USSR AND THE BALTIC STATES: LEADING ECONOMIC PLAYERS

Created: 12/1/1991

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USSR and the Baltic States: Leading Economic Players

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE IN9

USSR and the Baltic States: Leading Economic Players

USSR and Ihe Bailie Slates: Leading Economic Players

Inform/Moo available as of li1 wai "ltd In tkii report.

Inlrodactlan

Leading Soviel and Baltic officials foe economic, financial, banking, and foreign trade policy arein this Reference Aid, The following key ia used to reflect ihc stance of each official in the spectrum of economic reform:

Radical reformer.

(Ml Moderate reformer.

Cautious reformer.

USSR and eh* Baltic States: Leading Economic Players

Tfce Bailie Suits

Estonia

Prime Minister (sincedgar Savisaar (R/

(Phonetic: SAHvccsahr)

eader of Estonia's foremost nationalist politicalSavisaartrong proponentarket economy. He favors returning most agricultural farmland to private ownership and advocates privatization in the service sector before turning to heavy industry Savisaar hasaried career as an academic, government official, and nationalist leader. He was born

Minister of Economics (sinceaak Ltimama (R)

(Phonetic: LAYmun)

Lcimanney role in developing and implementing the government's reform plans and has consistently supported radical market reform. He has been one of Ihc leading cab.ncl officials involved in economic negotiaijons with Moscow.and in! he was named Estonians observer on ihc central government's inicrim committee io manage the Sovietormer economic adviser to Premier Savisaar. Lcimann was an academic and consultant before taking up his current post. He was born1

Minister of Finance (sinceein Miller (R) (Phonetic: MEEIcr)

A career bureaucrat in the Finance Ministry. Miller is developing an independent financial system while advocating that Estonia retain close trade ties to the USSR. He is working to balance the state budget by eliminating agricultural, energy, and housing subsidies. He is alsothe creationustoms system. Inseveral other cabinetnnounced the creationew, probusincss political parly. Miller was born

Chief, Department of Foreign Economic Relations (sinceehis Pilv (R) (Phonetic: peelv)

The first republic foreign trade chief to have been appointed independent of Moscow's central ministry. Pilv has led his department in significantly outpacing the other Baltic stales in joint-ventureey player ineparate banking and currency system in Estonia, he is lobbying the West for technical assistance and for membership in international economic organizations. An economist, he was previously the deputy chairman of Estonia's state planning committee. Pilv was born

President, Bank of Estonia (sinceum Ratios (R)

(Phonetic: KAHLIas)

leading nationalist who has spent much of his career inworkingion.i's control over the local banking industry. He has pledged toational currency byoping lu back the currency partially with the gold that was frozen in European accounts after the Red Army occupied Estoniae has been deputy editorocal newspaper and has headed the official trade-union Organization. Kailas born8

I .aIiia

Prime Minister (sincean Godmamis (R)

(Phonetic: GOHDmanis)

Godmania strongly supports the establishment of an independent market economy. Me has overseen the creation of Latvia's fiscal and budgetary system and is heading an ad hoc committee responsible for introducing Latvia's own currency He plans to deregulate most prices, and he is implementing an ambr.ious privatization and land reformormer academic, Godmanis has risen rapidly through the ranks of the nationalist Latvian People's FrontFI and led the LPF parliamentary faction before his most recent appointment. He was born1

Minister of Economic Reform (sincemis Kalnins(R)

(Phonetic: KAHLnmsh)

Kalnins has been in the forefront of nationalist demands for economic independence and has been one of the leading government architects for economicnetime deputy prime minister for economics, he hasrominent role in economic negotiations both in Western Europe and in Moscow. Heormer ecademk and has had close working lies io Prime Minister Godmims, bothember of the Latvian People's Front andovernment official. Kalnins was born.

Minister of Finance (sincelmmit SHims (Rf

(Phonetic: SIHIinsht

ongtime Ministryance appaiatchik. has spearheaded ihc effort to create annctal and budgetary system. Since1 he has been one of ibe leading Latvian government official who have been involved in economic talks with the USSR. He was born

Minister of Foreign Trade (sincedgars Zmusajers IH.

