Soae fire conclusions and others which border on speculation any he draws fron 3oviet preparation* for civil defcnae. 7craaoet among the fira conclusions ie that tbe leader* of the USSR hereidespread and preeuMblr cosily effort to develop elTil defena* in tbe Soviet Sloe, whether the Initiation of this effort la Inspired by actual fear of attack fron the Vest oroviet Intention to initiate war cannot be dateralnsd. Is either event, the widespread sad developing oivil defense system improves ths defensive posture, of the BSSX and the European Satellites. The soviet ' willingness to devote greet effort end considerable suns of saner te elril defense is shewn by the training of mtlUfms of people endidespread prograa of shelter contraction. This effort Is feclUtated by central pi inning, direction, und financing of construction, and by ccnpuleory aa-rollaent and training of personnel.

Ihe sccuod fire conclusion itoot Soviet civil defease is that until it was *pp-*rently directed againstth high explosive* ratber than -lit ntoaic weapons. At the preaant tl&e, both the atoalc and biological aspects of civil defense ere being accented, 'ibe general population, however, still aant roly oa relatively light Xocel shelters. Sea* heavy shelters hsve undoubtedly been prepv-jed, but thee* ere not believed to be adecuute for more thun selected central eleaanta of the gCTtrewnt. Ihe fi.ct that evacuation

or disperse! of the general population has not been publicly aeationed in the

U3SR is not conclusive evidencelansthis line ore not being prepared. If the USSR rtdopted e, policy of evacuation, the civil defease staff cloeely allied .ith the extensive nationvide police structure, would greatly facilitate ita execution. The Billions ofoabere, who have had military end civil defense training, would befor duty as auxiliary control pereonnel.

The structure nt civil defense in the European Satelliteseil as their civil defense training and related aeueures indict.tai thst tbe Soviet patters is being closely followed. progresseen made aloce

articularly In Bulgaria, Uung'-ry,hoalcv -Ait, and recently increased cl^il defenee activitypvrvct in Hd'.jid,nd Easti/.

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