Created: 12/1/1991

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MACEKV AHUVIIIOCttS Ol DtiCOVfJIY. If Is the on of obtaining knowledge through search, through irudy. and ThroughBut discovery Is not smooth andIt Is filled with peaks and valleys.s subject to (ah* turns and miraculous

The history of NPIC is. In many respects, tut* the process of discovery.1 to the present was trackedimeline, That line would nottralghlly drawn continuum. Instead, Ihe line would bend and curve, growing more pronounced with the passage ol time.

This year, NPIC celebratesh anniversary of National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID)urcharter. This occasiona unique opportunity to follow the NPIC timeline, as it moves past decades ondon Its way to Ihe future. The journey provides someImages.

Wc begin ol the'

: Cold War Concerns

The new decode startedote that was ai once hopeful and ominous. |ohn f. Kennedy had been elected President of the United States (the youngest man ever to win thatut the nation was reeling from the ihootdown of thepy plane piloted by Gary Fran-ds Powers. That incident exposed the entire phoioreconnalssance program to Internationaland further ignited Cold War tensions between Ihe US and its principal adversary, tht Soviei Union.

Cold War anxieties led to the formationpeclal |oint-servtce study, led by Lyman Klikpauuk (then CIA Inspectorhich Queued the strengths and weakneue* of the US Intelligence Community (IQ- The group Issued more thanpecificone of which called for the for-motionotional interpretation center.

On ISusl days before he was to leave office. President Nscnhower signed NSCIDhich effectively established fNPIC The new-NatlonOl-Cenler wai to remain under the administrativeof ihe CIA. andundahl would continue on as Director, with Colonelarker. USA. serving as Deputy. NPIC which hod grown outmallin the OA's Directorate of Intelligenceai toommon fadllty forpreliminary,nd third-phase exploitation.

Later that year, In another Important IC restructuring, the Depoiiment of Defense

- tor details onistory, set 'Con-venations With Tho Former Directorage 6.

(DoD) formally established the DefenseAgencyome of its personnel were assigned To NPIC and were integrated with OA personnel

For million! of2 will be remembered as the year the ITS and theUnion almost went to wot. Monthsoverage of Cubaoviet buildup of military equipment In mid-October. NPIC photc4nterpreters (Pis) Identified bothand Intermediate; range missile launch sites. NPIC Pis woiked around the dock to keep President Kennedy abreast of IheOnctober, President Kennedy

lockade of Cuba. The next day. approximately IS ships were turned bock and sea deliveries come to an end.photointelligence indicated that medium-range missiles and bombers, along with support equipment and personnel, had been removed. NPIC'* laudator)'was recognized by President Kennedy.

PIC moved Intof Ihe Washington Navy Yard. In November. President Kennedy wasIn Dallas, and NPIC participated In the analysis of the infamous Zapruder motion picture of the shooting.

PIC. like much of the nation, began to focus with greater Intensity on events In Southeast Asia particularly In the Gulf of Tonkin. By the middle of the decode, the detonation of Ihe first atomic bomb In China and Israel's Six-Day War alsoNPlC's attention.

NPIC Pis8 assessing rapidly unfolding International events in countries luch as Vietnam, the Soviei Union. Czechoslovakia, and North Korea Alsolhat year. NPICew group, the imagery Exploitation Croupevoted to second-phase exploitation It would grow to become NPICs largest component.

: Technology and Treaties

PIC eniered the high-Tech realm In several woys: among them: the first high-precision stereoco rape rotor was installed In, allowing for more detailed measurements.

Meanwhile. NPIC continued to focus on Vietnam. Laos, and Cambodia. Arms control issues also gained prominence, speaficaiiy in regard to Ihe Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)

undahl retired in |une, followingean of distinguishedand pioneering photointelligence efforu-He was replaced by Johnicks. In the same year, NPIC left the Dl to become an office In the Directorate of Science and Technology

Beyond organizational change, NPIC officers were faced with international change, as Salvador Allende's government was overthrown ln Chile,ietnam peace agreement was reached In Paris, and as Ihe October Woi raged in theEast After the conclusion of the Middle tost war, the peace agreement remained an area of

By ihe, steady Increases in the quality and quantity of photointelligence required NPIC Pis lo adopt new ways of doing business. Under Ihe direction of John Hicks, NPIC officersubtle change in role, evolving from Pis who provided quick 'reads' to Imagery analysts OAs) who became full participants in analytical exchanges across lhe Community.

Tht tnd of the Vietnam Wat generated national concern over the status of pOsoners of war and those missing In action: ot NPIC. It also generated concernifferent sort. Inhe US container ship Moyaguez was seizedambodianin the Gulf of Siam. President Gerald it-Ford ordered aerial reconnaissance ot" the area, and NPIC participated fully in tht riptoltanOn. After Navy and Marintthe Ma vaguer was recovered

he year of Mao Tse-Iung's death andatastrophic earthquake In China, NPIC itself was undergoing historicadre of analysts and support ptisonnel were transferred to an offsite location to form (he nucleus of the Priority Exploitation Group.

NPIC launched its Basic Imagery Analysis Schoolhe first doss consisted ofembers. Now known as the National Imagery Analysis Course (or NIAO. thehas grown in scope and. In the, gained academic accreditation.

In |uneutiedge P. 'Hop' Haz-rord replaced |ohn Hicks as EHredor of NPIC. Tht Hazzard era. like the Hicks and Lundahl

on page i

erasl. was marked by sweeping tech-notogKOl and pouocol change Hazzord wai foodaunting challenge: updating NPIC* exploitation technology tonew and highly advanced overhead lys-:ems. These eflom came to be known as the NPIC modernization program.

At the lame time, NPIC employees wete lullenng horn chronichree-story addition had seen planned. Hazzord recognised that ll would not be large enough to housepidh/ growing com noni infrastructure. With the support and funding of the US Army, he approved plans tou-story additionwas held

ew acronym had been added to NPIC lexicon: INS, which stood for the improved NPIC System. The INS represented NPlC's entryew frontier ofcapability.

Several ominous developments alio occurredhe Shah of Iran was over thrown. Americans were held hostage in the US Embassy in Tehran, and th* Soviets invaded Afghanistan These events stood as precursors ol the decade of terror ism.Muslim fundamentalism, and war that was to follow. NPIC studied eachclosely.

Bynd, NPIC analysts* tasked wiih reporting on activities related to the unratified SALT agreement

: New Mandates

The nation'sfotused on Tehran,o beheld But

: the con-bO

Salvador, Poland, Angola. Chad, andPresident Anwar Sadat was assassinated

By the, the NPICprogram had become the predominant item in thtew NPIC group, known as th* Development programs Groupas formed lo help direct th*Inh* Support Group was formed from what previously hadupport Staff.

Terrorism, either In the Third World. In Central America in Ireland, or in the Middle East dominated newspaper headlines during this tune. Arms control talks, both forarms and Intermedial*-range nuclear forces, consumed NPICsPIC appraisedIn Grenada, where US troops were deployed during Operation Urgent Fury.

M.l analyst ond manager and an economist bybecome NPlC's fourth director,Hap Hauard. Under Huftstutler'sthe Center expeiltnced dramatic 'growth spurts' In lermi of technology ond people. By ;une, the addition toad been complete

To US* NPIC resources more eflecttveiy. Huffstuuer divided the unwieldy Operations Support Group into two separate groups: th* Exploitation Support Group, which would manage pioduction. processing, and mensuration services; ond the Operations and Engineering Group, which wouldand support computer opeiooons.

he modernization programramatic milestone' initial switchoverowerful new Unisyscomputer Throughout. NPIC benefited from further rechnorogxai enhancements (set "Tht March of.

While these advances continued ot NPIC terrorist attacks continued abroad, and


reirrrdo/'iuthanicat cafcuurci tax been ouuflpprd in iprrd ant peribrmance tw today'; high-poweredet In Wes. these de (Hop tools went essentia! Ibr pnofointe-prtratio-i

On ihe Brink

Ovtrttad magn of Cuba In October IM2Puttyxkadteen efened info rne nation't memory. Their images also Oft on lAdeliWeVWCi nlifory.

real such as Libya and Lebanonntelligence resources.eriod, these vents poled in comparison to ihe tragedy .nd devastation of the Chernobyl nuclear lisastcr. NPIC aided In Community onolyslsthese events.

ew NPIC group, the National jtploltarton Laboratory, was formed to serveommunity resource for developing and esting emerging exploitation technologies.