(Phonetic: zaooSYEyevst

Zausajcvs's Ministry was formed in1overnment reorganization that merged the Department for Foreign Economicthe Domestic Trade Ministry, and the Material Resources Ministry (which Zausajcvs had headede has held senior posts in an electronics firm. Zausajcvs was born5

President. Banktvia (sinceinari Repse (Ri

(Phonetic: REPshch)

Repseoderately reformist course.ress conference shortly after taking office, he promised to work closely with Soviet banking institutions and proposed replacing the rubleivia's own currencyhysicist and computer designer turned parliamentarian. Repse was one of the first nationalists to openly call for secession from the li SSR Me was born

Lithuania

Prime Minister (sinceediminas Vagnorius (R) (Phonetic: VAHGnorius)

Vagnonus advocatesarket economy. Despite his concern that price reform might destabilize society, in1 he moved to liberalize prices on most consumer goods. He supports gradual rates of privatization and plans to retain state conirol over the energy,and communicationsormer academic, Vagnorius had servedeputy in the Lithuanian parliament before taking up his current post. He was born

Minister of Economics (sincelbtnas Simenas

(Phonetic: shcMYEHnas)

Simenas heads the leading economic policymaking and planning agency in the cabinet. He says that historiiy is economic stabilization: his economic reform agenda concentrates on privatization of housing and price liberalization. Simenas had served ah premier for three days in1 but was replaced after disappearing mysteriouslyilitaryormer legislator, heocal planning official innd an academic inimenas was born

Minister of Finance (sincelvira Janina-Kunericiene (M/ (Phonetic: kooNEHviichyenych)

Kunevicicne is responsible for the stai- budget and for developing an independent fiscal system. She was criticized in the local press in1 for allegedly manipulating figures to present an artificially balanced budget.

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Minister of International Economic Relations (sinceytenis Aleskaitis (R) (Phonetic: alcshKAItis)

is responsible not only for foreign trade but also for coordinating government policy on international economicmade his top priority getting the new Ministry operational. He seeks Western technical assistance on privatization methods and on how to develop his Ministry along Western lines. Aleskaitis is an economistormer interpreter. He was born

President, Bank of Lithuania (sinceilius Baldisis <R) (Phonetic: BAHLdishis)

Baldisis is working lo restructure the Lithuanian banking industry along Western lines. An early, vocal advocateeparate currency, he recently announced that Lithuania would issue its ownpossibly as earlye hopes to make the currency convertible by backing ii wilh commodities produced for export and by repossessing the gold reserves that have been frozen in Western accountsike Premier Vagnorius, Baldisisormer academic and served for several months in the legislature before his appointment to his Current post. He was born

Soviel Union

Central Government

The Committee for lhe Operational Management of (he Sotlet Economy was established by President Mikhail Gorbachev on1 to replace tbe USSR Cabinet of Ministers. It coordinates policy with senior economic officials in the republics.

Chairman (sincevan Silayer (R)

(Phonetic: sceLYEyelT)

Formerly Russian Republic premier.orking to transform the central governmentody that will only coordinate policy among the republics. While trying io broker an economic union treaty, he has plans to reduce the central government toandful of agencies, dismissing up0 employees and devolving most economic decision making to tbe republics. Silayev is committed to economic reform and hasorceful advocate of private property, entreprcneurship. and the breaking up of the old collective farm system. Heureaucrat who hat spent most of his career in the central government and defense industry, and he has longtime career ties to RSFSR President Boris Ycl'lsin. Silayev was born

Deputy Chairman (sinceuriy Luzhkov (R) (Phonetic: LOOZHkuffi

Luzhkov holds the portfolio that includes agriculture, foreign and domestic trade, and the social sector. He has been one of the key Soviet officialsWestern food ud and interrepublic food agreements. Luzhkov backs raped privatization of small businesses and freeing prices on several consumer items, and be has called for sharp cuts in the military budget in order to reduce theormer midlcvcl manager of RAD programs for the chemical industry. he is concurrently vice mayor of Moscow and has held senior posts in ihe Moscow city governmentuzhkov was born

airman (sincei,"R, (Phonetic: VOHLikee)

also heads the Scientific-Industrial Union, the USSR's preeminent industrialthe civilian and defensetransportation, and communications sectors. Although he supports transforming the countryestern-oriented market economy, Vol'skiy proposes lhat reform be implemented gradually toollapse in productionharp increase in unemployment. He is also helping toew defense industry conversionorbachev protege and former Communist Party apparatchik, he had served as economic adviser io former Soviet leaders Yuriy Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko. Vol'skiy was born

Deputy Chairman (sincerigoriy Yavlimikiy (R)

(Phonetic yahvLF.Enskcc)

ell-known proreform economist, is the central government's architect for market reform and for development of an inlerrcpublic economic treaty. He has taken ihe lead in meeting with Westernofficials and financial experts to discuss financial aid and foreign debt repayment. Ynvlimkiy believes that economic reform must beand swift, und he has long endorsed private property, price reform, and economicormer academic who has held various posts in the central and Russian Republic governments, Yavlinskiyoauthor ofays reform plane was born

Slavic Republics

Russia

Deputy Premier; Minister of Economics and Financeegor (iaydar (R)

(Phonetic; GUYdaht)

Gaydar was the principal drafter of the accelerated reform plan outlined by Russian President lloris Yeltsin in1 Gaydat has pushed for tax reform, quick decontrol ol most prices, and libera Nation of foreign trade. As deputy premier, he overseesconomic policy ministries and state committees, including those for energy and privatization, as well as his own agency. During the, Gaydar was economics editor of Kommunist and then of Pravda, in0 he became director of theof Economic Policy Gjydar wfl, born6

>

Deputy Premier; Minister of Labor (sinceleksandr Shokhin (R)

(Phonetic: SHOHkeen)

Shokhin has primary responsibility forocial safety net to cushion the population from economic decline and stabilization policies. He has said that the government will be able to onlynotstandards and will be able to give financial aid to only the poorest strata. He favors providing aid in kind, such as food and clothing, to supplement financial support. An economist. Shokhin served in the union Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an adviser to then Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze during the; Shokhin subsequently became chief of the Ministry's International Economic Relations Administration. He has been Russian labor minister sincehokhin was born

Chairman, State Committee for the Management of State Property (sincenatoliy Chubeys (R) {Phonetic: CHOObais)

Chubays heads one of the two bodies thai are responsible for the privatizationormer academic, he had earlier spearheaded privatization in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) and had served as an economics adviser to the city's mayor. Anatoliy Sobchak. Chubays was born

Chairman, Foreign Economic Relations Committee; First Deputy Foreign Minister (sinceOT Avert (R) (Phonetic: AYven)

Avenew committee lhatormer ministry and i% subordinate to the ministry of foreign affairs. His portfolio includes foreign debt management and negotiations with olher republics on deblAven worked at an Austrian-based institute from at Icasl0 until taking up his current post, lie was born

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Representative for Foreign Technical Assistance (sinceonstartiin Kagalovskiy (R) (Phonetic: kahgahLOHVskcc)

A proponent of radical reform, Kagalovskiy wrote favorably of Polish "shock therapy" shortly after its introduction. He met wilh UK Prime Minister John Major in London during ihe1 coup attempt as an adviser to President Boris Ycl'tsin. and he met with other senior Russian government officials in October on economic reform strategy. Kagalovskiyormer academic. He was born

Chairman, Central Bank of Russia (sinceeorgiy Malyukhin (M) (Phonetic: matYOOKhccn)

Malyukhin has taken the lead in the development of an independent monetary and credit system in Russia. Since receiving his appointment he has demanded that the USSR Slate Bank's hold over the Russian economy be sharply limited, and he has called for the creationanking union with other Soviet republics in which his bank wouldominant role. Matyukhin endorses market reform and has granted favorable credits to privateGB officer during, Maiyukhin was an academic specializing in Western market economics for much of the following iwo decades. He was born