Hostilities In the Middle tost and arms ontTol negotiations continueds LM. Huffstutler was reassigned anduocco took over the directorship. With th* tuocco administration came renewed mphasis on product evaluation, enhanced ujtomer service, and career development. ,oteew NPIC component, the magery Studies Group, was formed. In Jecember. Pan Amell from the ky overer-

he year ot th* Tiananmendemonstrations, th* NoOOoal Center *as an active analytical player in Opera non uit Cause in Panama. In addition to provld-ng vigilant analysis of th* Soviet Union's vlthdrawal from Afghanistan. Arms control ontimied to be big business, ai NPICboth the strategic arms andarmed forces treaties. At year's end, th* world watched as the Berlinhe two Germonyj were reunl-

: New World Order

As the new decade started, the National Center, Ilk* much of the federal government, began to feel Ihe squeeze offter yean of growth,and Investment, th* modernization program was broughtuccessful close, and DPC was disbanded.

Efforts to strengthen the workingbetween NPIC and its DoOstood the Center in good stead by the endhen Iraq's Invosion of Kuwait made US military involvement in the Middle last all but inevitable From' the start, NPICtrong supporting role.

Frank fiuocco left NPIC Inust days after tbe US went to war with Iraq. When Leo Hazkwood. NPICsam* on board in mid-February,he National Center opera ling at intensity. After Desert Storm's successfulthe Center received letters offrom President George Bush,

Norman Schwarzkopf, and the Dvpuly Director of Central Intelligence Richard Kerr. Eleven NPIC components received meritorious unit citations; NPIColnt Notional IntelligenceUnit Citation, and moremployees wcelved commemorative awards.

The passing year has been on* ofglobal change. The new world order in the Middle tust Is still unclear, as Is the state of th* Soviet Union following an abortive coup attempt In August. Th* situation Isnebulous In other pans of the world, from Eastern Europe to Haiti, from Liberia to Pakistan.

Although mte(national developmentscoming years will b* far fromthis much remains true: tbewomen of NPIC will continue toto

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Conversations With Two Former Directors

Arthur C. Lundahl...

the farting Director of the National Mtxegrophr Interpretation Ctnter. His

with prMctraeittgence dotes bock to daytraduate student In geology at Vie University of Chicago, where He became Intrigued with lhe wealth of information that could be derived from aerial photography. After serving In the US Navyhotographic inielli-genet officer during World War II, he left active duty and lotted the Naval Photographic Intelh-genet Cenirr He came to3 toa photointelligence component ond remained with NPK

NPIC'i roots can be traced back2 and an entity known as Ihe PhotoDivisionhich was under the former Office of Research ond Report* (ORR) In ihe Directorate or Intelligencean you describe those early day*?

Before PID, mere was no photolnterpreta-tWn withiname to OAn responseequest by Dt Otto Guthe. who woi tht associate director of ORR. Dr. Guthe askedould be willing io helpIA photointelltgentt activity. This question was not entirely unexpected From1 toad given several gueston photointelligence at OA Bui when Dr. Guthe askedittleold. 'Whoave to fightetnd he sold. "Noe dont have anything establishedsktd. "Well, what dots CIA know oboutIA agretd that it knew nothing, bur (hat ll had been Impressed by strategic bombing survey reports, which showed that between BO andercent of all US strategic Intelligence In World War (WW) II came from oenal phc-togiophy. and that it had been very

Th* OA waseryhtP, andtemporary structurei. locatedth* Watergate. Thty wert old and dirty.uilding housed the Dl and ORR.nlvtd. there was no place for me. no office, no equipment. Inidn'tid havt som* wry good people, however As soon as Otto Gulh* got my nam* on -he dottedom* of hisavy awoclates. like Norman Beckett Zlg-mund Lenchert Alice. Gardner, and others, had arrived to take positions within PID. We hadeople divided into lwo groups: geographic and Industrial.

My first |ob was tolace for my people io work, gtt ihtm equipped, and elbow our way into the OA hierarchy. At th*A was deeply involved in anin Guatemala and of course had no overhead photography, but we hodphotography from which critical target*

Arthur C. lundahl

"Our youthfulness, our excellent performance, and our world supporteally great Impression."

could be Identified and located Thus, there was no time to become slowly oriented, because we were coiled upon to that tluhgs would change.

Th* PID eventually evolved Into. How did this come about?

PIC began to take shape at endn*as told ihut [DO] Allen DuIIm's secretary was on th* phone and wonted to talk to me. This surprised me. The wtll-mcaning lady oa the other tnd said, *Mt. lundahl. you're relieved of all of your duties- Report to th* Director'i officeIuilding eight stepsack ond ran io DulleVs office.ot upas Introduced to Dulles and Richard BisselL who was Special Aoisiam for Project Control for th* DO. They pulledrape and showed m* picture* of th*as toldanted m* to forego my other dunes and commit myself fulI-HIt toircraft missions.

newouldn't letcollapse behind mt, btcatist we hadcoming to the door of PID every day.old my deputy, Sid Slallings, that the DO had put meery Importantandxpected him to manage the Rote Foe allaced back and forth across thtand and takerawled under tht aircraft with Kelly lohnscnesigner] and Dick

Bissell Whenever! got back toould hurry to PID and get familiar with who: was going on.

I soonould need many mora people,ent to the Office of Centraland told Dr. Jamiehedliector, what wasold him the high command wanted mt io takef his people and put them In myDr. Andrews, to his credit said, -itn sure this must be tht most important project that OA has going at thisin gnt youeople,ssure you they'll be th* best people I'vendwere That!icked up Dlno Bruglom BUI Ban-field. Alan Mayer, and on and on. Ihey were fine people who knew how to hondlt data and had longwith library resourcM at CIA. ORR was to come up with someeople, includinglready had

As our division got bigger, w* hod toworking-area.* looking aroundoctory environment, where w* could receive allWeot of different places, until finally we got hold of tht Steuarton 5thtreets. NW. Theagency owned the lowei lint* floors, and lhe upper four floors were unoccupied. OA rented them.

Our slit now was approaching office levell it would be logical to callhotographic inlerprttation ctnrtr. The Office of Security had som* reservations about that,ame up with th* words "HThy did we call It that?easoned lhat as all the data flowed in,would be coming In on weekends,and in the middle of Ih*like the automats in New York city where people art eating turkey dinners.

as permitted to brtef the Army. Navy, and Air Force on what wt wertent after tht Armyot several Army ehl.fiand laid outsked if they wanted In on Itertainly did. Th* Army came up witheople and almoil S2 million. The Navyore modest bid; they alreadyad helped build,o sendmallve group. Th* Air Force treated rt alliserable dream, because reconnaissance had always been their llf*blood. Th* Air Fare* thought that if they mad* athty would b* agreeing thot OAight Io do this. So thty onlyouple of lloison officers over.

Confirmed' an pope 8




he fourth Director ofNMC.areerOfficer and current Deputy Director-ufOliO'i ot

hoi'dsocheksr'i andegrees in ecornonlei from (he-Cnivemrr of California at Bertefey. ffli Initial asflgamenl or CIA wai as an economic analyst;e was transferredmall task forte working on the 'missilehat was his Introduction to military tnteUujence and to phototntelBgence, From that time on. he servedumber of analytical and managerialhe Directorate cf Measpenc*4 he come to SMQe accepted hisposition

Vou came to NPICision of what we,otional Center, could be. Will you describe that vision?

NPIC stands at the heart of the Imagery business. It Is wonderfully posllloned to advise on customer needs, as well as exploitation opportunities, by virtue of its rolenmary Intelligence producer, lis wide contacts with Intelligence andcomponents, and Its bioad dealings with Industry NPIC has the talent, the depth, and the outlook toriticalto the nation's security.

How did you view NPIC prior to coming on board as Director, and what new orInsights did you gain while you were here?

1 was familiar with NPIC the substantive Center, arrivingod from many yearsa|oras surprised and Impressed by the scope and complexity of the many activities that moke the substantive product possible 'asking activities, data-base designs, mensuration support, library assets, film quality control, informationnew terminal procurements, analyst training, toew, oil had to beto create the product. Thisaunting task What made It fun was the enthusiasm and dedication of-my colleagues Ot the Center.

Your tenure as Director has beena period of significant growth for NPIC. Indeed, several "metamorphoses* occurred under your direction; among them: the interalflcation of NPIC*programiring surge. How do you believe these events shaped the National Center?

The modem nation programajor impact on the Imagery community as well as on NPIC The modernization was soso complex, and so expensive, that no other organization had the resources or.