Chairman, Foreign Trade Bank of Russia (Rostneshtorgbank. RVTBI (Sincealeriy Telegin (Rj (Phonetic: tclYF.Hgccn)

Telegin is working to establish RVTB as the leading inter national financial and lending agency in Russia. His hank was Createdounterweight to the central government's Bank for Foreign Economic Activitynclcgin proposed that RVTB oversee all hard currency operations lor Russia, manage lhe republic's "Old and hard currency reserves, and service Russia's portion of Ihc USSR debt. Tclegin has Spent most of his career in international finance and foreign trade, and he has been posted to the United States and to the United Kingdom. He was born

B>clarus

Prime Minister (sinceyacheslav Kebich <M) (Phonetic: KYEHbcctch)

Kebichautious approach to economic reform and autonomy. Although he has voiced support for privatizing small enlerprises and attracting foreign investors, inebich stated that he objected to "fleecing the stale and fellow citizens under the guise of thend he now backs proposals to redistribute profits earned by firms to keep them from setting high prices He likewise advocates remaining wilhin an economic union of republics, and he has so far supported only limited measures to boost bis republic's economicormer engineer and directorachine-building plant. Kebich has servedcries of posts in the local Communist Partyhe local government. He was born

First Deputy Prime Minister (sinceikhail Myasnikovich (Rj

(Phonetic: myasnccKOHvcclch)

Myasnikovichrominent role in formulating the government's economic reform plans, In the spring1 he proposed thai the republic's industry be privatized by granting payment vouchers to lhe population. He favors government support for small business and antimon-opoly regulation to promote the commercialormer engineer, he has held posts in the local government and in the Communist Party over the last several years Myasnikovich was born

Chairman, Stale Committee for roieiga Economic Relations (sinceladimi, Radkevich (R)

(Phonetic: radKYEHvectchj

Radkevich has signed an economic cooperation agreement with Poland and has negotiated one with South Korc.i. An engineer, he has visiled the Uniled Slates al least twice,l- L'S manufacturers. Radkevich was born

Olher Leading Economic Officials

Deputy Primeril

(Phonetic: bred)

Minister of Finance Stepan Yanchuk

(Phonetic: yanCHOOK)

President. National Bank Siiinnluu Bagdankevich

(Phonetic: bahgDAHNkevcelch)

Ukraine

Prime Ministeritol'd Fokin (M) (Phonetic: FOHkeen)

Fokin isautious approach to economic independence and reform. Despite pledges toeparate currency2emand to central authorities to divide the USSR debt, he stated in1 that "nobody car. prosper in isolation" and defended Ukraine's membership in an economic union. He supports privatizing the service sector and light industry and transforming some state and collective farms into joint stockor etc: manager in the coal industry. Fokin rose rapidly through ihc tanks of ihe Ukrainian bureaucracy and eventually chaired ihc republic's planning agency. He was born

State Minister for Economies isincenaioliy Minchcnko (C,

(Phonetic MEENchcnkoh)

The leading economic planning olftcial of ihc republic. Minchcnkoorceful advocate of economic independence for Ukraine. In1 he called for the central government io hand over conirol of hard currency transactions to the republics and to di*:dc the foreign debt. However, declaring that there is nosboci;inchcnko backsradual approach to maikcl reform He has slated that privatization should be limited to small businesses ird the serviceormer mechanical engineer and plant manager, he has held senior posts in the Ukrainian government. He wai born

Minister of Foreign Economic Relations (sincealeriy Krarthmko (M)

(Phonetic: KRAVcbcnkoh)

Along wilh senior republic leaders. Kravchenko launched Ukraine's efforts to expand economic relations with the West by visiting Canada and the United Slate* ine has subsequently traveled to Israel and Paris. An economist and graduate of the Academy of Foreign Trade in Moscow. Kravchenko represented the central government's foreign trade minisiry in Moscow and its office in Kiev before transferring to his current post. He was born

State Minister for Properly Issues and Entrepreneurship (sincenovyy (R) (Phonetic: lahnOllvcc)

An ardenl advocate of radical market reform. Lanovoyy is charged with overseeing privatization and development of market regulatory slructures. In an interview inecheme in which at leastercent of all state properly would be privatizedpecial voucher system. Although Lanovoyy suppons economic independence, be has stressed that market reform -not nationalismtake priority in formulating economic policy and stated thai any new currency should be convertible to facilitate irade *iih ihc West. Lanovoyyrofessional economist, and heoccer star in his youth. He was born2

Chairman, Economic Reform Commission. Supreme Council (legislature! (since at leastolodymyr Rylypchu* <Rj (Phonetic: peelcepCHOOK)

A promincnl member or the nationalist umbrella group Rukh. Pylypchuk directs his efforts lowaid achieving an independent marketormer academic, he hasonglimc and vocal advocaic of an independent fiscal and monetary systemeparate currency, although he admits that the latter will probably have to waitylypchuk also supports moving quickly on privatization; in! hehai the government transferercent of all stale property io the populace at very low pnees and provide laxmall business owners. Pylypchuk was born

Chairman of Ihe Board, National Bank {sinceolodymyr Matviyenko (R) (Phonetic: malvccYENkoh)

A strong proponent of economic independence, Matviyenko decries the central government's control over the republic's credit and monetary syslem, and he advocates that Ukraine immediately establish its own banking systemeparate, convertible currency. Criticized in recent months for foot-dragging inew currency, he has2 "reusable coupons"emporary, parallel currency. Matviyenkoareer banking official who has held local and republic-level posts. He was bornS.

Other Leading Economic Officials

Minister of Finance Grigoriy Pevtaehenko (Phonetic: pevtahCHENkoh)

Chairman, Bank for Foreign Economic Activity Valentin Terpilo (Phonetic: IcrPEEloh)

Caucasus and Moldova

Armenia

Premier (sinceagik Arutyunyan (R) (Phonetic: ahrootyoonYAHN)

lose associate of President Lcvon Tcr-Pcirosyan, hasrominent role in promoting economic reform. While deputy chairman of the legislaturee helped pass several decrees for privatizing the republic's agricultural land. Arutyunyan also supports increased Westerr. nivotir.cnt andormer economist and academic, he held Senior pests in the Communist Party during much ofnd was republic Vic: Presidentonth before taking up his latest appointment. Arutyunyan was born

I.:

First Deputy Premier (sincerant Bagratyan (R)

(Phonetic: bagraiYAHN)

Bagralynn. the leading economic planner of the republic,lrong supporter of market reform.1 he oversaw the privatization of most of Armenia's agricultural land. Bagratyan has stated, however, lhat many largethose that could fold because they operate at aremain under state control for the lime being loharp increase in uncmplo) ment.agratyan. an economist, helped prepareays reform plan. He was born

Minister of Foreign Economic Relations (sincetsayi Stepanyan (R)

(Phonetic: siepanYAHN)

Stepanyan has cultivated direct contact with the Armenian emigrein order to stimulate foreign investment. He visited lhe United Slates in1 and soliciicd joint-venture investment, primarily from the Armenian business community. In1 he attended the inaugural meeting of an Armenian businessmen's association that was held in Yerevan Stepanyan subsequently announced (he association's financial backing ofoint Armenian-Luxembourg bank with starting capital of0 million, lo modernize Armenian industry. He has participated in negotiations wilh Turkey and Australia. He was bom

Other Leading Economic Official

Minister of Finance Dzhanik Dzhanoyan (Phonetic: janoyYAHN)

Azerbaijan

Prime Minister (sinceasan Hasanor (C) (Phonetic: haSAHnuff)

Rather than pushing for economic reform, Hasanov has emphasized short-term economic remedies, such as boosting the production of consumer goods and providing jobs for refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh. He is working to attract foreign investment by ihc West and is seekingin the Economic Cooperation Organization, whose members are Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. Hasanovormer apparatchik who has spent most of his career in posts in the Communist Parly and in localHe was born0

Other Leading Economic Officials

Deputy Prime Minister; Chairman. State Committee for Economic Affairs and Planning Rakhim Huseynov (Phonetic: hooSAYnulT)