"NPIC and imagery made arms control possible."

more Important, the skilled people to deal with it. The result was that NPIC was thrustosition of prominence and called upon to provide leadership for the entire community. Not only were regularscheduled to update community imagery managers on programmatic and technical developments, bul organized efforts were made to represent thHr Interests In design and program requirements. One of the earliest efforts was toight table mensuration system which could be used os an affordable, stand-alone capability for recoanDistance centers as well as large exploitation centers. Such efforts eventually led to the creation of the Notional txpioita-aon Laboratoryervice o( common

The explosive growth of NPIC posedissues.ery stablesuddenly expands, the established, informal communications and careeronment are disrupted. People became apprehensive when their expectations are jeopardized To deal with this situation, senior managers spentearand implementing the NPIC personnel system, ihe purpose of which was to help employees understand how (heirIs measured, and thus, to achieve some control over their careers. Manyof thii effort remain, such as oftslte meetings ex Port Deposit, whkh were part of the Implementation plan for the newsystem, and the rotation program, which so Jar has produced two Agencyeputy from the NPIC career

If you were to summarize your time at NPIC, what would you cite os the one or two defining events?

Tbe proliferation of mobile missiles and the growing arsenal of precision-guided weapons would get my vote. The mobileforced us to think differently about how we targeted collection, reported, integrated sources and methods, and designed data bases. The need for more flexible collection management arose In large measure from the challenges posed by this development

The increasing reliance onweapons necessitated more fine-grained imagery analysis. The difficulty ol tracking mobile missiles, as well os the awesome potential ol precision-guided weapon*on the basis of Imagery, wereIn the recent Gulf conflict,

Vou have been gone from NPIC for several years now. What lasting Impressions remain with you? Do any of theseInfluence your work as Deputy Director for Administration*

My strongest impression olfwho could overcome chaos and odverslty to do Important work. Theime whenas in shambles, the neighborhood looked like Beirut ramluar ADP systems were being replaced by new hardware and software that had not been stabilized, and demands lot work threatened to swamps as an extraordinarily difficult year. Nonetheless, people rose lo ihe challenges, and6 it was clear we would succeed. This periodasting lesson in how much people can achieve.he basis for my confidence that we in the Agency will successfully manage out way through the challenge* ofshrinking resources, and changingdemands toital andorganization during the next decade

What do you view as NPIC's ma|otto national security and toover the pastears?

NPIC and Imagery made armsWithout this high degree ofin the military status of ono agreement would haveachievable. Moreover,contributedubstantially newstrategic stability. The manythai might have Initiatedthe military exercises that mightinterpreted as invasions, even thethat were discerned to be limitedhave sparked hostilities involvingStates had NPIC not been availablethem uielieve NPICproud of Its contributions to peace asto the nation's

lundahl ronlinutd from pug*

PIC hod lome degree of mllliorywhy woieedational photographic interpretation center?

Based on myasto the idea of national photointerpreta-tionad been In British centers, where Army, Navy and Air Force people work side by side, Even In my own Navy command in Adok In the Aleutians, we had Navy, Army, and Army Air Forces working together Weechnique that thew-the preponderance of evl-dence would be the basil of the report, and minority views oe contrary InterpretoUons would be footnoted.

e were essennallyational center butharter. We had groups and llolsons from Army, Navy, and Air Force, as well as standby groups horn NSA and the State Department, all functioning under Automatathe.ed them together and said, "ThisIA flefdom. ThUotional octlvity. With eachifferent one of you will be the missionell, Army and Navy went back to their commands and sold, "You know, CIA Is not fooling. They are actually running this thingationalinally, the Air Fore* ogreed toepre-sentuuve group In the building

0o-liralegan io happen., after four years of veryoperations, was shot down0 Following the; Ugence panel was; Kirkpatnck. the number-three man ot CIA.ear, the rjrkpatrtck Commission stud-led the whole intelligence structure ol the United States andumber ofrecommendations In their flnol report. One was toational center. That resulted in NSCID [National Security Council Intelligence Directive) B. Now, NPICharter which fully covered all we hod been doing and gave us even moie authority with the unified ond specified commands.

What factors compelled Presidentto sign NSCIDnd why did he elect to keep NPIC under the CIA?

Thisery interesting story recorded no where else. When President Elsenhower was considering whether to sign NSCIDhe Air Force questioned who should be empowered lo runebate began at the USBoard, and the Air Force felt that this was the time to put the National Center bock under Ihe control of the rnilltary. The Army said that CIA hadreat Job running NPIC and should continue to run it The Navy agreed. The Air Force said lhat the loint Chiefs ol Stall should run It, with the Air Force serving as executive agent. After four abortive sessions, the question remained divided.

The problem finally was raised to the NSC Army again said that the CIA should continue to run It. Novy said maybe NPIC should be run by the military, and Its vote disappeared. And the Air Force made Its appeal again. Elsenhower, who had beento the debate, turned to his science adviser. Dr. George Klstlakowsky, and asked his opinion. George said. "Well. Mr.I've been over to the Steuart Buildingike what they do. They'reoverage agehey're Intelligent; ande well when I've been over there. This field I* to new. so esoteric and so complex, that I'd like to see these young spe-oalisu grow and stay withilitaryusually cannot confine'hit careerto in

interruptions in something as importantumulative OS I

"Having military and CIA personnel together was the essential element of the loint center."

Dienhower thought about it aad turned to Allen Dulles and laid. 'Allen, this is going to be yours. You ore going to control NPIC" Allen Dulles than ltd him for the honor,as not toA fiefdom. Iltary the opportunity toa deputy to the Center Another panel was convened, chaired by General Gravesarine Corps four-star general, to listen to the bids as lo who should have the first deputy director. Army's bid was very strong- They had been In from the earliest, supported It the heaviest, and svere the most vocol supporteis al present. Navy had abid. The Air Force bid was almost too weak to mention Ersklne decided that Army would provide the first deputy director, then It would rotate among the three services-

Our youthfulnets; our excellentour world support io the unified and specified commands; and the way wcvbitofs and provided services hodeally great Impression. That's how the folio came to ui

Why was It Importam that NPIC be Jointly staffed by CIA and DIAf

Having military and CIA personnel together was Ihe essential element Inoint center. In the early days, before the sophisticated overflight programs, photography would be exploited by Air Force, Navy, and Army, and you could getdifferent lepons on certain subjects. It left the person at the topuandary over who was right In this particular Instance. Well the president didn't have time to sort these things out so It was essential that we sort out the views. And It was easier to do that when OIA and CIA representatives, as well as State Department and NSAwere together in one building.

NPIC'S first "home" was the SteuartTell us abou! those days

The Sleuarl Building was not the finest building in the world. There was no place to eol, no place to park, no air condinoning. and our people were getting mugged on the streets even before It wasuess tbe best thing you could say Is thathad wonderful security cover, because I'm sure rsobody would ever believe that anything of any importance to the United States could be taking place in this trashy neighborhood. But we were there, and that's where the Cuban photography arrived.

When Ihe Navy would come to Steuart to receive Its allotment of film, it wouldehicle to pick up the materials ond an armed detochrnenl to block off the sidewalk. Here were sailors with machine gunson either side of the building entrance, as film cans ond boxes were being moved out. Il had the natives of the area wondering what we did. I'm sure they were convinced we were pnr.nng money, because there was nothing else in this world important enough to have earned an armed detachment

Thetile crisis2 servedefining event for NPIC Which moments of the crisis stand out most In your mind?

Thisreat period. People who had never heard of us now knew that there washing as NPIC. Our popularity loomed off the icale. Many Interesting things happened during those early days to bring NPIC great credit. Forent with IDCf) John McCone to brief Congress os to how we discovered the sites in Cuba-how soon we discovered them, and if we could have discovered them sooner. There were some who thought we could have detected the rounle* earlier, so we prepared briefing boards showing the sites near Sanew days before Octoberew days after. Based on these, the committeesthat in some cases, if see had looked at the siteew days earlier, we would have concluded there was nothinghuckled to myself when Senator Stennis from Mississippi, In his Inimitable Sourhem accent, said, "Wellish we could put this whole thing In the Congresslonaf Accord and show how we were right on the money.hink Mr. McConereat round of credit for being right on top of thishishole wove ofspeeches from other senators, eachMr McConeob well done.

After thatent back to the Building, and Mr. McCone followed shortly after me. The auditorium was filledeported what had happened in


Congress. Then, Mr. McCone arrived and ihanked Ihe group for iheir performance ond said thai the NPIC materials had helped save thexplained to Mr. McCone lhat NPIC people would rather have some small role in the malting of historyeat on the SO-yard line watching It be made by someone else. That proved to be true over and over again. Some of these moments were very hard to forget because Ihey were full of meaning and glory for so many people.

"NPIC was the place to be in those. the biggest, best, and most exciting game in town."

Of course, there were embarrassinghink my most embarrassing moment at NPIC occurred at the start of the the Cuban missile crlsts. When photography was processed, many duplicate negatives and positives had to be sent to the variousInven as we were looking at the fateful pictures over San Cristobal, we had already begun distributing duplicate negatives of that same missionaval command in Norfolk. After wetheites and briefed Kennedy, he wanted lhe information completelyWell, we were worried about the set of negatives that had already been distributed to Norfolk. So, we got the people in Norfolk on the phone and lold them that the plots for the mission had lo be renumbered and some processing changes had to be made. We offered loourier Io pick up the Rim and toith the correct materialhort time. No one was alerted orond we got the film bock,ould truthfully tell President Kennedy iha! all the materials were in our hands. But you can imagineas worriedew hours!

Shortly after the crisis, NPIC movedew home. How did we acquire?

When John.McCone was OCI, he used to

- bring the President's Foreign Intelligence AdvisoryF1AB) over lo Steuart These gentlemen would arrive on SIholumn of limousines. The streets were dirty and wlnos were sleeping along the curbs. The PFIAB went back to President Kennedy and said, "Mr. President you've got to get those people out of there. They're working under foxholeo Kennedy called McCone and said, -John, what ore you doing about getting those people out of Ihe SteuartcCone was ready.e said, *We are workingew building for them in the naval gun factory.hall have them out of the

Steuart Building" They started working on2 andillion io redo it True to Mr. McCone's word, we moved into the Building

What was your reaction when you saw the finished building?

It seemedream come true.through the gates and seeingn Us whit* splendor, II almost looked like the Ta| Mahal. Sure, everything wasn't perfect, but il lookedalace toas soouldVt get over it.

A few days later. Mi. MtCone came to visit Hehrough the Building and was impressed. He looked at the marble walls in the lobby, and said, "Do you think that marbleoodeplied, "Tes, Mr.ainted wall has lo be repainfed1 every three or four years, but marble lasts. It's cost* shook his head,it and said. 'Well. Art you've gone from rags to riches. "

What events, both intelligence and nonln-telligence related, helped shape NPIC through the years?

There were far too many io describe In detail here,illew. For example, long before Cuba, we were quite concerned with the antecedents to the Suez crisis. We were aware of the change of deployment of French transport aircraft and of British aircraft and ships. We werelhat an amphibious operation was being set up, ond we were In the process of reporting that when the French and British Joint task force landed In Egypt That was suiprlslng, but we at the Center were not totally unprepared.

We helped the President In connection with the bomber, missile, and megatannage gaps. We proved in rapid succession that these gaps, as President Eisenhower would later explain, were mere myths fabricated by Premier Khrushchev.

We alsoretty secure feeling about where the Soviets were In their nuclear testing program, and this permitted theio be far more forceful than he might otherwise have been. When the showdown over Cuba came, ll was clear to President Kennedy that we had the preponderance of force necessary to win.

Another thing Ihal bothered usong time was the so-called Caspian SeaThis huge aircraft could haveery important logistic element in war. But for many years we wrestled with the ultimate disposition of thot nioiwtcr.

NPIC was ihe place to be in those days. If you didn't have ihesecuritygei into NPICrleOng, you were nothing In Washington. We were the biggest, the best, and lhe mast exdting gome In town.

As Director of NPIC, you came ln contact with several presidents and many key political figures. What do you recall of them and of their views of the value of photomtelllgence?

Over theid get to see monyleaders from many different countries and was privileged to present to them, with the blessing of the president NPIC-prepared briefing packages. Not the deed to the whole ranch, but certain specific subjects on certain areas al certain times.

I was privileged to brief Prime Minister Macmillan of England; General DeCaulle of France; Koorad Adenauer of West Germany; Nehru of India; Chiang Kai-shek of China; Menzles of Australia, and certain Turkish leaden. All these briefings met with success. Some world leaders were slighdy incredulous over what we showed them. Adenauer kept murmuring. "tabelhafl, fabelhaft [fabulous, fabulous]."

"Wherever thereig event, photography will be called for."

When Elsenhower was leaving office and wanted to make sure that President Kennedy understood the scope and the depth of our efforts, he arranged for me to brief them ai Ihe someome months later, when Kennedy was President and Elsenhower was back in Washingtonas again at the White House, briefing them both on our latest accomplishments. Dwlghinoi only had guts enough to start pre-hostjllty reconnaissance, but he kept track of It all during his administration and after he left public office. Even on his last days, when he was lying in Walter Reed Hospital, he made il known to pO] Richard Helms thai he would like to bt brought up to speed,riefed him at his bedside.

What advice could you otter to Imagery analysts of today?

My advice to young-women end'men al NPIC is to study, study, study ond read-whatever your specialty, read everything you can about it

1 also think that all Pis should be very familiar with geography, with weather, and with the ethnic properties of the various nations they study, because mony times the cultural attributes of the land con be readily mistakenilitary threat. Wt had great pioblems in China, where they built these enormous redoubts, apparently for anchor*

Confirmed an page 17

Threewo Homes

in; horn* woi net inur inn of th* city: Fifth. Nw. Ihe Photo in:tlligcnc* Division, th*vigjnliatlon to NPIC. moved into th* Steuart Motor Cor Compony Building6 and occupied the top foui (loon. Tht bottom three floors were used by th* car compony ond by theloffice. The Steuart Building was not exodly Trump Tower there wasrllatlon. no air conditioning, and no parking. The surrounding neighborhood wascrime ridden andrbough it was located across the streetolice station.

When NPIC moved totefinite step up in ihe world. In fact, the building was such on improvement that many NPICen called it "LundoWs Palace.-

s situated in theNavy Yard, an area rich with hiilory. Shipbuilding began ihere Ins th* US moved toward Impending war with Fiance As the Navy's home port. the area was rapidly 'tiled wilh wharves, warehouses, and refineries. By th* turn of the century,Navy Yard had taken on more of an industrialevolving Irom shipbuilding to ordnance manufacturing The arearowth spurt between World

h* Navy bulito store sieel blanks for guns By th*, all weoponi production had stepped, and the Yard was divided In two. One half was retained by the Navy; the other half, of which NPIC Is pan, was transrerred ioAdministrationctober

In the year* sine* NPIC look possessionmany changes and improvementsplace The building has beenfrom lop to bottom, and intory addition was constructed toropldly growing guardhousesewar* being constructed and the focod*

Within NPIC

office is relocating oaain?'

That phrase hastondard part of NPIC conversation over th* last several years, as work units relocate on an oll-too-frequrnt basis Almost without warning, Itan office moves from the first floor to th* third, or the fourth, or the sixth, in the face of near-constant movement, It Is nice to know lhat severalomponents have remained in the some locationh*DIA, th* auditorium, and theoffice.

For the pastears, the photolab, part of the Exploitallon Support Group ItSC'i. has been located on th* center wing of the second floor of. It has remained In place primarily for efficiency's sake: moving the lab's chemical "lonk farm* ond extensive system of pipes would be far too labor and cost Intensive.

Lock of movenient does not imply lock of change, however Until th*, the lab0 square feet of floors pace.2he lab was remodeled to acconi'.itaote the conversion from hand processing to automatedand tooorspae* (or NPIC's rapidly growlnj computer center.esult, the pholdab lost more thanercent of Its floonpoce, ending up with Its current total0 square feet. The bulky hand-processing equlprrurnt tookreat deal of space coo It was gone, the photolab becometreamlined andccording io Dav* Rough, its current chief.

(As the lob was renovated and the com-puter centerey building move occurred: the pnntshop, which had been located on th* second floor, was moved io the sixth floor; later, th*was moved once again, to Its current locution on th* first floor.)

DIA, like th* photolab,oved from Its original location. The fifth floor hus been 'home' to Army. Navy, and Air Fore* representatives

Theuditorium, on the north end of the sixth floor, has not been relocated for obvious reasons, but In the, It wasas temporary office space for the Imagery Exploitation Group.

The Director's office, located onwing of Ihe sixth floor, alsoIn place since theIhe area has beenrenovated Irom Dm* to tun*.th* office has nrver been relocaiedknown, bul some speculate Itlhat suite affords aof th*

Setting Sights on Career Development

elping individual! develop to their fullest potential has been part of the NPIC credo forears. Iothis, NPIC hasobustof careerprogram highlighted by

Career Service Panels

To ensure that NPICs personnel policies are administered equitably, NPIC adopted an innovative carter service panel (CSP) system In. NPIC currentlyenter-level pantl, which Is chaired by the Director ond oversees Center-wide policies andactions for CS-less; panels for each of the seven NPIC groups; and three secretarial panels, choired by NPlC's Ex*cu-tive Officer and by th* executive secretary to th* Director Tbe panels meet regularly to recommendssign com pa ratievaluation ratings, and approverotations, and some types of training.inority advocateomen's advocate were appointed as voting members to each panel.

he basic preceptsCsmanagement system were codlfed in both supervisors' and employees' handbook*orresponding version was published forn addition to containing basic personnel policies, the handbooks describe NPlCl career development philosophy and essential administrative Information. Th* handbooks were revised In thend are being revised again.