Minister of Finance Badir Kataycr

(Phonetic: JeaRYEycff)

Georgia

Acting Prime Minister (sinceissarion Gugushvili (C) (Phonetic: googooshVEElec)

Gugushvili has focused on strengthening his republic's economicand on implementing austerity measures. In1 he banned the export of most industrial products from Georgia, and in October he stated lhatustoms system was one of his government's priorities. Gugushvili has proposed that work breaks and nightly television broadcasts be reduced as cost-cuttingormer academic, he has served as deputy minister of culture. Gugushvili was born

Other Leading Economic Officials

Deputy Prime Minister; Minister of Economics and Finance Guram Absandze

(Phonetic: abSAHNdzch)

Chairman. State Bank Vladimir Peteishrili (Phonetic: pctcyshVEElcc)

Moldova

Premier (sincealeriaPhonetic: nicoRAHVskcc)

Muravski supports economic independence for Moldova: he has saidgovernment's priorities will bo tooldovan cmrency andfinancial andystem. Nonetheless. Muravskian economic treaty with USSK. He advocatesarket economy, drguing thai the stale'..'id n. i>

against ihe sale ofland before the nm century. An economist, he hashrough ihe ranks of the republic's economic bureaucracy. Muravski was born in

Other Leading Economic Officials

Deputy Premier; Minister of Economics Constantin Tampito (Phonetic: tamPEEzah)

Minister of Finance Valeriy Burashko (Phonetic: booRAHSHkuh)

President, National Bank Leonid Talmaci (Phonetic; tahlMACHee)

Central Asia

Kazakhstan

Minister (sinceergey Tereshchenko (R) (Phonetic: tcrcshCHYENkuh)

Tereshchenkolose associate of President Nazarbaycvember of his advisory council. Since at least the, Tereshchenko has been employed in the Kazakh Communist Party and in government positions He is an ethnic Russian am! whs born

Minister of Foreign Economiciiceyzdyk ANshev <H) (Phonetic; ahBEEshelT)

Abishcv is the senior administrator of foreign tradeepublic thatin exportable petroleum products. He frequently accompaniesNazarbaycv toith Wcs;cm linns thai arc interested i'i in-vc:i: me pa: In v,. .

from the central government the right to conduct businessmembersargc US consortium, meeting witii participants inS-.io

served as chairman of the republic's first independent import-export usscdaiion. He wasd.

Other Leading Economic Officials

Minister of Finance Tuleubek Abdikadirov (Phonetic: ahbdcekaDEErufT)

Chairman of the State Planning Committee (Cosplan) Kalik Abdullayev

(Phonetic: ahbdullAYcff)

Kyrgyzstan

Prime Minister (Vacant)

Tajikistan

Prime Minister (sincezaiutlo Khayeyev (M) (Phonetic: KHAHycycff)

stronglyonfederation of republics. He plans to accelerate the pace of privatization in Tajikistan and increase foreign trade with non-Soviel partners Prime minister6hayeyev held the vice president's post duringe was born

Minister of Foreign Economic Relations (sinceirzotimur Mlrzoye* (Al) (Phonetic: meerZOIIycTi

Allhough Mirzoycv lias been in charge of Tajikistan's foreign tradectivities in the region are developing slowly. Mirzoycv was elected to the republic's legislature

j

Uzbekistan

Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers (since at leastakhiiyar Khamidov (M)

(Phonetic: khaMEEduff)

Khamidov, who works directly under President Islam Karimov. oversees the implementation of economic policy in Uzbekistan. Although he supports economic independence for the republic, he haseconstituted onion of the former Soviet republics Khamidov is active in foreign economic relations and is overseeing management trainingand the creation of joint ventures with several countries.

Chairman, State Committee lor Foreign Trade and Contacts (sincenvar {M)

(Phonetic: makhMOODuff)

Makhmudov is an experienced director of joint ventures; he formerlyucrative plant that manufactured computer equipment. Withew joint ventures registered to date in Uzbekistan, he recentlyusiness conference in Tashkent to promote foreign investment.

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