Vary few American colleges or universities prepare students to do the essential work of NPIC; Imagery analysis. To meetds for specialized |ob-skllls training, NPIC began its own "training school* in. Th* premier offeringasic Imagery analysis course, which was institutid

Little by little, the school grew in slzt,nd subject matter, and eventually tvolvtd into adivisionide-ranging curriculum. The National imagery Analysis Court* INIAQ, as It Is now known,ainstay of At division, but has grown considerably since Its "basic" days, ln the, the course gultitd academic accreditation. Onectmber,h NIAC class will gradual*

Other skills are developed, too. Probably the first course that any NPIC employee will take is the New Employees Orientation Course. Later, employees likely will take advantage of any of several computeroffered in house or dozens availableor through self-study. Advancedworkshops and briefing techniquesare fovorites among employees as well.

The in-house staff of instructors hasseveral highly innovative, unlque-to-NPIC programs. Among tht more progressive are the Ethics Awareness Seminar, theDevelopment Program, and tht Supervisory Counseling Course.

This is not to soy that NPIC employees never venture outsideorEmployees take advantage of thr many courses offered by tht OA's Office ofand Education, by other Intelligence Community organizations, by external con-tracton. and by colleges and

NPIC spoasors Severn! employees for full-time academic training each year. Ta expand the educational opportunitiesto ethnic minorities, the Center also sponsors between Hire* and five qualified minority employees each year for full-time undergraduate or graduate academic

In the future, training at NPIC will become even more responsne to the needshanging workforce. Currently, NPIC Is aggressively exploring training courses lhat focus on multicultural diversity.

Career Development Office

Former Director Frank Ruocco created an in-hous* Career Development office (CDO)fflte servesenter-wide resource for career exploration and|ob-related Issues; personalond grievance, discrimination, and ECO issues.

Rotationi and Reassignment*

Th* strongest workforceell-rounded workforce With this axiom in mind, NPIC management long has encouraged employ-ets to develop their carter potential and gain new insights by 'testing the waters" outside NPIC This is done largely through jWpflOPOl assignments, generally one or two yeon In length, which focus on strengthen-Ing existing skills and career potential or developing new skills critical to NPlC's mls-

' Sloh. Employees can apply for rotational assignments through the standard CIA vacancy nolle* system or through NPICs Career Development Call Th*held each February, enables employees to request specific reossignments within NPIC, within CIA. or elsewhere in the Intelligence

Employees seeking reassignmentirect transfer to another NPIC group or CIA office) also can gain assistance at NPIC through FWoniwi* Division and th* CDO.

Awards and Recognition

Tht names may soundEye. Search Ace, Feather In Your Cap, Soar With Eagles, lhe Order of thethe meaning is quite profound. These unique-io-NPIC honors. Initiated in th*n extraordinary performance or. In the case of the Order of tht Eagle, five extraordinary performances.

For fiscalirector Leo Hazle-wood has created four new awards to beannually: the Secretory of the Year Award, th* MulticulturalAward (for tbe pertOQ who has dour th* most to odvoncc this goal during th*heMentor Award (for exceptional skills and talents in thisnd theAward (for tht person whostbest exemplifies th* standards of excellence asiodaied with NPiCs firstThe awards will include moneyistinctive memento. The Lundahl Award winner. If assigned to. also will receive tht open parking space on NPICs "executive row- for thai year.

These programs and many othersNPlC's attention may bt focused onbul the Center hasn't forgotten

The March of Technology


racking NPiC'i tech no logical advancesit likea parade: your view depends on your seat In the reviewing stand. High "teenies" at NPIC Ore likely to believe that automated change comenail's pace, upgrade by upgrade. Low teenies (those who sflll gasp at the sightang terminal) might differ In theirfor them, the changes were lightning fast

whatever your view, this much is certain: technology has nor stood still. Toense of lust how sweeping the changes have been, consider some of the advances mode over the past three decade*


Al.WAC Hl-E: Uledhe Steuan Buiid-:ngater ;r.dlnahe ALWACiic^-oatch-prx-esi system, whichhat sp*fo:crsload dataata out in batches bu! could not alter the process one*. The cumbersome system worked on paper.iaj>-inpui ond output ondacuum-tube (vice magnetic) memory. Bui ever: the ALWAC was revolutionary: it was cne oi -Jie first digital computers In the Agency.

unen-card "lister" and required total-batchIt generated "blippaper printouts with up to seven carbon copies of historical data and blank data-entry forms. Photointerpreters (Pis) would enter the readouts, in forehand, on the entryata-entry operator would punch the data onto the cords. One sidenote: producing blip sheets fromook an entire weekend.he loteT generation model,NPIC on its move from the Steuart Building. It provided mensuration andprocessing and featured fourtape drivesytes of memory. One big advance: blip sheets could bein three to four hours with

: Like its forerunners, theintroducedotal-batch system, but this model0 words of memory ond was usedfor mensuration and later forprocessing.

hentroduced NPIC to the wonders of remote-botch processing, where computing could be controlled away from the central computer. Two terminals were used with: initially, thend later, the.* eachounds andloor fan to keep from the first online interactive terminal used by imagery analystsa limitedpaper-less branch" was formed In the Imagery ExploitationC> toodre ofto try their hand at automation.

: This senes of computers was addedemember Delta Data terminal* and Ugh' pens? ThenS, which made their NPIC

nline interactive teirninols become indispensable tools of the trade for NPICs lAs.

Unisys:ew online Interactive system appeared at NPIC. The Sun terminals were the next wave inand the first observable wave of NPICs modernization program. Cone was the light pen, replacedouse.

How far have we come? Today, NPICs world-class computing power emanates from twos'qnd: one. Together, these systemsillion bytes of memoryillion bytes of storage anday.

Light Tables and Optics

"Lightnd Scopes: inere asing light rx-xesiivsj


Old Of tin. New Options: Pocket-sired optics Hit those displayed above were once standard loots of Iht eipJoitarfoi trade. Thty have been itpkictd. InportbylDtX II, which offers push-burton owenrence, as

tf ESC (background) ondl

line*nd typically Is paired wilh theteteomlcroscope.

Soft'Copy Exploitation

DIM:ue from NASA, which applied digital technology to enhance images of the moon. NPIC tourneyed Into the realm of digital soft-copy imageat the beginning of, with the Digital Image Manipulation (DIM) system The DIM aLowed image scientists to enhance very small areas of digitized imagery.

IDIMS;PIC tookquantum leap forward with the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation Systemith greater computing powerider variety of algorithms, the IDIMSider range of Image-enhancement capabilities It has undergone numerous upgrades and remains In service today. Still, it was built for the -dentist, not the IA.

IISLM: The prototype to today's soft-copy systems, the Imagery Interpretation System-Engineeringr IISTM, wos Installed ot NPK in thend enabled analysts to manipulate digital dataV screen.

nd IDEX IA:fter aIISEM trial, the Image Data(IDEX) system was Installed ol NPIC. With IDEX I. the basic functions of DIM ond IDIMS, plus more sophisticated processing, could be done with the pushutton The IDEXew-and-improved IDEX station, wos activated

IDEX II: The long-awaited IDEX II became operational at NPIC early this year and provides lAs with many advancedWith the advent of IDEX II, theystem was phased out-Measurement

In days of yorepecialists who wanted to take measurements of an ob|ect on film wereHandheld photos were pinnedork floor and measurements were obtained byvanishing points on the floor.

We'veong way. Over the pott three decades, we've used the reticle on tube magnifiers, photo slide rules, stereocompura-tors (like the Nlstri. NRI, andhelnd, high-precision stereocomparator that weighedons and was set on bedrock; and digital stereo comparators. In, analysts were able to make measurements at their workstations through the light table mensuration system. Today, pbotogrem-metrtiu also use the Iniergraph system for measurements and evaluation.

Office Automation

Think back tar enough and you constill hear the poundinganualoffice tool ofn the space of three decades, those workhorses were replaced by electric typewriters; by IBM Selectric typewriters; by IBM Magnetic Card typewriters; and finally, by the Wang word processor.

'Makearbon copy ofhose were dreaded words If you ever battled a

paper smudge. Carbon copies eventual-ly were replaced byopying technique that used Infrared light and heat-sensitive paper. The result? Only the densest tones were copied. Today, we rely on user-friendly photocopiers.

Calculate this progression oftO-pound mechanical desk(retailing at0 In theeventually replaced by. which In tutnby more advanced (andhand calculators (about HO)computers often are used forTheiruch.


Over the course ofears, the cut-and-paste technique has, for the most part, been replaced by desktop publishing. At NPIC. the Graphics Production System, theIntergraph,EX. and the Autotcgk Phorors-pesenr: are used.

ttSGbthind Ihr

Modernizing Measunr/nmu; How do you gauge progress in tht men-surotlon business* loot, of ihr ie photos. The photo above snow* an old comparator, used during, ine photo belowigh-precision con fro' panel.

Time Flies:

'Veterans' Reflect on Three Decades at NPIC


ilrtycanerson. Il can jiveamily,ortgage. Thirty years, when spent In the same organization, also can giveense ofense of what it was

like 'to be there

Forpicturesque* car

So it Is with each of the employeesbelow. They came to NPIC1 (or earlier) with ditTerem goals and aptitudes. Each remains In the organization today, and eachpecial story to tell.

hasr. it ncs tSeen filled with

astounding photoouple of rogue operations, ond moremattering ot history.

Almost from the

career took on mstorlcc deputy division chief inmager;-ExploitationG).NPIC back1ourier wasole that he found himself having accesssome of the most noted figures of the ame.

ad the chance to dnve Mr. Lundahl to meetings and accompany him toemember back2 taking himriefing at the White House, where heere alone in the room with former President Elsenhower, President Kennedy, and Secretary of State Dean Rusk. On otherook him to meetings with General Maxwell Taylor, General Curtis LeMay. and Bobbye recalls.

a bit "overwhelmed" by the company fie kept, but recalls tho! he never felt out of place. "Art lundahl made you feel equal andmatter what you didiving,"

His exposure to photolnterpretatlon led him to change career fields. His career choice could not have comeore propitious time. Ins he was attending photointcrpretalion training ot the Naval Air intelligence Officers School in Anacostia. Maryland, Soviet offensive missiles were being detected in Cuba, and an international


NPIC phoiointerpreteii (Pis) m'training were called back to work at the Center on evenings and weekends.

uess you could saytarted my photolnterpietadon careeras thrown righte recalls. The Cuban crisis continued for months) training, and the IEG the crisis the best supplernental training he could have received. "We'

for days without going home, but we never tired of It because we knew we were doing something important Ihe nation was on the brink of nuclear war, and everything we did at NPIC was ciucial to whet the President and the million- did."

Desp.teeophyteot feei intimidated. "There was

e . '

. . ; .

camaraaerie could no" hove beent.

er-tens vitsusffne.-isr.;p) during lhalhai nave lasted all ihU date '

ii, ai the posicuis coveragerrr ti.


nbeis 'Ane 'ti: iimgig step up from the ancen: Steuart Suilc'tog !r. Steuart. we were jammed intocrkrd in an office with seven people and five desks! The last two people in to work every day hud to go look Tor workspaces somesvbeie else. When we moved into NPIC. we occupied onlyercent of Ihe building. These were big. brand nesv work areas."

(workedrom a

four-month tour in Miami to covering Israel's Six-Day War.e left the light table toeputy branch chief. Later In, heotational assignment In the Directorate of Intelligence's former Office of Strategic Researchorking as abetween OSR, the Office of Imageryand NPIC; he ran the Basic imagery Analysis School8nd he servedeputy division chief al theExploitation Group.


worth of changesTTTHTOTu^ie biggest Is'Computersajor part of the imageryJ work now.I,didn't have computers, we had "blipbinders with computer printouts full ofhe blip books were keptentral location, and the PI would have to leave the light table, get the book, and read through it to find his or her target. And everything the PI did was"Now, you Just use the keyboord ol your workstation to coll up everything you need."

The visual tools of tnechanged radically, as wen -leanot exploitation was doneowei tubeens lhat you -orehain around your neck Vou placedr, lapthe film and you put your eye upo your eye was almost on top cl thee explains. "We generally-inch upright light table. Theynches) was cut down the middle, and one person looked at the left side, another ot the right. The difference between light tobies then and now Is like ihe differenceorsche "

perspective hoi

served the Center well in countless crises me years and ine most recent


was no exceptioneputy division chiefea; tOsilayed ai;c* port it. forcing IcG's PersfcrCulfas glad lo be in the middle ofTimshat this jobll aboutA hepesork something like thaiareer, i'v* beenave had several such assignrnenB,"

that many employees

jtiv it npiC fcr the chance tois-"cni cantribuaon. "There Is great excitementis joy. It is just plain exciting to discover things that will make history. Theew find Is what keeps you going."

I arrived at NPIC during the

long, hot summere come to the Steuart Building to work In the photolab. In those days, the lab hadmall staff, and the photoocncxallstj, os they are known, wei* responsible for handling, delivering, and processing film.

legm. Oncewas soldonce been sorry nerTThe NPIC Is the most Incrediblytoivingane are fortunate. We canwe ha*edifference ourWe watched the Sovietsiles off the coast of Florida,am convinced that they went hometails between their legs because

The muscle-flexing mat| ppeoks of Is more widely known as the Cuban missileThis Incident of international brinkman-ship began to unfoldearnured on duty. Despite the passage ot nme. he remembers the crisis well ond reflects upon il often.

"It wasoubt Ihe most memo-table event of my career, and It was one of the most significant emotional events of mye declares. In his current position as NPICs briefing officer, he has grownto retelling the story to countless tour groups and visitors.

Long, Hot Days

From2 throughembers of the small NPIC cadre worked 'everithly to stay on top of the slluutlon. 'We were closeted In the Steuart Building,hour days, seveneek, -nth no time off.'| Mvidty recalls that he working environment leftit toesired. 'The Steuart Building was Cod-awful hot and humid It had poor vennio-tfon and you couldn't open the windows. The photolab literally stunk from the chemi-:als.v

Despite theperhaps feceuM of theby the Cuban ensis. the men and women of NPIC


nbuedlining sense of mission, vcalls "We never felt driven to put in hours, we always felt itatter rf choice. Most of us wouldn't have gone iomf even if someone hod told us It was >kay to do so. NPIC was where we wanted to >e. We believed we held the mission logeih-rr. Here wesmall, ill-defined, rag-ag team able to provide the President with he intelligence necessary ta stop nuclear fcstrucaon."

The NPIC veteran credits NPICs founding lirector, Art Lundahl, with Invoking thede corps. "Mr. Lundahlhining 'xomple of professionalism. He was the rulntessennol role model.*

Over the years.lhas had ample ipportunity to observe' inner international levelopments. Two historic episodes stand tut In hii mind: the North Korean seizure of he USS Pueblo6 and the Iraqi rocket rttock oa the USS StorkWhen tbe "uebio was seized by North Koreans, lnfor-notion existed that might have kept the :rew from being captured and brutalized, >ut the wrong military response was used.

The incident taught me that no matter how good the intelligence, the political and/or military response must be right and It must

the Pueblo failure with the episode. "After the Stark was hit by Iraqi missiles andailors died, mwlligenee helped the ship make its way through the dangerous Strait of Hormuz back ta home port In Florida. It proved to me that Intelll-gence can work when It Is usedweded addmonal proof, he receivedear ago- He wasroup from the Notional War College andthe Stark incident, when one of the audience members raised his hand andhimselformer Stark crew member. 'He talked for about two hours about theHe recounted the whole experience and his emotions at the time, and it was clear he credited the ship's sofe return to Intelli-geoo*.'

I [happily considers himself an NPICsears, he never once worked outsideevenrief rotational assignment. And he has no plans to leave the Center now, with retirement justear away. But he voices no regret about his career choice. "There Is no doubt in my mindade tbe right decision In slaying here. This Is the place to be."

Several current-day employeesfor NPIC before there was onis the cose

Chief of the Operatrorrrrunu engineering Group, She entered on duty in DecemberNPIC was simply PICInterpretationhe arrivedegree in rnathematks. eager to work nr. ir.atr. models and photoineasurements

an organization that was >rent from the NPIC of today. Although sheomputer programmer, her first assignment predated modern automation. She worked In the hot and cramped PIC computer room on the sixth floor of Ihe Steuart Building. Her computer was the ALWAC Ill-E, an ancient model that operatedacuum-tube system with paper-tape input and output. The ALWAC was notable for Its unwieldy size andneed of ad hoctor producing the measurements used In the Cuban missile crisis.

The early days were challenging in other ways as welL "The Steuart Building wasough neighborhood,as always auneasy. We were right across the streetolice station, and oneome to work and found that shots hod been fired right through the windows of the ilxlh-floor computer room!"

Tumultuous Times

In Mayust arrival,iloted by Gary

shot down over the Soviet Union, etfectlvely blowing the lid off the reconnaissance"We were all terribly upset, because now it was certain the Russians knew oboutrogram. We didn't know whether or notissions wouldhe missions did continue, as did PICs growth and responsibilities. Lessear later. National Security Councilas signed and the National Center was bom. Buthe new National Center would be plungedrtneal test of fortitude- the Cuban missile crisis.

The crisisrofound impact"We text such pride as an organiza-

" Hon We had accomplished something that no other organization couldhod confirmed that the missiles In Cuba were offensive, rather thanhe says. "Thathrilling time, because we were charting new territory. There was plenty of room for creativity, because there were no established rules oiere was just an importanl Job to do, and anybody would do anything that needed doing, for as many hours as required. We didn't have |ob descriptions bock then"

lhe years that followed the Cuban missile crisis were troublesomehole and tor CIA careerists In particular.ere rough for me ondot offficers We felt w* were special for having been selected to work lor the CIA and w* were proud of what we were doing, but ot the same time thereremendous ann-CIA backlash In sodety. We couldn't defend our organization or correct misperceptlons; we could only stand back and listen toremarks "

In the middle of that turbulent decode,ivotal professionalhe stopped developing com< puter programs andection chief. Itransition that came without"One day my boss Justnd said. 'You are going to be trie section chief for 18

Continued on

Time Tito continual fom page

peopleere Uxusked him. Whatnd hi sold. 'Actad taken no management training courses,ouldew things, make some mistakes, ond leam (remhe recalls

[learned well and progressed thrCugrl rrtf managerialbranch chief all the way to group chief. She was the first NPIC woman lo rise above the branch-chief level atact that carried with it advantages and disadvantages. 'Growing up in thisad no female role model* oridn't think of it as being difficult at the time,idn't know differently. But lookinghink It was more difficulthexpec-laaons were different back then, and thereopular belief that managementaleasegree in mathechnicallso think It wasfor me to move uheadorked in computerield so new that there

were no long-held Traditions" .


rofound change In the roles of women in Ihe worklorce. "Women were accepted In positions ol authority much more easily, and they had more options forIheir Comities and work bfe.nthe first woman at NPIC to be uiuinoted to the sensor Intelligence service (SIS) ranks. *At the time, there were lessozen SIS women in the entire Agency. Now. there are BO. lhat increase is very gratifying" In addition to workforce olso hat observed many leehno' changes. "There hashenomenal change In technology In this wganlzalion Backe envisioned lAs doing tier own computing and measurements right at their workstations. That vision was not accomplished until the modernizationofIot longer than we thought it would,m still cislounaVd by all the technological changes that have takenhe says

Ihey worked togemer in ij, calculoung math mod*

Bias not stayed firmly planted at Nf'lt ror use pastears. She spent three years on the Directorate of Science ond(OSecT) staff and two years on the Inspector General's staff But she always intended to return to NPIC. "This place and this work gets in yourhe enthuses. "NPICery speclllc contribution to make. And this organization has been good to me It's givenot of opportunities to grow and to develop, and I'veot of good friends.'

ihe Sreuon o

els on the venerable ALWAC computers Bergey talned the Agencyorking os

shares something in common Ihey worked together in

a cartographerocation near Foggy lot-

:cm; he Joined NPIC1 to work in pho-


shares some colorful

memories or trie Steuart Building. "Itrummy neighborhood andealproblem. Wc would park on the street, and every couple of hours we had to go move our cars to make sure they weren'tear never was.)

One afternooneady to goI eiiieieu medoutJrcheek the measurement of aan extra couple of hours tolOO'done and didn't think muchit Days later, he discovered thathappened to be of alanded on PresidentThatto the

Cuban missile crisis and to high-stakes

Massive Measurements

The weeks that followed brought longhour shifts,assive number

of measurements, Through itense ofany never fell afraid or threatened by Ihe prospect ofI was hut too dumb to feel that way. Itusy am* and you just did your job'

Although It is not apparent from hislivedtimes In photolnterpretaUonHe remembers only too well the firstsaw photographs taken by. "Iby how much territoryYou would kokhip on therealli* haw small It was andas flying.-still recallsake off. "It went onlydistance on th* runway onddegree angle. Then it wasot sight Thai was something to seehe ontnessed the takeoff of th*

Advances In reconnaissance systems have paralleled advances "Iwork area.

"We moved fromriachlnes to punch-card computers to electronicWhen we moved tood to team the Univochole new system That was the beginning ofhe learning process BM never stopped foil"Now ', amhow to program ine Macintosh personal computer lot small-utility mensuration

Wish odvanced systems earn* an intrust of new peopleew work environment. 'It used to benewercent of Ihehere; now, I'm luckynow fiveAnd I'm the oldest guy in my division It givesather complex,uess it keeps mee quips

pas never felt compelled to look for anm Opportunities outside NPICike working* there was no place els*ould do this type cf work Plus the people are great Theyt about mission and ihey areoood*

Inears, has he ever beenthere are days when my )oback with itikehe says 'Around here, il isjust to keep up with the' am alwaysew system. Iplugging along


NPIC can boast of having several "founding*who have been with the organization1 (or longer) and who remain active among our ranks. In odd!Bon to the tour employees featured In "Tune Files*,plus club Includes;

Two former Army officers, who were assigned to NPIClso have stayed on board all these years:

This information wos supplied primarily

Amdahl continued from.

ng defensive lines. II seemededieval new.

We must be careful. We have been troin-ng our Pis all these years to learn what the itale of technologysay in nuclear jases ailrusion plants. We know what Ihey look like in the US or in England. Bui in Irao, and some Middle Eastern countries, they use techniques that had been tried, perfected, and rejected by Ihe U5 many years ago. Therefore, it is very difficult to find elements of these nuclear programs, because we're thinking In terms ofh century.

We are going to have to pay particular attention to the animosity between India and Pakistan; to North Korea; to Libya; to the other sleeping giant. Syria; as well as to Iran, Iraq,ozen or mote countries. We alio must pay close attention to rapidlySoviet provinces. Will they have their own weapon systems? Will they have their own communications systems, their own KGB? We cannot make any implicitabout these new provinces.

"Photography is the only thing we've come up with that stops time. Literally."

Given the rapid changes in technology and In the world itself, does photointelligence retain its Importance? What Is the true value of the photographic image?

There is no question thatwill continue to be extremelyln the future. Wherever thereig event photography will be calledould predict more demands on photography for economic purposes. Not just to determine the status of crops and the Infiostrocture, but to tell something about Ihe mdustrtal base. And we've got many other places to study into the Soviet Union, irs clear now that the "hot wars" in the0 and beyond will transpire into very big economic wars.

In the overall concern about theof the environment, photography will help us decide what Is happening.must help in woild disasterfires, earthquakes, chemical or nuclearIt also willrime mover ln helping people recover.

Photography Is the only thing we've come up with that stops time. Literally. You can take thin or thick slices of tune and lay them before you. magnify them, measure them, enhance them, and do many other things. Photography pierces barriers tothings that are too far away, too small or too large, too fast or too slow. And at NPIC, we're always reachingyneigistic effort, where the total Is greater than the sum of the parts.

It is my Impression and convictionwill continue to grow ineffective leadership and Ihededication of the kind of peoplehad for Ihe pastears. We'velong way, and we've compiled a

NPICs Living Museum

government office space goes, the reception area outside theistinctly personal feel to It. Notably absent Is the customary Irolttu. tlonalgroy-on-beige look. Instead, those who enter the room find an inviting suite decorated in muted shades of plum. But the auditorium anteroom provides mote than color and comfort. It alsoront-row view of history.

The Lundahl Room, as it Is known, houses Ihe medals, medallions, andthat highlight the career ofundahl, NPlC's founding Director. The room Is somethinguseum, but II Is not an off-limits archive. Instead, iteeting-and-greeling area for scores of employees and visitors who come to lhe auditorium nearly every day of the week.

Most visitors are drawn to the softly lit display cose that houses the impressive artifacts of Lundahl's career. Inside, neatly displayed, is Lundahl's emblem ofIn the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire; NPICs first Director was knighted4 by Her Royal Highness Queen Elizabeth ll. Also on displayational Security Medal, awarded to the former Director3 by President Richard M. Nixon; the Pioneer In Space Award, presented5 by President Ronald W.istinguishedMedal from CIA; on Exceptional Service Medal from DIA; and an award from the Defense MapplrTzTATJcWyCenter. In addition to medals, the display case also contains photographs Oncluding an autographed photo of Kelly

[ohnson,esigner)liver calendar, designed by Tiffany's,ihe critical days of the2 Cuban missile crisis. President [ohn F. Kennedy hadf these ealen-dors made and presented them to his closest advisers; Lundahl was among them.

Amidst the array of colorfulawards, and medals,easilyote, signed bywhich states simply:were made Io my name,truly represent honors paidndnotableI am proud to havefor




I. President Eisenhower,ix.8 divisions.he top floors of tht Steuart Uotor Cor Company, Sthtreets, NW. S. On average. NPIC hostsfficial visitors each year.eorge Bush visited PEG as Wee President. No President has vMfed while in officetonare /erf.eOO-sauare-foot annex.quare feet.shere0 pounds, onrtck Question: Iht exact number is unknown, bia then Is more than enough cable to go from here to Moscow ande've hadix: Dulles, McCone, Helms, Turner. Casey, ondhe rtrs! floor.he devotee shaft tut ride hai no remaining eietow components, so ll isriginally this WainveiWWator was used by VS Geological Survey for access ta their sixth-Hoar offices. It remained after iheir departure, but the elevator short was modified to servetorage area. The emergency egress stafrwov from the sixth floor and lhe rcofsMI remorm. as writ. IS., but the num.he fifth floor, home to both ITACmdeven9 CM0 pounds of sfoer. or an8t lostllsoflterthHtio')Mng figure'and tht count changess ofthe last SIS promotionn0 meals)

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historic pUaMmss

fa ihi pai iuchainbeen newswoithy fot many icosons, os these headlines hem The New York Junei

arewell Address Sees Threai to Liberties In Vast Delcnse Machine Iflfit Dominicanunia. Kalae! Rodriguez Echavarna OuiiedS Favor* Sea Missiles. Not Land, to Shield ltal>anama Imposes Complete Break: US Aides Depart

on Plans S6 New Projects to Fsghl Poverty at the Costpproved" by Congress lit* McNamara toore Men for Cheaigon Proposes Talks With Hanoi to Extend Truce

Johnson's6 Billion. He Wants Cold Reserve Freed. Seeks an Assurance by

rance ProposesN Envoys Meet on Mideast. Diplomats leel Suggestion Brings Purl* Closer to US and SovielH: Air Pollution Is Following Population to the Suburbs

rmy Spied0 Civiliansear Operation. (Information0 American civilians, mainly those who opposed the Vietnam War, reportedly was fed into Army files.]

u)lb Orders Guerrillas to Give Up All Weapons. Sheik MuJIbur Rahman Ads to Halt Disorder Among the Bengalis

I97i: Thleu Reported to be Obfectingey Issues. Snogs Sold to Include POWs and Truce Supervision But Not Broad Outlines of Accord

gypt and Israel Reach Accord on Separation ol Cunalact to Open Suez is Reported IMS: Peking Prepares New Constitution

: Lebanese Planes Attack Leftists and Palestinians. Intervention by the Military In Mosl ens-Christian Strife. Amy Accused byllmorc Is Executed After Stay is Upset; "Let's" He Said; firing SquadYear Halt In Deathrs Experts Dispute ICarter) Administration, Doubt World Oil Shortage

arter Issues Plea to Khomeini to Give Iranhance, Ayatollah Urges Backets to Press, lightrms Sales to Co on, President Says Monitoring of Soviet Missiles Will Remuln Adequate

S Plan* Embargo on Iran on Its Own as Allies Shun Idea, Europeans Cite Trade Laws, Soviet Intervention In Afghanistan limit Steps Against Teheran'

ran and US Seek to Clarify Terms for Freeing Hostages; Banks Agree to Compromise, Debt Called an Issue, lawsuits May be Dropped if Some Overdue Loans are Repaid at Once

Mercury Sinks toeason's Low in New York City, Century's Wont Cold Persists

nes President is Urged to Press Japanese for Freer Trade. Industry and Union Chiefs Give Views to Reagan on Eve of Talks Withong Kong Plan Detailed by China, Aide Says Time Is Ripe' foe an Accord on Colony's Future

IMS: "Right to Die* Rule In Terminal Cases Widened In Jersey. State's High Court Acts, Declares All Steps tootlenrs Life, Including Feeding, Can be Halted

1MB- Tank Battle Puts Lebanese Nearer to Full Civil War, Moslems Fight Gemayel Militias Attempt Advance on Christian President's Town

IBB J: Inquiry Into NSC Uncovering Little About Iran Deals, Whltr Mouse Puncl Described as Lacking Access lo Key People and Documents

IBM: New Election Held by Haiti Leaders; Vote Appears Low, Boycoll is Widespread, Many Irregularities are Seen

uker Asserts US Should Not "Rush" In Aiding Moscow, Favors Gorbachev Ploiis, Secretary-Designate Oulllncss Goals In Foreign Policy

19DII: Greater Reliance on Foreign Oil Feared ai US Output Tumbles, Production Decline Last Year was largest Ever

raqis Fire Missiles at Small Israeli Cities After Second Day of Allied Bombing; US Discourages an Israeli

How Do You Think NPIC Will Change Over the Nextears?

the nextears, we won't beat film anymore; we'll be looking at television sets. There won't be any film left."

"Inears there will be no need to separate PEG, 1SG, and NPIC The Center will merge these groups and runhourschedule."

"Speaking strictlyupport Group [SO] point ofee SG growing with the needs of NPIC"

will move into an era of near-total, computer-aided, Interactive (voice,nd imagery exploitation with neor-Instantaneous dissemination.*

"DoO will take charge of NPICitoO building, NPIC willond you'llomanLeo's

"As long as NPIC remainselieve we will evolve into an even more diverse organization than we are today, with our major emphasis placed on ecomonic, environmental, and military issues."

will be moreocus onand economic issues."

"People will be dying to come herenext few years. Because of theof the Poles ond the movement ofNPIC will probably becomeof ecological studies-"

elieve that NPIC will have moved from this building and that there willuch more diverse workforce."

"We'llifferentmulticolored patchwork of employees ond more minorities Inesult of the current multicultural push. The general workforce will become morentellectually,and racially. With theOt tbe wuterfront,s going to be thr place In the Agency toll those five-star restaurants!"

"It [NPIC] will be much smaller, due to downsizing ond the world being less

"Well, we won't be moving to WestIn thathink we will redirect intelligence issue* to focus more on what was lhe USSR, not less because of the breakup. In terms of the workforce, women will gam the majority at NPIC by the nextears"

"PEG management will change hands"

"There will be moreand all the Imagery will bedisk. The cans and flat Imagerylonger exist/

"Well be out of this Building inoears. NPIC under DoO management will be more modestore limited charter than it has now."

ould like to think that there willchanges at NPICeallythat much will change. Oh, welikely be using new computersexploiting everything In soft copy,are superflclal changes. NPICbe involved with providingto policymakers much as weThe big bad bear may be athen, but somebody else will step upchallenge." ,

"We'll have hod more buildingnew carpets In the main hall. Well all be livln' in the wilds of West Virginia. We'll either still be fighting the Soviet Union or will hove made themt state, over the District! We stilt won't hove any parking (even in West Virginia) and IEG will haveimes!"

for the better."

think we will become moreand fewer people will be doing ihe work."

hink the changes will be dramatic In #the technical arena, but In many other ways things will remain the same.will still be looking at Imagery and will be resolving issues of vital importance to the nation, the same as they didears ago."

"When you loj^ouhc-changeshe lastears and factor in the recent dramatic geopolitical changes andexplosion, it makes It difficult, if not impossible, to predict change.r, some things will remain constant:


-exploitation qtvtsioti alien gna we will still be at.


tHLV IM IKE MOBf*NCnapanese warplanes descended upon Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, allocking the US Pacific Fleet. When the attack wos over, moreives had been lost. The devastating raid traumatized the nation, and, In the words of lapanese General Tojo. "awakened the great sleepingecember, the US declared war on [apan.

"Pearl Hoibor day" truly did live on In inlamy. When Presidentook office, he expressed gravethat "gaps" In Intelligence estimates could leave the United States vulnerable again. And, based on his World War IIhe professed the belief that aerlo reconnaissance could servealuabl source of warning against surprise attack His convlnctlon in the value of photolntelli gence ltd the CIA tohoto Intell: gence Division, the predecessor to the moc em-day NPIC.

The rest, as they say, is


he Communications Resources Staff wishes io acknowledge lhe following individuals and components who helped compile this special publico;


And all Hit impioyeej, monogeis, ond "alumni" wholieto be interviewed or to provide Ideas or photos for Ihese pages.

Original document.

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